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THE 



HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



CHURCH OF SCOTLAN 



RESTORATION TO THE REVOLUTION 



REV. ROBERT WODROW 

MINISTER OF THE GOSPEL AT EASTWOOD. 



AN ORIGINAL MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR, EXTRACTS FROM HIS CORRESPONDENCE, 
A PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION, AND NOTES, 



REV. ROBERT BURNS, D.D. F. A. S. E. 

MINISTER 01' ST. GEORGE'S, PAISLEY; AUTHOR OF HISTORICAL DISSERTATIONS ON THE POOR 
OF SCOTLAND ; TREATISE ON PLURALITIES, ETC. 



IN FOUR VOLUMES. 
VOL. in. 



GLASGOW: 

PUBLISHED BY BLACKIE, FULLARTON, & CO. 
AND A. FULLARTON & CO., EDINBURGH. 

M.DCCC.XXIX. 



GLASGOW: 

uuTcmeo.v and brookwan. i'bivters, villafield. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME THIRD. 



BOOK III. FROM 1679 TO 16S8. 

Chap. I. Of the state of affaii-s from the be- 
ginning of the year 1679, to the rising which 
ended at Both well, 2. 

Sect. I. Of the proceedings against presby- 
terians for conventicles, and other branches of 
nonconformity in the beginning of this year, 
1679,2. 

Sect. 2. Of the more public proceedings, pro- 
clamations and state of affairs from January 
till May, 1679, 11 — proclamation, February 6th, 
1679, 15 — council's act about the forces, Feb- 
ruary 13th, 1679, 16 — speech, Sir Francis 
Winnington, to the house of commons, 27 — 
speech of the earl of Shaftesbury to the house of 
lords, March 24th, 1679, 27 — reasons against a 
popish succession, 29 — proclamation about ma- 
jor Johnston, March 12th, 31 — act of council, 
March 12th, 1679, 32 — commission, committee 
at Lanark, Edinburgh, April ult. 1679, 34 — 
report, committee at Lanark, April 4th, 1679, 35. 

Sect. 3. Of the violent death of the archbishop 
of St Andrews, Saturday, May 3d, 1679, 40— 
narrative of the murder of the archbishop, pub- 
lished by authority, 45 & 49. 

Chap. IL Of the rising this year in the west 
of Scotland, which ended by the defeat at Both- 
well-bridge, June 22d, 1679, 49 — proclamation 
for discovery of the murderers of the archbishop 
of St Andrews, May 4th, 52. 

Sect. 1. Of the consequents of the primate's 
death, pi'ocedure of the privy council, and other 
things till the end of May, 1679, 52 — proclama- 
tion against arms. May 8th, 1679, 56 — instruc- 
tions to sheriff-deputes of Fife, 57 — proclamation 
against arms at conventicles. May 1679, 58. 

Sect. 2. Of the occasions, causes of, and inlets 
to the rising at Bothwell, 61. 

Sect. 3. Of the declaration at Rutherglen, 
May 29th, and the first rencounters, and smaller 
skirmishes at Drumclog and Glasgow, in the 
beginning of June, 65. 

Sect. 4. Of the procedure of the council and 
motions of the king's forces, until the duke of 
Buccleugh and IMonmouth's coming down, 
June 18th, 1679,72 — proclamation against rebels 
in arms in the west, June 3d, 1679, 72 — pro- 
clamation for the militia's being in readiness, 
June 5th, 1679, 73 — proclamation calling out 
heritors to attend the king's host, June 7th, 
1679, 74 — letter containing advice to a gentle- 
man going to the army, June 7th, 1679, 76 — 
council's letter to Lauderdale, June 3d, 1679, 
82 — council's letter to Argyle, June 9th, 1679, 
84 — Lauderdale's letter to chancellor, June 9th, 
1679, 85~councirs letter to Lauderdale, June 
13th, 1679, 85 — Lauderdale's letter to chancel- 
lor, June 11th, 1679, 86 — letter, council to 
Lauderdale, June 15th, 1679, 87. 

Sect. 5. Of the state, declarations and divisions 
of the west country army, from their leaving 
Glasgow till the march of the army under the 
duke of Buccleugh, 89 — declaration, June 
1679, 94 — two letters from Linlithgpvv. t,o tJie^ 
chancellor, June 17th and 18th, f|79a9!!ity f* f<. 



Sect. 6. Of the ariival of the duke of Mon- 
mouth, and march of his army, the continuing 
divisions, and supplication of the west country 
army, with an aci^ount of their engagement and 
defeat at Both well-bridge, 99— kings letter to 
council, June 16th, 1679, 100— council's an- 
swer to the king's letter, 1679, 100. 

Chap. IIL Of the consequents of this rising 
and defeat at Bothwell, and other things this 
year, 1679, 111. 

Sect. 1. Of the immediate consequents of the 
defeat at Bothwell, the harassing the country, 
and the actings of the government and soldiers, 
111— council's letter to Lauderdale, June 22d, 
1679, 1 13 — proclamation against rebels, June 
26th, 1679, 114 — king's letter to council, June 
29th, 1679, 116— indemnity after Bothwell, July 
27th, 1679, published August 14th, 118. 

Sect. 2. Of the treatment of the prisoners 
taken at and after Bothwell, 123 — letter, king to 
council, August 15th, 1679, 128. 

Sect. 3. Of the trial and execution of Messrs 
John Kid and King, August 14th, 1679, and 
the trial and death of the five who suffered, 
November 18th, at Magus-moor, 132. 

Sect. 4. Of the circuits held, and the gentle- 
men who were forfeited after Bothwell this 
year, 140 — proclamation for circuit-courts, Au- 
gust 14th, 1679, 140. 

Set t. 5. Of the state of presbyterians who had 
not been concerned in Bothwell, their third in- 
dulgence, the debates betwixt duke Hamilton 
and Lauderdale, and some other things this 
year, 147 — presbyterians' address to the duke of 
Monmouth, 1679, 147 — proclamation suspend- 
ing laws against conventicles, June 29th, 1679, 
149 — proclamation against conventicles, Nov- 
ember 13th, 1679, 156 — proclamation anent the 
rebels who have not yet taken the bond, Nov- 
ember 13th, 1679, 157 — answer out of the west, 
to a question out of the north, 1679, 163 — letter, 
council to the king, July 11th, 1679, 167 — 
commission in favours of James, duke of Buc- 
cleugh, July 29th, 1679, 172 — proclamation 
against murderers of the archbishop, September 
20th, 1679, 173— report about the model of the 
militia, December 18th, 1679, 175. 

Chap. IV. Of the state and sufferings of 
presbyterians during the year, 1680, 176. 

Sect. 1. Of the persecutions relative to Both- 
well rising, for nonattendanceon the king's host, 
and the forfeitures this year, 1680, 177. 

Sect. 2. Of the more general procedure of the 
council relative to presbyterians this j^ear, the 
repeal of the third indulgence, and other hard- 
ships on them, 181 — two commissions, April 
8th, 1680, 183. 

Sect. 3. Of the persecution up and down the 
country, from the donators, by courts and other- 
wise, and the hardships noblemen, gentlemen, 
ministers and others underwent for nonconform- 
ity this year, 189 — letter, council to the king, 
anent lord Cardross, February 12th, 1680, 193. 
ect. 4. Of the Queensferry paper, the first 
laration at Sanquhar, and their consequents, 



CONTENTS. 



with an account of the engagement at Ayrsmoss, 
July aist, 1680, 200— QueensfeiTV paper, 207— 
Sanquhar declaration, 1680, 212 — proclamation 
against It. Cameron and others, June last, 1680, 
213 — Rathillet's account of Ayrsmoss, 219. 

Sect. 5. Of those who were executed after 
Ayrsmoss, and other branches of persecution 
which followed it, of the Torwood excommuni- 
cation, the proceedings of the council upon it, 
and some more executions this year, 221 — pro- 
clamation, November 22d, 1680, 229 — letter, 
council to the king, anent Mr Donald Cargill, 
Novp'^^.ber 22d, IGhO, 2:il. 

Seci. 6. Of some proceedings in council this 
year, the trial of my lord Eargeny, and other 
incidental matters which fell out this year, 232 — 
council's letter, November 2d, 1680, 238. 

Chap. V. Of the state and sufferings of pres- 
byterians during the year 16S1, 241. 

Sect. 1. Of the procedure of the council, their 
proclamations, and the more general harassing 
of the country, by courts, soldiers, and informers, 
24'2— proclamation against field-conventicles, 
April 8th, 1681, 244— proclamation for a fast, 
June I6th, 1681, 246. 

Sect. 2. Of the proceedings of the justiciary 
this year, against many heritors for alleged being 
at IJothwell, and their process against John 
Spreul, with the pleadings before them, upon 
torture and other points, 249. 

Sect. 3. Of the sufferings of particular gentle- 
men, ministers, and others this year, not unto 
forfeiture or death, 262. 

Sect. 4. Of the sufferings unto death, and 
public execution of iMr Uonald Cargill, and a 
great many others this year, 1681, 271 — Mr 
Donald Cargill's last speech, July 27th, 1681, 
282 — Mr James I3oig his testimony, in a letter, 
July 27th, 1681, 284. 

Sect. 5. Of the laws and acts made in the par- 
liament, which met July 28th, this year, in as 
far as they relate to the church, 287 — king's let- 
ter to the parliament, read July 28th, 168!, 
288 — duke of York's speech to parliament, 288 — 
parliament's letter to the king, August 1st, 1681, 
289 — act ratifying all former acts anent religion, 
August 13th, 1681, 290— act 2. pari. 3. Charles 
11. anent succession, 291 — act 4, for securing 
the peace, 293 — act 6, anent religion, and the 
test, 295. 

Sect. 6. Of the imposition of the test, its ex- 
plications, and the begun persecution upon it this 
year, 1G81, 295 — act 17, additional act anent this 
test, 299 — bishop and synod of Aberdeen their 
sense of the test, 308 — bishop of Dunkeld, and 
clergy of Perth, their sense of the test, 308 — act 
of council, November 3d, explaining the test, 
309 — king's approbation of it, November 13th, 
1681, 309. 

Sect. 7. Of the trial of the noble earl of Ar- 
gyle for his explication of the test, his sentence 
and escape in December this year, 312 — earl of 
Argyle's explanation of his explication, 317 — 
No. 1. indictment against the earl of Argyle, 
319 — earl of Argyle's speech after his indictment, 
321 — Sir George Lockhart's plea for the carl of 
Argyle, 323 — the king's advocate's argument 
and plea, 327 — Sir John Dalrymple's reply to 



the king's advocate, 330 — Sir George Lockhart's 
reply to the king's advocate, 333 — the king's ad- 
vocate's triplies, 335 — proclamation anent the 
earl of Argyle, December 21st, 1681, 339. 

Sect. 8. Of several other things this year, 
which fell not in on the former sections, 344 — 
council's act about the college of Edinburgh, 
February Jst, 346 — Gib's blasphemous paper. 
May 1st, J681, 350— Mr Cargill's letter to the 
prisoners in the Canongate tolbooth, 353. 

Chap. VI. Of the state and sufferings of 
presbyterians during the year 1682, 357. 

Sect. 1. Of the ♦'urther proceedings about the 
test, the changes in public posts, and other in- 
cidental matters this year, 358 — council's letter 
about the earl of Argyle's jurisdictions, January 
3 1 St, 16S2, 361 — letter, Scots bishops about the 
duke of York, March 9th, 1682, 365— council's 
letter to the king, about the duke of York, May 
20th, 1682, 365- French king's edict, March, 
1682, 366— Protestatio Cleri Gallicani, May 
6th, 1682, 368. 

Sect. 2. Of the pi'ocedure, proclamations, 
commissions, and other actings of the council 
against conventicles and suffering presbyterians 
this year, 369 — commission to Claverhouse for 
Wigton, January 31st, 1682, 370 — commission, 
to Atchison for Renfrew, June 8th, 1682, 375 — 
proclamation, July 8th, 1682, 375. 

Sect. 3. Some general account of the persecu- 
tion up and down the country this year, 381 . 

Sect. 4. Of the sufferings of the reverend Mr 
Patrick Warner, Mr Henry Erskine, and some 
other presbyterian ministers and gentlemen this 
year 1682, 391. 

Sect. 5. Of the criminal prosecutions before 
the justiciary, and public executions of the suf- 
ferers this year, 407. 

Chap. VIT. Of the state and sufferings of 
presbyterians during the year 1683, 420. 

Sect. 1. Of the proclamations, commissions, 
and instructions given in order to the further 
prosecuting of presbyterians this year, 421 — 
proclamation about pedagogues, June 4th, 1683, 
427 — commission for Ayrshire, July 28th, 1683, 
428 — act, magistrates of Edinburgh, against con- 
venticles, December 19th, 1683, 432. 

Sect. 2. Of the sufferings of some particular 
gentlemen, ministers, and others this year, 433. 

Sect. 3. Of the criminal processes before the 
justiciary, and the public executions this year, 
448. 

Sect. 4. Of the circuit courts held up and 
down the country, with some other severities 
following them this year, 475 — proclamation for 
circuits, &c. April 13th, 1683, 475. 

Sect. 5. Of some other branches of persecu- 
tion, the plot, and other incidental things this 
year, 493 — proclamation against the duke of 
Eucclfcugh and other traitors, July 4tb, 1683, 
499^ — English declaration for thanksgiving, Sep- 
tember9th, 1683,501— proclamation for a thanks- 
giving, August 7th, 1683, 603 — decree of the 
university of Oxford, July 21st, 1683, 306— 
petition of P'rench protestants, July 1683, 607 — 
another petition presented by M. Schomberg, 
lor the French protestants, 609. 



THE 



HISTORY 



SUFFERINGS 



CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 

BOOK THIRD. 

FROM BOTUVVELL-^RIDGE TO THE REVOLUTION. 



1679. 



The large accounts given in the for- 
mer books, may let the reader into 
somewhat of the state of things and per- 
sons in Scotland, under the black period I 
now enter upon : the former scene was dark 
enough, and the rigours and severities of it 
natively paved the way for more horrid 
things in the years before me. Since Pent- 
land engagement till this period, it was com- 
paratively but a few who were banished, and 
suffered unto blood; and there was some 
kind of shadow from the present iniquitous 
laws, to countenance what was done this 
way : but in the period we are now enter- 
ing upon, besides the new barbarous laws 
made, the execution of them was bloody 
and very extensive; and the blood-thirsty 
executioners, in many cases, gave not them- 
selves the trouble to keep by their own 
laws, but harassed and murdered in the pub- 
lic roads, open fields, and almost every 
where upon the south side of Tay. A very 
small part of this inhumanity can now be 
represented, in comparison of Avhat might 
have been, had this history been writ thir- 
ty years ago ; yet, as much is come to my 
hand, as may astonish the reader, and make 
him value our present and happy settle- 
ment : and from the papers I have had ac- 
cess to, I shall essay some account of it. 
Indeed the difficulties in giving a distinct 
III. 



and methodical history of the nine years 
before me, are far greater than I met with 
in the preceding books : the multitude of 
instances, with the Avant of dates in some, 
otherwise very distinct, accounts before me, 
increase these ; and the nature and circum- 
stances of not a few of the acts of cruelty, 
AA'ere such, as public documents cannot be 
expected to vouch ; therefore, I promise my- 
self, the reader will take in good part the 
accounts I am able at this distance to give, 
after all the pains I have been at to have 
them Avell vouched, though they are not, in 
some cases, what 1 wish I were able to give. 

The field before me is so vast, and the in- 
cidents so various, that I shall not offer any 
general scheme of them. As much as may 
be, this book shall be divided by the years it 
contains the history of; but this remarkable 
year I begin M'ith, affords so much matter, 
hath been so much misrepresented by the 
advocates for the severities of this time, and, 
if I mistake not, is so very little known to 
many presbyterians themselves, that it will 
take some time to go through it. 

From this melancholy year 1679, a new 
and horrid scene of cruel, and, in this nation, 
unparalleled severity, hath its date. Mat- 
ters in this church and kingdom take a new 
turn. The former hardships, new severi- 
ties and oppressions in the beginning of 

A 



THE IIISTOIIY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



this year, \v ith several unforeseen iuci- 
tlcnts, drew on a rising- this summer. 
This native fruit of their o\vn oppression, 
Avas greedily laid hold on by the prelates 
and managers, to exasperate the govern- 
ment, and screw up the persecution to a ter- 
rible height, this and the succeeding- years ; 
and tlxe duke of York's coming down some 
little time after Botliwell engagement, did 
not a little help this forward. Upon this 
tiu-n of affairs, the sufferings of presbyte- 
rians altered somewhat from their former 
state, and the violence of the persecutors 
vented itself in new and unheard of me- 
thods : and though I am very far from vin- 
dicating any excesses that oppression and a 
long tract of severity might force any to, 
yet I hope the candid and iair account I 
have to give of plain matters of tact, will 
sufficiently remove the aspersions and re- 
proaches cast most maliciously, and without 
the least shadow of ground, upon the body 
of presbyterians who suffered during this 
period. 

In the beginning of this year, the coun- 
cil and other courts went on in their for- 
mer channel of persecution, until the re- 
markable incident of the murder of the 
archbishop of St Andrews. This, in some 
measure, opened the way for a gathering in 
arms in May and June. The occasions, be- 
ginning, progi-ess of this rising, and defeat 
of the people who rose, need the more dis- 
tinct consideration, because, as far as I can 
find, we have as yet no tolerable accounts 
of them ; and the state of matters, after theii- 
dispersing, wants likewise to be set in its 
due light. This history then, as far as this 
year carries ns, will take up three chapters, 
one with relation to what passed before the 
rising, another to give some view of the oc- 
casions, progress, and dissipating of this ris- 
ing at Both well-bridge, and the last will con- 
tain the state of things diu-ing the rest of 
this year. 

CHAP. I. 

Of the state of affairs from the begin- 
ning of this YEAR, UNTO THE RISING WHICH 
ENDED AT BOTHWELL. 

SrcH a multitude of things, and all of them 
some way or other tending to enlighten the 



circumstances of suffering presbyterians, 
offer themselves to me now, that I am 
obliged to parcel them out in different divi- 
sions, the best way I may, in the order of 
time they fell out ; and though this method 
perhaps Avill not be so agreeable to the nicer 
taste of some critical readers, yet I am ne- 
cessarily led to it by the variety of my mat- 
ter; and as it was needful to myself, in or- 
der to bring my materials into some kind of 
shape .and coherence, so it will not be alto- 
gether useless to the reader, to give him the 
distiucter views of things, and help him to 
mind them the better. The public registers 
give the surest and plainest hints, as far 
as they go; and from them I shall carry 
down the accounts of 2)rosecutions, and 
other hardships for conventicles and non- 
conformity this year before Botlmell. And 
after those accounts of particular persons, I 
shall give a more general view of the state 
of affairs until tlie beginning of May, when 
the death of the primate fell in. These will 
be subjects for three sections. 



Of the proceedings against presbyterians for 
conventicles, and other branches of non- 
covformitjj, in the beginning of this year, 
1679. 

1 DESIGN this place for a narrative of what 
was done against presbyterians before Both- 
well from the council and justiciary regis- 
ters, that so the accounts of the more gene- 
ral management this year, the particulars 
of the death of bishop Sharp, Avith the his- 
tory of the rising which ended at Both well, 
may be the less interrupted afterwards. 

None of the various methods made use of 
in the former period, for hindering the 
preaching of the gospel by presbjrterian mi- 
nisters, had their wished for effects to the 
prelates. The more moderate part of the ma- 
nagers had prevailed to get an indulgence, 
at first very much clogged, and year after 
year more and more cramped. The violent 
side had got doAvn the barbarous Highland 
host, and ahnost laid the west country de- 
solate ; and this, towards the end of the last 
year, was succeeded by a rigorous exaction 
of the cess imposed by the convention : yet 



CHAP. I.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



conventicles in houses and fields were still 
continued, and great numbers of gfood peo- 
ple were resolved to venture their all, be- 
fore they would want the benefit of ordi- 
nances purely dispensed. 

The council and justice-court, by their 
order, are not idle, but very diligent in every 
thing- which may discourag'c and prevent 
nonconformity to the established church. 
Thus, January 2d, I find the council did 
write a letter to the bishop of Edinburgh, 
Avho, to be sure, was not backward, but de- 
sired such orders, appoi^itiug- him to call be- 
fore him all the masters of the college of 
Edinburgh, and all schoolmasters in that 
town and other places of his diocese, and 
inquire if they had taken the oaths appoint- 
ed by law, and oblige such as had not, pre- 
sently to take them, or deprive them of 
their offices and benefices. I have formerly 
noticed the care of the managers, that all 
concerned in the education of youth should 
be of their OAvn kidney ; and yet at this ve- 
ry time many excellent youths had the be- 
nefit of uuiversity-learning, who have been 
singular instruments for the good of many, 
since these times of heavy persecution. At 
the same time, letters are writ to the arch- 
bishop of St Andrews, and the bishop of 
Aberdeen, to undertake the same work in 
these universities. No orders are given with 
relation to the university of Glasgow, whe- 
ther because the bishop of that place was 
present in council, and received his ordei's 
personally, or from what otlier reason, I 
know not. Upon the Gtli of February, I 
find a report from the bishop of Edinburgh, 
made to the council upon this head, which, 
with the council's orders thereupon, I have 
inserted. " The council having considered 
the return made to them by the bishop of 
Ediubiu'gh, in obedience to their letter of 
the 2d of January last, for calling before 
him the principal, professors, regents, and 
tlie masters of the college of Edinburgh, as 
also such persons who teach any public 
school Ai-ithiu the town of Edinburgh, Lcith, 
Canongate, or suburbs thereof, without his 
license, and requiring them to subscribe un- 
der their hands, the oaths of allegiance and 
supremacy, and that they submit to, and 
own the government of the church by arch- 
bishops, and its establishment, conform to 



the 4th Act of the 2d Session of his 



1670, 



majesty's first Parliament, Avith the 
report of a committee of their own number 
thereanent. They find the return made by 
the bishop of Edinburgh satisfactory, except 
as to the persons following, Mr Alexander 
Dickson professor of the Hebrew language 
in the college of Edinburgh,* Mr Alexander 
Herriot schoolmaster of the High school of 
Edinburgh, Mr George Sinclair schoolmas- 
ter in South Leith, and Mr George AUau 
his assistant, Mr Alexander Strang school- 
master in the Canongate, and Mr John 
Govan his assistant, and Sir James Scot, 
junior, one of the masters of the High 
school, who have not subscribed as afore- 
said : and therefore the lords of his majesty's 
privy council do ordain the magistrates of 
Edinburgh, and other patrons, to put to ex- 
ecution the certification of the foresaid act, 
especially against the foresaid persons who 
have refused to give obedience, by removing 
them from their respective charges foresaid, 
and putting other sufficient persons, quali- 
fied conform to the said act of parliament, 
in their places, except, betwixt and the first 
day of March next, they give obedience in 
manner foresaid." Whether any of these 
worthy men complied, I have not learned ; 
several of them, I knoAv, did not, and under- 
went a course of suffering. The council 
find the reports from the rest of the col- 
leges satisfying. That same day, a letter 



* Mr Dickson was the son of the justly cele- 
brated Mr David Dickson, professor of divini- 
ty, first at Glasgow, and afterwai'ds at Edin- 
burgh. He was chosen in IGSG, to the Hebrew 
ciiair, and translated from Newbattle whore he 
had been minister. He succeeded the learned 
Jew, Dr Conraddiis Otto, who w^as the first 
that taught Hebrew in the college of Edinburgh, 
and who received his appointment in 1040. Mr I 
Dickson had been examined by five ministers of 
the city as to hi;^ qualifications, and they report- 
ed him to be " very fitting to be a professor of the 
Hebrew tongue ;" — " but they could not say that 
he was knoAving in the oriental tongues, or fit- 
ting to be a professor of divinity." The report 
was honourable to the integrity of the exiani- 
nators, all whose private feelings must have been I 
in favour of the son of their wortliy colleague; i 
and it reflects credit on the learning of the men, J 
and the high sense theti entertained of the qua- | 
lifications necessary for holding theological \ 
chairs. Mr Dickson was inducted into the cliair, 
and for thirty years taught the Hebrew language 
with faithfulness and credit. Council Register, , 
xix. p. UG. Bower's History of the University 
of Edinburgh, vol. i. p. 255. — &/, { 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[HOOK 111. 



comes from the king' to the council, 
ordering Sir Patrick Hume of Pol- 
wart to be sent under a guard from the 
castle of Dunbarton to that of Stirling. His 
lady is allowed to be in the room with him. 
January 6th, Mr Thomas Warnei-, who 
outlived this melancholy period, and many 
of his fellow sufferers in the ministry, to be 
very useful since the revolution, and died 
in a good old age, in full assurance of faith, 
September 10th this year I am MTiting in, 
(1716.) being the last of the antediluvian 
presbyterian ministers ; that is, such who 
had seen the glory of the former temple, 
and were ordained before the restoration ; 
this excellent 2)erson, I say, was cited before 
the council, and a hbel was given in against 
him, bearing, ' that whereas he had been 
indulged to the parish of Balmaclellan, (in 
GalloM'ay, to which he had been ordained, 
and where he continued till his death) he 
had broke his confinement, been present at 
house and field conventicles, had preached 
and prayed at them, and conversed M'ith 
intercommuned persons.' He not compear- 
ing, is denounced and put to the horn. And 
February 18th the council pass the following 
act against Mr Warner. ' The lords of his 
majesty's privy council considering, that 
Mr Thomas Warner, late minister at Bal- 
maclellan, is declared fugitive for his de- 
clared contumacy, in not compearing before 
them on the 16th of January last, to have 
answered at the instance of his majesty's 
advocate, for preaching in the fields with 
Mr John Welsh, communing and corre- 
sponding with him and other declared trai- 
tors and intercommuned persons, with other 
disorders of that nature ; the parishionei's 
of Ealraaclellan are discharged to pay to 
the said Mr Thomas Warner any of the 
stipend this year, or in time coming, till 
they receive further orders ; and appoint 
the solicitor to acquaint the parishioners.'* 
The same day several gentlemen, some 
of them of known piety, meet with the same 
treatment ; Gordon of Eai'lston, Gordon of 
Holm, Gordon of Overbar, Neilson of Cor- 
sack, George M'Cartney of Blaicket, Max- 



* Mr T. Warner, or Vemer, as the name used 
to be written, was tlie brother of Mr Patrick 
Warner of Irvine, the father-in-law of our his- 
torian, and who, after many troubles, (as after- 



well of Hills, Hay of Park, Macdougal of 
French, Macdougal of Corrochtree, James 
Johnston, late provost of Stranraer, William 

Spittle at Port, Johnston collector 

there, Mr William Cathcart, and John In- 
glis, commissary of Kirkcudbright, being 
cited to answer for being present at house 
and field conventicles, since the year 1674, 
and for reset and converse with intercom- 
muned persons, and not compearing, are all 
ordered to be denoimced, and put to the 
horn. The last named John Inglis, com- 
missary of Kirkcudbright, is further pro- 
ceeded with, February 25th, and the coun- 
cil declare his place to vaik, and recommend 
it to the bishop of Galloway, to put another 
in his room. March 1 1th, a petition is pre- 
sented for him, with a certificate that he 
was unable to travel. In the petition he 
engages to live orderly in time coming. He 
is remitted to the bishop of Galloway, to be 
reponed or not, as he finds cause. 

In persecutions for conventicles, no age 
almost was thought too young to be at- 
tacked. Some time ago, a boy, not much 
above thirteen years of age, had been seized 
at a conventicle, and was carried to prison. 
After he had continued some weeks there, 
and would make no compliances, some of 
the counsellors were informed about him ; 
and, being ashamed of such severity to one 
who was, as it were, but a child, I find the 
following order given. January 23rd, ' the 
lords of his majesty's privy council give 
warrant to the bailies of Leith, to set at 
liberty James Lawson, a boy about the age 
of foui'teen years, jn-isoner there, upon the 
account of conventicles.' We shall after- 
wards meet with some more of these young 
sufferers. 

January 9th, there is a petition presented 
to the council by Margaret Bart^Iay, niece 
to Sir David Barclay of Collcrnie, prisoner 
in the tolbooth of Edinburgh for conventi- 
cles, supplicating for liberty, because she is 
valetudinary, and that she may recover her 
health. She is ordered to be liberated, upon 
caution of 500 merks, that she re-enter the 
tolbooth of Edinbm'gh the 20th instant, if 



wards noticed) did survive the revolution, but 
died before his brother Thomas. They were 
botheminent for piety and talent, and hold a high 
place among the worthies of the church. — iV/. 



CHAP. I.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND 



called, or when called; and that in the 
mean time she confine herself to her cham- 
ber under the same penalty. This hardship 
of imprisoning gentlewomen till they turn 
sickly, merely for hearing the gospel, is 
peculiar to this period I am giving the his- 
tory of. 

Last year in November, Mr John Wallace 
indulged at the Largs, and Mr Patrick Simp- 
son indulged at Kilmalcom, had been cited 
before the council, for breaking their con- 
finement. Mr John Wallace appeared, and 
was remitted to the committee for public 
affairs. And this year, February 15th, I 
find the council again call Mr Simpson, and, 
upon his non-compearance, they order him 
to be denounced. WTiat kept him from 
compearing I know not, but it hath been 
some necessary excuse, for I know he con- 
tinued sevei'al years after this in the peace- 
able exercise of his ministry in that place. 
ISIr John Wallace is called before the coun- 
cil, February 1 8th, and no probation being 
adduced as to his breach of his confinement, 
he deponed upon the verity of his libel, and 
frankly told them how matters stood, as to 
that practice common to him and his breth- 
ren. It was but few of the council were 
for depriving him of his indulgence upon 
this score, and so other occasions against 
him were sought : and being called in, after 
he had been removed, the council interro- 
gated him, as they say, for the fxu*ther clear- 
ing of his deposition, though, as far as I can 
find, his deposition had no connection with 
this, ' whether he v,'ould for the future re- 
fuse to give baptism to the children of such 
parents as took the bond for public peace.' 
This being new to him, and what he did 
not understand the design of, he craved he 
might be spared as to such things as related 
to the discharge of his ministerial office. 
He is presently removed, and the council 
decern him to have lost the benefit of his 
indulgence at the Largs, or any where else; 
and appoint their sentence to be intimated 
to the parishioners, that they may pay him 
no more stipend. I do not find the indulged 
ministers were before challenged upon this 
score. 

At this time, no doubt upon application 
from Glasgo^v, the troubles we heard that 
good man and his family Thomas Blackwell 



underwent, are renewed by the coun- 
cil. And February ISth, 'the magis- 
trates of Glasgow being formerly ordained to i 
take possession of the house and goods or 
Thomas Blaclvwell a fugitive, who broke 
prison, for their relief of ten thousand merks 
wherein they were fined for the said Black j 

well and William Stirling their escape, yet 
the said Thomas Blackwell's spouse having * 
got back the keys, and re-entered to the \ 

possession of what her said husband had, 
he being fugitive, and in the company of 
Ml" John Welsh, and one of his guard ; the 
lords of council ordain the said magistrates 
to return to their possession according to 
the deci'eet of council.' j 

February 20th. The council being in- 
formed that John Arnot in Greenside, Wil- 
liam Page in George Marshall in 
Balvaird, have for four years withdrawn 
from public ordinances, and been present at 
field conventicles in Glenveal, and other 
places in Fife, kept by Messrs Thomas Ar- 
not, John Welwood, John Rae, David L^rie, 
Alexander Shaw, and other intercommuned 
and vagrant ministers, they all compearing, 
and confessing they had been at conventi- 
cles, the council fine WiUiam Page in a 
thousand pounds, John Arnot in five hun- 
dred merks, and George Marshall in a hun- 
dred poimds Scots ; and ordain them to lie 
in prison till they pay the same. Upon the 
27th of Februarj'^, the council having cited 
before them Mr Samuel Nairn, brother to 
the laird of Sandford, Mr James Rymer in 
Pitlochie, James Thomson, Miller, 
William Beltie, Thomas Ness, James Ness, 
John Wishart, and David Ready, to answer 
to the chai'ge of being at house and field 
conventicles since the year 1674. They 
not compearing, are all denounced and put 
to the horn. The same day Mr James 
Dalrymple, a person not in orders, that is, 
in the style of the registers, one ordained i 
by presbyteriau ministers since they were 
outed, is informed against as having taken 
upon him to preach in the fields, and like- j 
Avise v\'ithin the city of Edinburgh : it was \ 
urged by way of aggravation, that he had ! 
been taken at a conventicle in the year 
1G76, and was dismissed in hopes of good ; 
behaviour in time coming ; yet since that 
time he hath preached at field conventicles. 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK 111. 



1679. 



and conversed with intercommuned 



persons ; and January last he kept a 
conventicle in the house of James Fea ; the 
said James and other hearers of him are 
called hy the council, and fined in a hun- 
dred merks each, and Mi- James Dalrymple 
is continued. 

A very severe prosecution of a worthy 
lady yet alive follows. March 4th, Sir Wil- 
liam Fleming of Ferm and his lady, appear 
before the council, and a libel is read at the 
instance of his raajesty's advocate, bearing, 
" that whereas Mr John Welsh and some 
others having kept a conventicle at Lang- 
side, in the parish of Cathcart, and shire of 
Renfrew, upon February 9th last ; and 
dame Margaret Stuart, spouse to Sir Wil- 
liam Fleming of Ferm, commissary of Glas- 
gow, and Macdougal, spouse to Wil- 
liam Anderson, late provost of Glasgow, 
were present at the said field conventicle 
upon high chairs on either side of Mi- John 
Welsh, and kept company with the said 
Ml- Welsh at other times : the premisses 
being verified, their said husbands be de- 
cerned to pay to the treasury the fines they 
have incurred." It vtas further charged, 
that since the first of October last, there 
have been field conventicles kept in the 
house of the said Sir William Fleming of 
Ferm, in regard some were without doors, 
at which Messrs John Dickson, Robert 
Muir, Gilbert Kennedy, James Wallace, 
John Pettigrew, Alexander Hasty, John 
Law, Andrew Morton, Donald Cargill, 
James Drummond, James Kennedy, James 
Wodi'ow, Matthew Crawford, John King, 
William Wardroper, or one or other of them 
did preach, pray, or expound Scripture, and 
were entertained before or after the said 
conventicles by the said lady ; and that she 
was present at the Craigs of Glasgow at 
several conventicles kept by some of the 
foresaid, and hath withdrann from her 
pai-ish kirk. The lady ackno^vledged she 
was at the conventicle at Langside, and at 
another in the Craigs of Glasgow, and does 
not deny but ministers preached in her 
house at the Ferm. The lords of his ma- 
jesty's privy council do fine the said Sir 
William her husband in the sum of 4000 
merks, reserving to the said Sir William 
and his heirs relief off the said dame Mar- 



garet Stuart her jointure, in case she sur- 
vive him ; and ordain the said Sir William 
to pay the said fine before he leave the 
town, or give suflScient caution to pay it 
within ten days. This is not the only in- 
stance we shall meet with of making hus- 
bands, M'ho were every way regular them- 
selves, pay for the alleged guilt of their 
wives. 

Towards the end of March a process be- 
gins against the reverend Mr William 
Veitch, since the revolution a worthy and 
useful minister in the town of Dumfries, 
yet alive, whose sufferings were not small 
in England ; and by his being reckoned, as 
it Avere, naturalized in England, because he 
was long there, he Avas saved from our 
blood-thirsty people at Edinburgh. We 
have already heard, that Mr Veitch was 
forfeited in absence for his alleged accession 
to Pentland, and forced to leave his native 
country, and retire «'ith his family to Eng- 
land. I have in mine eye a pointed and 
distinct narrative of the hardships and vari- 
ous removes this worthy person met m ith 
in the north of England, interspersed with 
several very remarkable appearances of 
providence in his behalf, too long to be here 
inserted. I shall only notice, that about 
1671 he fixed with his family in the county 
of Nortluimberland, at a place named Har- 
nam IlaU,* where he preached near five 
years to a numerous meeting, Tiith very 
much success. Upon the disposal of that 
ground to another master, he removed 
1677, to Staunton Hall, in the parish of 
Long Horsley,f a place abounding with 
papists. There he also preached Avith much 
acceptation, and both the papists and clergy 
in the neighbourhood, especially a Mr Bell 
a Scotsman, minister of the place, raised a 
storm upon him ; but he was still preserved 
and sometimes very remarkably. At length 
Mr Bell made a complaint of him to Lau- 
derdale when going for London, and of the 
infections spreading in England by the 
sermons of the Scots preachers in the 
northern counties ; and the bishop of Dur- 



* " The mansion of the Babingtons, a family 
as ancient in Britain <as the Conquest." Hut- 
chinson's Northumberland, I. p. 217. 

f " The family of Horsley held lands within 
this manor, from distant ages." lb. II. p. 819. 



riiAP. I.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



ham seconding- these complaints, orders 
were given to some forces to come to 
those parts, under majors Main and 
Oglethorp: and particular care was taken 
to apprehend Mr Veitch. After many 
escapes, January 19th this year, major Ogle- 
thorp seized him in his own house, having 
ventured home only the night hefore from 
Newcastle, where he hirked, to see a sick 
child of his. He was carried to Morpeth 
gaol, and made close prisoner, and notice 
sent up to court of his being taken.* By 
the council registers I find a letter dated 
Whitehall, January 23th, is read January 
31st, directed to the council. The tenor is, 
• the king being informed that Mr George 
Johnston, alias Veitch, a notorious ringleader 
in field conventicles, is in gaol in Morpeth, 
hath sent commands this night to colonel 
Struthers, deputy lieutenant of Northum- 
berland, to deliver him safe to the sheriff 
of Berwick ; and the council are to order 
him to be received there, and brought to 
Edinburgh, and proceed against him with 
all diligence, according to the utmost seve- 
rity of law. His majesty (to dash the 
gi'oundless hopes of knaves and fools who 
expected a toleration) being fuUy resolved 
to put the strictness of law in execution 
against such notorious contemners of his 
majesty's law and authority. This is signed 
by,' &c. ' Lauderdale.' 

According to this letter he was received 
upon the borders, and brought prisoner to 
Edinburgh, and February 22nd, he was 
sisted before the committee for public af- 
fiiirs. The primate presided, and put many 
ensnaring questions to him,which were urged 
by the bishop of Edinburgh, such as, ' Have 
you taken the covenant r' The prisoner an- 
swered, ' This honourable board may easily 
perceive that I was not of age to take the 
covenant, when you and other ministers of 
Scotland tendered it.' When urged, if he 
never took it since, he waved it, by saying, 
lie judged himself bound frequently to give 
himself to God in a way of covenanting. 
The bishop of Edinburgh asked him, if he 
was at Pentland ; he answered, ' If you wiU 



* See M'Crie's Life of Veitch, pp. 70, 71, &c. 
where Veitch gives a full account of his capture. 



1679. 



give me liberty and power, 1 shall 
prove by witnesses I was in Edin- 
biu-gh the night before, and that day.' His 
examination was read over, and he required 
to sign it, which he refused till it was 
amended in several phrases he reckoned 
wrong, and put in mundo, after which he 
signed it ; but nothing in it could militate 
against him. February 25th, the council 
meet and ' approve the report of the com- 
mittee for public affairs, that Mr William 
Veitch be sent to the Bass, till the king's 
pleasure be further heard, in regard he is 
forfeited for the rebellion 1666, and the 
forfeiture ratified in Parliament.' And 
March 11th, the council write a letter to 
Lauderdale upon this subject, which I in- 
sert here, being short. 

'Edinburgh, March Wth, 1679. 
' May it please your grace, 
' His majesty having commanded us to 
proceed against one Mr George Johnston to 
be sent from England, we found upon his 
coming here, that although the prisoner 
had passed under tliat name, yet his true 
name is Mr William Veitch, «hora we are 
informed to have been one of these who 
was forfeited for being in the rebellion in 
the year 1666. And we find there is a 
standing act of parliament, which is the 
1 1th act of the first session of his majesty's 
second parliament, whereby one Mr William. 
Veitch, amongst others, is thereby declared 
forfeited, and the probation led before the 
justices is thereby ratified : likeas he has 
confessed that he has preached sometimes in 
Scotland, when he came occasionally to see 
his friends, having had his residence in 
England, near these twelve years, Avhere he 
Avas a farmer when he was taken ; and 
albeit we be most willing to comply with 
and execute his majesty's commands, so 
that we may show that our obedience pro- 
ceeds as well from inclination as duty, yet 
in this case, finding that his majesty's orders 
did relate to another person than this pris- 
oner, and that the prisoner was not appre- 
hended in any crime, and offers him to 
prove that he was in Edinburgh the time 
of the fight at Pentland ; we have therefore 
thought fit to desire your grace to represent 
! the condition of the prisoner to the king's 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK 111. 



majesty, to be yet further considered, 
whose royal pleasiu'e (how soon in- 
timated to us) shall be exactly obeyed. 
In the mean time we have appointed the 
prisoner to be sent to, and kept in firmance 
in the Bass. Signed in name and by \vnr- 
rant of his majesty's privy council, by 
' Your Grace's most humble Servant, 

' Rothes Cancel. I.P.D.' 

That same day Mr Veitch is ordered to 
the Bass by the council, after which I find 
no more about him till March 18th, when 
the advocate is ordered to insist against Mr 
Veitch before the justiciary, upon the sen- 
tence of forfeiture formerly pronounced ; 
and in pursuance of his majesty's com- 
mands, in a letter from the duke of Lau- 
derdale, intimation is made of his majesty's 
pleasure to the justice general, and that the 
justiciary meet Wednesday the 24th instant. 
And upon the 24th of March, by the crimi- 
nal records, I find the advocate appears and 
produceth the following warrant from the 
council. * Edinburgh, March 18th, 1679. 
The lords of his majesty's privy council did 
intimate to the lord justice general his ma- 
jesty's pleasure, signified by his secretary 
the duke of Lauderdale, that Mi* WiUiam 
Veitch, alias Johnston, now prisoner in the 
tolbooth of Edinburgh, should be proceeded 
against according to law ; and that the lords 
of justiciary meet for that end the 24th of 
this month. ' A. Gibson.' 

' The same day the council grant warrant 
to his majesty's advocate, to insist imme- 
diately against the said Mr William Veitch, 
alias Johnston, against M'hom the sentence 
of forfeiture was pronounced, for his acces- 
sion to the rebellion 16C6. 

' A. Gibson.' 

Accordingly the advocate insists, and 
craves the lords may proceed according to 
law. Mr Veitch being brought to the bar 
presents two petitions, the one begging that 
he may be allov^'ed advocates to plead in 
his defence, and manifest his innocence ; 
and the other humbly craving that the lords 
may represent his case to his majesty. 
When both these petitions were read, the 
advocate takes instruments. The lords of 



justiciary continue the diet against the pan- 
nel imtil the 8th of April next, and order 
him to be kept close prisoner. It seems 
the criminal lords were not so willing as 
some would have had them, to proceed to a 
sentence of death, upon a forfeiture in ab- 
sence, near thirteen years ago. When they 
meet again April 8th, I find the following 
act recorded in their books the said day. 
" Anent an act of the lords of his majesty's 
privy council, produced by his majesty's 
advocate, intimating his majesty's pleasure 
to the justice court, for proceeding against 
Ml- William Veitch, alias Johnston, accord- 
ing to la^' ; and the said Mr William having 
petitioned that his lawyers might be heard 
in his defence, the lord justice general, jus- 
tice clerk, and remanent commissioners of 
the justiciary, considering that this court 
would not proceed in the matter of forfei- 
ture in absence, until they had the opinion 
and advice of the lords of his majesty's 
privy council and session in so weighty an 
affair; and finding no precedent in this 
court for the execution of such sentences 
in absence, when the persons so forfeited 
do compear and offer defences; and that 
the high court of parliament upon such oc- 
casions repone parties to their defences ; 
and this being a matter fully of as great 
consequence as the former of forfeiting in 
absence, and of very great import to his 
majesty's service, and the interest of the 
present and succeeding generations ; they 
find themselves in duty bound not to pro- 
ceed in a thing of so great consequence, 
until, according to the laudable custom of 
their predecessors, they have the advice of 
his majesty's privy council, and lords of 
council and session, which they earnestly 
entreat and expect : and recommend to the 
lord justice general, to represent this to the 
council the very next council day, and to 
the lord justice clerk to lay it before the 
session as soon as they meet. And in the 
mean time ordain the prisoner to be secui*e- 
ly kept, and continue the diet to the first 
Monday of June next." 

It seems the persons whose advice was 
sought were not agreed in their sentiments 
in this matter; for I find the process June 
2nd, continued until the second Monday of 
July, and from July 13th, continued again 



CHAP. I.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



till July 25th, aud that day what follows is 
in the criminal registers. "July 25th. 
This day compeared Mr William Veitch 
preacher, late prisoner in the tolbooth of 
Edinburgh, and produced an act of the lords 
of his majesty's privy council, dated Edin- 
biu-gh, July 24th. Forasmuch as the king's 
majesty, having by a letter under his hand, 
of the date July 1 7th direct to us, signified, 
that whereas IVIi* William Veitch, having 
been forfeited by a sentence of the justice 
court, as being accessory to the rebellion I G66, 
was lately taken in England in the county 
of Northumberland, and was by his majes- 
ty's oi'der sent prisoner to Edinbiu-gh, 
there to be pursued by his advocate for that 
his accession. And whereas it is now hum- 
bly represented to his majesty, that the said 
Mr William Veitch was not actually pre- 
sent at the fight at Pentland ; and having 
retired timeously from the rebels, hath ever 
since lived peaceably in his majesty's king- 
dom of England: and his majesty being 
gi'aciously desirous to encourage those that 
repent for their accession to such rebellious 
courses, hath therefore ordained, and by the 
said letter authorised and required his pri\y 
council to set the said IVIr WiUiam Veitch 
at liberty, he always enacting himself to re- 
move forth of his ancient kingdom of Scot- 
land, and not to return to the same ; and 
that his majesty's said letter shall be his se- 
curity until he return to that his said king- 
dom. In which case his said warrant is 
hereby declared ineffectual. The lords of 
his majesty's privy council, in pursuance of 
his majesty's said commands, do ordain the 
foresaid Mr William Veitch be set at liber- 
ty ; and recommend to the lords commis- 
sioners of the justiciary to sist any proce- 
dure before them against the said Mr Veitch 
upon the criminal pursuit extracted by 
Alexander Gibson. The lords of the justi- 
ciary ordain the said act to be insert in 
their books, and sist any procedure against 
him accordingly." 

The spring of this sudden turn was in 
short this. When Mr Veitch was taken 
not far from tlie Border of Scotland, he was 
sent for by the managers. Wlien he was 
first before the justice court, his case w^as 
so favourable, that he was like to get off: 
the prehites could by no means be persuad- 



ed to pass him ; and after much 
dealing among people concerned in 
council, session, and justiciaiy, his death 
came at length to be resolved on, and sen- 
tence was to have been pi-onounced the 
above day. He getting notice of this, and 
finding all intercession precluded in Scot- 
land, prevailed with his intimate friend, 
Mr Gilbert Eliot, since the revolution clerk 
to the council, and at present one of the 
lords of the session, which bench he fills 
yet with much vigour and diligence, to go 
up post for London, with a representation 
of his case. When Mr Eliot addressed 
Lauderdale, there was no access, for the 
duke, though a relation of Mr Veitch's, was 
pre-engaged. Then he applied to the earl 
of Shaftsbury, and some others of that side, 
who were setting up upon the foot of the 
Liberties of England, who advised Mr Eliot 
to print an abstract of Mr Veitch's case, 
that he was seized in England, and without 
any fault, after near thirteen years' abode 
there, carried doAvn to Scotland, to be judg- 
ed for old alleged crimes ; and to give a 
copy of the case to the members of parlia- 
ment of both houses. This was done, and 
made a great noise, and the parliament was 
very willing to inquire into it. While things 
stood thus, the king was applied to, and lit- 
tle less than threatened with a parliamenta- 
ry inquiry into this caiTiage to an English 
subject, as Mr Veitch might be called. Up- 
on which the above letter is writ down, 
Avhich came very seasonably, within an 
hour before the sentence of death was to 
have been pronounced against him. This is 
all I have of this worthy person's suflferings 
this year.* 

April 2d. The coimcil being informed that 
conventicles were held in Edinburgh pretty 
frequently, resolve to prosecute the heritors 
of the land where they Avere held, though 
conform enough themselves, and fine them 
in terms of former acts of council. Accord- 
ingly I find George TumbuU, baxter (baker) 
in Edinburgh, before them, for three cou- 



* A full and interesting account of all the 
transactions regarding the seizure, trial, and li- 
heration of Veitch may he had in his memoiis hy 
himself, edited by Dr M'Crie, p. 75—102, to 
which the reader "is particularly referred. — Ed. 



10 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



, „^„ venticles alleged to be kept lately in 
Isobel Crawfonl (who bad a cliamber 
in a tenement of land belonging- to him) her 
house. The said George is required to de- 
pone upon the rent of the whole tenement 
of land, which upon oatli he declared to be a 
hundred pounds every year. The council 
decern him to pay three hundred pounds 
Scots for tliree alleged conventicles in that 
woman's house in this tenement of land. 
And, for any thing- I can learn, there were 
more dwellers in the tenement, and the 
landlord was not at all privy to the meet- 
ings. 

At the same diet I find a good many gen- 
tlemen and ladies in the south cited before 
the council for nonconformity. Gordon of 
Craichlaw younger, and his spouse, 

Gordon of Cnlvennan, Macghie of Drum- 
buy, Ramsay of Boghouse, Dame 
Stuart Lady Castlestuart, Macgliie laird of 
Larg, Heron of Littlepark, Dunbar younger 
of Machiemore, Archibald Stuart of Causey- 
end, Anthony Heron in Wigg, and his 
spouse, Stuart of Tondergie, fiiacghie in 
Penningham, Macmillan in Craig^^el, 
Stuart of Ravenstoun, brother to the earl 
of Galloway, and Dame Dunbar his 

lady, and provost of Wigton, 

are charged with withdravi'ing from ordin- 
ances, and being present at conventicles. 
None of them compearing, they are all 
denounced, and put to the horn. It may 
be worth while to notice here, that lists of 
tliose, and multitudes of others, \^'hich have 
not come to my hand, were sent in to 
Edinburgh by the episcopal incumbents in 
the places -where they lived, and vigorously 
in-ged in council by the bishojis and their 
party to be prosecuted. Letters used to be 
directed against them, upon such informa- 
tion, to appear in a very short (early) day 
before the council; and, upon theu* non- 
compearance, they were held as guilty, and 
denounced. We shall find a good many 
mentioned in this section, forfeited after 
EotliAvell : and indeed this severe and ini- 
quitous persecution of them obliged them 
to retire from their houses, and betake 
themselves to hide and zander up and 
down; and we need not be surprised to 
find them, and many others thus oppressed, 

take hold of any opportunity which offered. 



to relieve themselves fj-om these hard j 

circumstances. | 

Mr Andrew Kennedy of Clowburn, of ; 
whom before, Mas before the council May ' 
1 3th, and charged ^yiih being present at 
conventicles. The libel was refei-red to his 
oath, and he refusing to depone, was fined ; 
in a thousand merks. The same day two j 
excellent gentlewomen had a little favour j 
granted them. Upon the 4th instant a con- 
venticle was discovered in Mrs Durham's ! 
house : and Margaret Muir relict of Mr i 
James Durham, and Janet Muir spouse to i 
]Mr John Carstairs, were taken and impri- 
soned in Edinburgh tolbooth. This day i 
they petition the council to be released out 1 
of prison. With some difficulty, some j 
friends of theirs got the council to remit ; 
them to the magistrates of Edinburgh. i 

May 14. George Scot of Pitlochie is con- J 
vened before the council, for alleged being ; 
at conventicles, and is libelled, ' That not- 
withstanding, in the year 1677, he had ■ 
given bond and caution, under ten thousand 
merks, to confine himself within his omu j 
lands, and not to keep conventicles, yet he j 
had contravened.' The matter is referred 
to his oath, and he refusing to depone, the j 
lords hold him as confessed. And the | 
council ordain his cautioners presently to \ 
pay three thousand merks, and supersede 
the rest of the fine until they see how the 
said George carries in time coming. They 
allow him to return to his confinement. 
Next day, the council ordain the magistrates 
of Edinburgh to pay the fine the law obliges j 
them to, for a conventicle kept in Mrs 
Durham's house, where Mr William 
Hamilton, a relation of hers, and brother i 
to the (afterwards) Lord Halcraig, did ■ 
preach. The same day, John Spreul ^ri- 
ter in Glasgow is liberated fi-om prison, | 
upon bond to compear, when called, under 
the penalty of two thousand merks. And '• 
Mr Robert Wylie, formerly mentioned, : 
being apprehended, and having lien in prL \ 
son some time, and fallen into sickness i 
there, the council liberate liim, upon bond \ 
to appear before them, if his health recover, i 
upon the first Thursday of Jur.e, or at any 
time after, that if his sickness be lengthened ; 
out, under penalty of two thousand merks. ' 
The rising at Bothwell falling in, he was ' 











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CHAP. IJ 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



11 



overlooked, and met \\ ith no further trouble 
this vvay. No more of this kind of perse- 
cution offers till July, when the prosecutions 
after Bothwell-bridge run in a new channel ; 
and the accounts of those will fall in after- 
wards in their own room. Here I have 
cast together from the registers what I 
noticed before Bothwell. Some other in- 
stances of severities for nonconformity will 
come in upon the more general account of 
things in the entry of this year. 



Of the more public proceedings, proclama- 
tions, and state of affairs from January 
to May 1619. 

In the beginning of this year, the council 
come to give orders about the forces levied 
formerly : one part of them they leave to 
ramble up and down the country, and harass 
such as did not fully join in conformity 
with the episcopal incumbents, and to lift 
the cess, which a great many did not pay 
till they were forced to it, and others of 
them they placed in garrisons, the largest 
of which was in Lanark for some time, 
another was at Ayr, a third at Kirkcud- 
bright, a fourth at Dumfries, and a good 
number were posted at Glasgow. Their 
orders were, to pursue and search for such 
who haunted field-meetings, to kill all who 
resisted them, and to imprison and deliver 
to magistrates, or send in to the council all 
whom they apprehended. Those gan'isons 
proved very utieasy to such as clave to the 
gospel preached by presbyterian ministers, 
and many outrages were committed up and 
down the country by the soldiers. Instances 
might be given in multitudes. A party of 
the soldiers in the parish of Evandale seized 
some twenty-three countrymen, many of 
them herd-lads, and made them swear whe- 
ther they saw any armed men going up and 
down for a month's time. Terrible out- 
rages were committed; they desti'oyed 
great quantities of corn with their horses, 
and in some places threw the corn they 
could not make use of into the rivers, and 
in other places they burnt it. But parti- 
cular accounts of these would be endless. 
I choose rather to aive the reader the 



foundations laid down by the coun- 
cil for all these severities, under the 
pretext of securing the peace, while, in the 
mean time, the natural tendency of such 
methods \^'as really to force people to ano- 
ther rising; and probably this v. as the 
design of some of the managers. 

Many consultations were held, toward 
the end of the last year, about the bearing 
down of presbyterians, regulating the forces, 
gathering the cess, and other things of that 
nature. The result of all is, January 9th, 
the chancellor by a letter signifies to 
Lauderdale, ' That the committee for pub- 
lic affairs have, after many meetings, and 
much reasoning among themselves, formed 
the articles herewith sent, to the end that, 
before they be presented in open council, 
Ave may know his majesty's inclinations as 
to them, which shall be obeyed.' We see 
those ai'ticles are framed by the secret 
managers ; but, before they venture to pro- 
pose them in council, they must have the 
weight of the king's sentiments to make 
them go doM'n. Accordingly, January 23rd, 
a letter comes down from the king, approv- 
ing them in as full terms as they can desire. 
The overtures themselves, being the result 
of so much thought, and the ground-work 
of the after severities, deserve a room here. 

Overtures to be proposed to his sacred ma- 
jesty by his grace the duke of Lauderdale, 
for suppressing of the present schism and 
disorders of the church, and frequent 
insurrections following thereupon. 

' The lords of the committee of his majesty's 
privy council for public affairs, considering, 
that, notwithstanding of all their former 
endeavours, manifold disorders do still 
abound, arising from ^withdrawing from the 
public worship, and from the dangerous 
and pernicious principles instilled into the 
minds of unwary j)eopIe, by seditious 
preachers in their scandalous conventicles, 
whereby many are hardened in a most 
violent and unreasonable schism, and ani- 
mated to most tm'bulent virulent practices, 
threatening the subversion of the protes- 
tant religion, as well as the peace of the 
kingdom, have thought it their dutj' (now 
that the forces are raised, whereby these 
seditious disorders may be easily and cfFec- 



12 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



167Q. 



tually sujjpressed) humbly to repre- 
sent to the king's most excellent 
majesty, 

* 1. That, in regard many of the enormi- 
ties are committed in remote shires, so that 
probation can neither so easily be had, nor 
the laws receive their due execution, when 
the guilty are processed before the council, 
as if persons of knowledge and integrity, 
living in or near these respective shires, 
who best know their faults, and how the 
same may be effectually punished, should 
be intrusted and empowered to that effect ; 
his majesty may be pleased to empower and 
authorize his council to nominate such per- 
sons to be sheriff-deputes, bailie-deputes of 
regalities, bailiaries, and steward-deputes 
(where the council shall find sheriff-deputes, 
and other deputes foi'esaid, to have been 
remiss) who are, upon the council's recom- 
mendation, to receive deputation from the 
principal sheriffs, baiUes, and stewards, to 
put the laws in execution only against 
withdrawers from public ordinances, keepers 
of conventicles, such as are guilty of dis- 
orderly baptisms and marriages, resetting 
and communing with fugitive and iutercom- 
muned persons, and other vagrant preach- 
ers ; and that the former commissions given 
by the council in August 1G77, to the no- 
blemen and gentlemen in the several shires, 
for pursuing and punishing such as are guil- 
ty of these delinquencies ; and instructions 
given to them, may be renewed to them, or 
such as the council shall think fit ; and that 
the council may be empowered to grant 
such further instructions as they shall find 
necessary for this service ; and that his ma- 
jesty's forces, who lie in the respective 
shires, may be ordered, upon all occasions, 
as they shall be required, to concur with 
these commissioners, or these intrusted by 
them, for the more speedy and effectual 
execution of the decreets and sentences of 
the sheriff, and other deputes, and letters of 
horning, poinding, and caption to be raised 
thereupon, as they will be answerable. 

' 2. That the soldiers may be commanded 
to disperse the persons who shall be found 
at conventicles, by force of arms ; and if 
they refuse to dissolve these meetings (be- 
ing required so to do in the king's name) 
or sliall make resistance, and that there- 



through mutilation or death shall ensue, 
that the soldiers may be secured against 
any hazard upon what they do in prosecu- 
tion of their duty, as if by law allowed, iu 
case the said persons refuse to dissipate, 
being required in manner foresaid, or make 
resistance. 

' 3. That the soldiers may be commanded 
to seize and secure in prison the preacher, 
and so many others present at field conven- 
ticles as they can conveniently carry alongst 
with them, until they find sufficient caution 
to answer for their crimes according to law 
(except the preachers, or any others -who 
are declared traitors, or are intercommuned, 
or make resistance at these meetings, for 
whom no caution is to be taken, but that 
they be secured in prison). And in regard 
the multitudes who frequent these rende- 
vouzes of rebellion, are such as they cannot 
all be seized, nor probation easily led against 
them, the soldiers may be empowered to 
take from the rest of the persons found 
thereat, (whom they cannot conveniently 
carry to prison) their upper garments, that 
the same may be a mean of conviction, and 
evidence of probation against them ; and 
that the soldiers may be empowered to seize 
and take all the arms that any persons shall 
be found to have at these seditious meet- 
ings, and the horses of any mIio shall be 
found to have arms thereat. 

' 4. That in respect scholars, merchants, 
and tradesmen, are the chief persons who 
are ordinarily poisoned with factious and 
schismatic principles ; that therefore none 
be allowed to enter into the second class 
into colleges, nor received prentices, till 
they enact themselves to keep the church. 

' 5. That his majesty may be pleased to 
give order to the council, to be careful to 
see that the 5th act of the 2nd session, and 
2nd act of the 3rd session of his majesty's 
first parliament, appointing magistrates and 
council of burghs, and others in public 
trust, to take the declaration ; as also the 
acts of parliament anent pedagogues, chap- 
lains and schoolmasters, discharging them 
to officiate without license from the respec- 
tive ordinaries, and the acts and proclama- 
tions of council emitted thereupon, to be 
put to due execution. 

' 6. That his majesty may be pleased to 



CHAP. I. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



13 



give order and warrant to the lords of the 
treasury, to make payment out of the first 
and readiest of the cash, five hundred pounds 
sterling- to any person who shall apprehend 
Mr John Welsh, three thousand merks 
to any person who shall apprehend any of 
these preachers ^\ho are declared traitors, 
two thousand merks for ilk one of these 
preachers who are declared fiig^itives, or 
are intercommuned, and nine hundred merks 
for ilk one of these vagrant preachers who 
preach in the fields ; and that the same be 
ordered to be paid instantly upon the deli- 
very of them prisoners to the council ; and 
that these persons, who have already appre- 
hended any of these preachers, may, for the 
encouragement of others, have some suita- 
ble reward. 

' And lastly. That his majesty may be 
pleased to give order to the council to take 
exact notice of, and proceed against these 
indulged ministers, who do not observe the 
rules and instructions prescribed to them at 
their indulgence j and that, upon the de- 
cease or removal of any of these indulged 
ministers from their kirks, the council may 
be careful to see orthodox ministers planted 
in these kirks ; and, if the patron do not 
present such persons within the time pre- 
scribed by the law, that the ordinary be or- 
dained to present jure devoluto. Under- 
neath, Edinburgh, 9th of January, 1679. The 
lords of his majesty's privy council having 
considered the overtures above contained, 
and oflered by their committee for public 
affairs, do approve thereof, and ordain the 
same to be transmitted to the duke of Lau- 
derdale, to be oifered to his sacred majesty. 
' Rothes Cancel. I. P. D.' 

The king's letter, approving them, 1 like- 
wise insert from the registers. 

* Edinburgh, January 23d, 1679. 

* Charles R. — Right trusty, &c. We 
greet you well. Having seen and consi- 
dered your letter of the 9th instant to the 
duke of Lauderdale, with the overtures 
proposed by you, for securing the public 
peace of that our ancient kingdom, against 
all schismatic and seditious distempers ; we 
are so well pleased with them, that we 
have thought fit, without any delay, to re- 
turn you our hearty thanks for your great 



care and zeal in oiu- service upon all , _ 

1679 
occasions, and to let you know, that 

albeit we did formerly appoint the duke of 
Lauderdale to signify our approbation ot 
those overtures to the committee of public af- 
fairs, yet we do now again repeat our royal 
approbation of them all to you om* privy 
council, as you have them here inclosed. 
And therefore it is our will and pleasure, 
and we do hereby authorise and empower 
you to issue acts, orders, and all other pa- 
pers conform to the said overtures, and to 
use all such legal ways and means as you 
shall find most expedient for putting the 
same in effectual execution : for doing 
whereof, this shall be your warrant. And 
so we bid you heartily farewell. Given at 
our court at Whitehall, the 18th day of Ja- 
nuary, 1678-9 and of our reign the thir- 
tieth year. 

' By his majesty's command, 
' Lauderdale.' 

When thus they have the king's consent, 
the overtures are read and approven in the 
council, and by them remitted again to the 
committee for public aflairs, that they may 
bring in their opinion as to the manner of 
putting them in execution. Their i-cport 
is brought in January 28th, and follows. 

The report underwritten from the committee 
for public affairs, with the act therein 
mentioned, being read in council, were 
agreed to, and apjjointed to be recorded 
conform to the tenor thereof, which is as 
folloics. 

* Having considered these overtures ap- 
proven by his majesty, in order to the 
drawing of acts and orders thereupon, and 
for putting the same in execution. 

' As to the first overtui'e anent the nam- 
ing of sheriff deputes, and for executing 
the laws (only) against withdi-awers from 
public ordinances, keepers of conventicles, 
persons guilty of disorderly baptisms and 
marriages, resetting and communing with 
fugitive and intercommuned persons, and 
other vagrant preachers, 'tis our opinion 
that deputes shall be named to that piu-- 
pose in the shires underwritten, and juris- 
dictions Avithin the same, viz. Lanark, Ren- 



u 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



ir'-Q ^'"*'^^» -^P*' Wigtou, stcwartry of 
Kirkcudbright, Perth, Dumfries, 
stewartry of Annandale, Dumbarton, Lin- 
lithgow, Fife, and Kinross, Stirling, Had- 
dington, BerH ick, and Roxburgh ; and we 
have appointed some of our number to think 
upon tit persons for that service in the se- 
veral places. 

' As to the second part of the said over- 
ture concerning the commission and in- 
structions formerly given to several noble- 
men and gentlemen anent conventicles 
and other disorders, it is our opinion, that 
the said commissions and instructions may 
be revived, and missives directed to the se- 
veral persons commissionate to proceed ac- 
cording thereto. 

' Having considered the second and third 
overtures, and an act of council in the year 
IG74, we have turned the same in an 
act, which is offered to your lordships' con- 
sideration. 

' As to the fourth overture concerning 
scholars, merchants, and tradesmen, their 
enacting themselves to keep the kirk, it is 
our opinion that the same be turned in an 
act, and sent to the several uiliversities and 
burghs. 

' Upon the sixth overtiu-e, offering a re- 
ward to such persons as shall apprehend 
Mr John Welsh and others therein related, j 
it is our opinion, that a proclamation be 
dravra conform thereto, founded ujjon his 
majesty's letter; and an act draAiTi, recom- 
mending to the lords of the treasury to give 
these rewards to such as shall deserve the 
same.' 

Murray, Charles Maitland, 
Linlithgow, George Mackenzie, 
Elphinston, Maitland, 
Ross, Drummond, 

And the approbation of Rothes Cancel. 

I. P. D. 
' The lords of his majesty's privy council 
do hereby give express order and command 
to all officers and soldiers of his majesty's 
standing forces, or of the militia, or any 
part thereof, to dissipate the persons who 
shall be found by them at conventicles by 
force of arms ; and if they shall refuse to 
dissolve, being required so to do in the 
king's name, or shall make resistance, and 
that therethrough mutilation or death shall 



ensue, the said lords do hereby indemnify 
them from any such slaughter or mutila- 
tion, and declare that they shall never be 
questioned either criminally or civilly for 
the same in all time coming. As also, the 
said lords give orders to the said officers 
and soldiers to seize and secure in prison 
the preachers, and so many others present 
at field-conventicles as they can convenient- 
ly carry alongst ^ ith them, until they find 
sufficient caution to answer for their crimes 
according to law, except the preachers or 
any others who are declared traitors, or are 
intercommuned, or make resistance, or stii- 
up others to malve resistance at these ren- 
devouzes of rebellion, for whom no caution 
is to be taken, but that they be secured in 
prison. And in regard the multitudes that 
frequent these rendevouzes of rebellion, arc 
such as that they cannot all be seized, nor 
probation be easily had against them, the 
said lords do impower the soldiers to take 
from the rest of the persons found thereat, 
whom they cannot conveniently carry to 
prison, their upper garments, that the same 
may be a mean of conviction, and evidence 
of probation against them ; as also, to take 
and seize all the arms that any person shall 
be found to have at these seditious meetings, 
and the horses of any who shall be found 
to have arms thereat. And further, the 
said lords do hereby give order and warrant 
to the said officers and soldiers to take, ap- 
prehend, and emprison any persons declaimed 
fugitives by sentence of council or justice 
court, any that were in the rebellion in the 
year I66G, and did not take the benefit of 
his majesty's act of indemnity, or any 
against whom letters of intercommuning 
are direct, wheresoever the said persons 
can be apprehended, with power to them 
to make open doors and other lockfast 
places, in searching of the said persons. 
And the said lords grant warrant to any of 
the officers of the foot, standing forces, or 
militia, to seize upon, and make use of any 
horses in the country, which can be readilj- 
had when they have occasion of the same 
for executing any orders directed to them, 
the officers being always liable, imme- 
diately after performance of the service 
wherein they shall be employed, to cause 
return these horses to the owners in as 



CHAP I.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



15 



good condition as they were Avhen they 
Avere taken.' 

The council, we need not doubt, approve 
all their grand committee does ; and in 
fui'ther prosecution of the report, February 
Gth, a proclamation comes out, ^ihich was 
better looked aftei", and more carefully pro- 
secute than that \\e shall just now hear of 
against papists : I have annexed it below,* 
therein is promised 9000 merks to any \vho 
shall discover and apprehend Mr John Welsh, 
3000 merks for Messrs Semple and Arnot, 
2000 merks for any of the field preachers 
declared fugitive, and 900 merks for any of 
the vagrant preachers. The pretence of 
debauching people to atheism and popery 
in the proclamation hath formerly been 
considered and answered. 

I shall not enlarge on the severity and 
temptation in the promise of so great sums 
in Scotland, for the apprehending of so 
good and useful men as Mi- Welsh, and the 
others named. I know that about this time 
some in the government were so sensible of 
the moderate and loyal principles and use- 



• Proclamation, offering a reward for appre- 
hending Mr Joliti Welsli traitor, and others, Feb- 
ruari) tith, 1G79. 

Charles, l)y the grace of God, king of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the 
faith J to our lovits, 

niacers of our council, messengers at arms, our 
sheriifs in that part, conjunctly and severally, 
specially constitute, greeting. Forasmuch as, 
by sentence of our justice court, Mr John Welsh, 
Mr Gabriel Semple, and Mr Samuel Arnot are 
declared traitors, for being in open rebellion 
against us, in the year 1666. And they having, 
for divers years past, made it their woi'k to per- 
vert and abuse our people from their duty and 
allegiance, at their tield meetings, these rende- 
vouzes of rebellion ; and by their example and 
impunity, several others intercommuned and 
vagrant preachers having also followed that same 
method and way, whereby our people, by not 
frequenting the public ordinances, and being ex- 
posed to hear Jesuits or any other irregular per- 
sons, who dare take upon them the sacred office 
of the ministry, are debauched to atheism and 
popery. We therefore, with advice of oui* privy 
council, have thought fit, for the encouragement 
of our good subjects, in apprehending and dis- 
covering these persons, hereby to declare and 
give assurance to any person or persons, who 
shall apprehend and secure Mr John Welsh (or 
so discover him, as he may be apprehended) shall 
have instantly paid to him or them, upon de- 
livery of his person, to any of our privy council, 
or commitment of him to prison, nine thousand 
merks Scots money, out of the first and readi- 
est of our cash, as a reward ; and to any person 
who shall apprehend and secure the said Mr 



fulness of Mr Welsh, that a proposal 
was made to him to accept of a church, ' ' 
and an indulgence was promised him. Neither 
shall I expose this ungenerous metliod of 
ensnaring people to be sharers of managers' 
guilt, or insist on the many instances (which) 
might be given of the care of providence 
in preserving INIr Welsh, the rest, and 
multitudes of others intercoraminied at this 
time. I may rather notice that our pro- 
testant bishops and counsellors did little or 
nothing against the popish priests and Jesu- 
its, though there Avere vast numbers of 
them up and down the nation ; and about 
this very time doctor Gates had made faith 
that several of that cattle were sent down 
from England to Scotland, besides shoals of 
them daily coming in from beyond sea. 
This was not the chase the government 
was set upon, but a standing army must be 
maintained, and new levies made, and the 
country depopulate, to destroy the most 
zealous enemies of popery in the nation, 
Avhile the favourers and abettors of it were 
overlooked. Though by this proclamation, 



Gabriel Semple, and Mr Samuel Arnot, also 
declared traitors, or so discover them, as they 
may be apprehended, three thousand merks for 
each of them; and to any person or persons, 
who shall apprehend and secure any of these 
field preachers, who are declared fugitives, or 
are intercommuned, for each of them, two thou- 
saiid merks ; and for each one of these vagrant 
preachers in the fields, that shall be apprehended, 
the sum of nine hundred merks. And which 
rewards, we declare shall be instantly paid to 
the person or persons, who shall perform the 
said service, without any manner of delay or 
defalcation. And further we declare, that if in 
pursuit of the said persons, they or any of their 
complices shall make resistance, and that there- 
upon they or any of them shall be hurt, muti- 
late, or slain, the said persons apprehenders of 
them or any assisting them, shall never be called 
in question for the same, criminally nor civiUy 
in all time coming, but shall be repute and 
esteemed persons, Avho have done us and their 
country good and acceptable service. Our will 
is herefore, and we charge you strictly, and 
command, that, incontinent these our letters 
seen, ye pass to the mercat-cross of Edinburgh, 
and other places needful, and thereat, in our 
name and authority, by open proclamation, make 
publication of the premisses, that all our good 
subjects may have notice thereof; and ordain 
these presents to be printed. Given uiuler our 
signet at Edinburgh, the sixth day of February, 
1679, and of our reign the one and thirtieth 
year. 

Tho. Hav, CI. Seer. Concilii. 

GOD SAVE THE KING. 



16 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK 111. 



1679. 



all who were wicked enough, were 



set to hunt for these good men, in 
order to get the price of hlood, not only of 
those, but of the souls of thousands, \Aho 
were fed by them ; yet none that I hear of 
were tempted by so gi-eat offers. 

To execute this and other such laws, the 
new levied forces are ordered west, and 
part to Glasgow, there to lie, and prevent 
preaching the gospel in private houses, and 
the fields thereabout. This was at the 
particular desire of the prelates and clergy, 
that city being an eye-sore to them, many 
presbyterian ministers getting shelter there. 
Accordingly upon the 1 3th of February the 
council agree upon the disposition of the 
forces, and form an act thereupon, wliich I 
have added below.* No remarks need to 
be made on it, they are all so ordered as 
they may be most useful for bearing down 
the preaching of the gospel. It is of more 
use to take notice of some new powers 
granted them upon the proposal of the 
committee for public affairs. 1 give them 
as they stand in the registers. February 
13th, the council approve the under viritten 
report from the committee for public affairs. 

" Whereas by the late act of coimcil 
January 2Sth, warrant is given to officers 
and soldiers to dissipate conventicles, and 
seize preachers and other persons thereat. 
And seeing it may be presumed, where any 



• CounciTs act, February \Bth, 1679, about 
the forces. 

The lords of his majesty's privy council do 
ordain his majesty's standing forces, horse, foot, 
and dragoons, to be distributed and quartered in 
manner following, viz. three companies of foot 
in Canongate and Leith, one company at Caldcr, 
one company at Stirling, one company at Culross 
and Clackmannan, one company at Cupar and 
Falkland, four companies at Glasgow, two com- 
panies in the shire of Ajt, one company in the 
shire of Renfrew, one company in Lanark, one 
company in Galloway, and one company at 
Kelso, and leaves the eighteenth company to the 
major general's disposal ; one squadron of his 
majesty's troop of guards at Edinljurgh, another 
squade of them at Stirling, another in Fife, and 
the fourth in Borro^vstonness, one troop at Glas- 
gow, one troop in Merse and Teviotdale, and 
one troop in Galloway, one company of dragoons 
in Galloway, one company at Ayr, twenty-five 
at Calder, twenty-five at Culross, and fifty at 
Lanark, and refers to the major general, in 
vrhat place in ilk shire, he shall appoint their 
respective quarters. It is always hereby ordered, 
that those mentioned for Calder and Borrow- 
stonness shall oversee all the bounds betwixt 



number of persons are found together in : 
the fields, near to the place, before or after I 
conventicles have been kept, that they have 
been going to or coming from conventicles, i 
that order be given to the officers and sol- ' 
diers, for seizing and securing such persons 
going to or coming from conventicles, upon 
the day of the keeping thereof, until they | 
give bond, or enact themselves under parti- | 
cular penalties, according to the quality of 1 
the persons, that they shall live orderly, ' 
keep their own parish kirks, and not go to I 
conventicles thereafter, or appear before the i 
coimcil at a certain day, and that those j 
bonds be sent forthwith to the clerks of i 
council." And to give all relative to the j 
army in this place ; February 25th, the | 
army being now to march, the council order ; 
them to be furnished with ammunition : 
and next day they appoint that magistrates | 
in burghs, and heritors in landward parishes ! 
furnish seven baggage horse to each com- ] 
pany of foot, and that for one day's journey, 
or a little fiu'ther, if necessity require, as i 
the parties shall demand. : 

I shall not enter into any large accounts 
of the trouble the army at this time brought j 
to the west and south. It ^^as in the be- i 
ginning of IVIarch that they came to the ' 
particular places assigned them. My lord 
Ross, and others who commanded them, 
made a very strict search there for inter- i 



Cramond bridge and Stirling bridge ; that these 
at Culross and Stirling oversee betwixt Stirling , 
bridge, Kinross and Burntisland ; that these • 
appointed for Fife oversee what lies betwixt 
Kinross and Fifeness ; that these in Glasgow, i 
Lanark, and Renfrew, oversee Clydesdale and \ 
Renfrew ; these in Ayr that sheriffdom, and i 
these in Galloway the sheriffdom of Wigton, 
and stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and jurisdic- i 
tions within the bounds of the said shires, to the | 
effect they may assist the execution of the laws j 
in all these respective bounds, or any other shires ; 
of the kingdom, according to the orders that j 
shall be given them by the major general. And 
further, the council do ordain the commissioners i 
nominate in the several shires, to take care, that 
the troops and companies of dragoons be fur- i 
nished and provided with hay and straw by tlie ' 
towns and villages where they are quartered ; i 
and in case they cannot be conveniently provided ; 
hy these towns and villages, tbat the commis- \ 
sioners cause the hay and straw to be furnished \ 
and carried to them by the inhabitants in the j 
country, not exceeding six miles from their | 
quarters, at the prices already appointed by the '■■ 
council, in respect those prices were appointed.! 
at first, with so great consideration to the carriage. 



CHAR I.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



17 



communed ministers, field preachers, and 
all others obnoxious to the standing' laws. 
These searches were very troublesome 
to the lieges, and many disorders and 
cruelties Mere committed at them, some of 
which maybe observ ed in the progress of this 
book. At this time a good nimabcr very 
narrowly escaped, and Avere put to no small 
hardships and difficulties in their A^ander- 
ings and hidings. At this search two were 
only taken, a Avorthy, old, and very infirm 
minister, Mr Archibald IMaclean, Avho by 
reason of his age and Aveakness, could not 
step out of their AAay ; and Mr William 
Kyle, since the revolution a minister in 
GalloAvay, and at this time a preacher. Yea 
such AA'as their vigilance and concern in 
this Avork, that in a very few days the 
search Avas repeated, they hoping some 
would venture out of their lurking places, 
not looking for so sudden a return of the 
trial. 

The reverend Mr John LaAv, of whom in 
the former book, Avas catched at this second 
search, in a house of the laird of Kincaid, 
and the cruelty of his persecutors to him 
deserves particular notice. His Avife AAas 
extremely ill, and given over by physicians, 
and it aa as tliis brought Mr LaAV to the 
place. He offered all bonds and secm-ity 
they could desire, and to render himself 
their prisoner Avhenever they should ap- 
point, or begged a guard might be sent Avith 
him to the house : but by no means could 
he prevail to see his dying Avife ; and he 
Avas straight and most unmercifully sent to 
Edinburgh, and from thence to the Bass. 
Upon his road east, he was not only guarded 
by the Avay, but soldiers Avere constantly 
kept in the room Avith him, never once 



1679. 



alloAA ing him to be alone, to commend 
himself and his dying Avife to the Lord. 

Much about the same time there Avas a 
most violent search at Edinburgh, Avhere 
the reverend Mi- George Barclay, Avhom avc 
shall afterwards meet aa ith, Avho since the 
revolution hath been for tvi enty-three or 
tAventy-four years an useful and successful 
minister at Uphall, was taken. His excel- 
lent character is so Avell known in this 
chui'ch, that I enter not upon it. When 
taken he was put into the guard-house at 
Edinburgh ; there by his agility he escaped 
out at a AvindoAv into the street, and got off. 
Afterwards he endiu-ed a long trial of vari- 
ous afflictions, and wanderings, sometimes 
in foreign countries, and sometimes in the 
north of England, and for some years in 
Scotland, wherein he met Avith many 
remarkable preservations and singular pro- 
vidences, as I have sometimes Avith pleasm'e 
heai-d himself relate. Much about this 
same time in Leith were apprehended Mr 
Robert Ross, IVIr James Macaulay, preachers, 
and another Avho Avas Avith them, on his 
hiding for nonconformity. By the registers 
I find the council, April 4th, approve the 
committee for public affairs their i-eport: 
that Mr John LaAV, Mi- Robert Ross, and 
Mr James Macaulay be sent to the Bass ; 
and the rest of the prisoners continue in 
the tolbooth of Edinburgh till further order. 
I shall only acquaint the reader further, 
that in prosecution of the overtures above 
insert, and just before the march of the 
army, upon the 27th of February the 
council condescend upon the folIoAAing list of 
commissioners to execute the laAAS against 
nonconformists in the several places imder- 
Avritten, in the terms of the first overture. 



List of the co7nmissioners appointed hy the council in August 1677, U'ilh the names of the 
commissioners now added. 



Edinburgh 

Haddington 

Linlithgow 

Perth 

Berwick 

Roxburgh 

Selkirk 

Renfrew and Netherw 

Clydesdale 
Upperward of Clydesdale 
III. 



"] 



COMMISSIONERS FORMERLY. 

Lord Treasurer Depute 
rEarl Winton 
CLord Belliaven 

Earl Linlithgow 

Marquis Athole 

Earl Hume 

Philiphaugh and Hayning 
Lord Ross 
Earl Wigtou 



COMMISSIONERS ADDED. 

Wauchop of Stotencleugh. 
Millar of Gourlaybauk. 

Marquis Montrose. 

Earl Roxburgh. 

Sir John Scot of Ancrum. 



Hamilton of Raplocli. 
C 



18 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK HI. 



1G79. 



SUIRBS. 

Dumfries and stewartry-i 

of Annandale j 

Wigton and stewartry of Kirk-i 

cudbright j 

Ayr and Dumbartou 

Argyle 



Fife and Kinross 



Peebles 

Stirling and Clackmannan 

Aberdeen and Bamff 

Kincardine 

Elgin, Nairn and Inverness 

Cromarty 

Forfar 



COMMISSIONERS FOKMERLY. 

Sir Robert Dalziel of Glenall 

Richard Murray of Broughton 

Earl Glencairn 

Earl Argyle 
■ Earl Strathmore, except the pres- «, 
bytery of Dunfermline, and i 
parishes of Culross, Tulliallan, \ 
Muckart, Logie, Arngask, Sal- i 
ine, and Fossway, entrusted to ' 
Clackmannan 

Sir William Murray of Stenhope 

Earl Mar, lord Elphinston 
' Earls of Errol, Marishall, Kin- 
tore, and lairds Auchmedden 
and Boyne 

Earl Marishall 

Earl Murray 



COMMISSIOXURS ADDED, 



I.aird of Earlshall. 



James Nasmyth younger of Posso. 
Lord Callender, laird of Clackmannan. 



Lord Duff us. 
Laird of Cromarty. 



Earl of Airly 



To tliese commissioners they send the 
underwritten letter, and additional instruc- 
tions, which deserve a room here also. 

Letter and additional instructions to the 
several commissioners. 

' Right honourable, 

* His majesty's privy council considering 
the great scandal given to the true protes- 
tant religion, and the occasions given for 
inlet and increase of popery, impiety, schism, 
profaneness and sedition, by the unchristian 
and factious carriage of sundry persons, 
Ti'ho not only withdraw from the Avorship 
of God in their own parish kirks, but are 
guilty of keeping seditious meetings, and 
other disorders of that nature ; they for re- 
medy thei'eof, did grant commission to you, 
or such as you should appoint, to take un- 
der your particular care and charge the ex- 
ecuting of the laws made against these dis- 
orders AA'ithin and did give you par- 
ticular commission and instructions for that 
eflfect, bearing date the 7th day of August, 
1677. And whereas these disorders do yet 
increase, and the council, being very confi- 
dent that there cannot be a more ready way 
to reduce them, than by the due and vigo- 
rous execution of the laAvs, which have been 
so particularly entrusted to you by your 
commission and instructions, hath thought 
fit to revive and renew these commissions 
and instructions to you, and hereby to join 
with you in the said commission, and 



to desire and require you and him to follow 
forth the same M\i\\ all faithfulness and di- 
ligence ; as also some additional instructions 
to these formerly given, herewith sent : 
and that there may be no delay in that ser- 
vice, either through negligence or conni- 
vance of the sheriff-deputes, the council has 
thought fit, by his majesty's special warrant 
to recommend to the sheriff-principal of 

or of to nominate 

to be his depute in the said for pro- 

nouncing of sentences, and putting of the 
laws in execution against these delinquents 
(to whom we are to send particular instruc- 
tions) and in the meantime, until the said 
deputations be got, we have commissionate 
him to act in that affair as a justice of 
peace, with whom we desire you to keep 
correspondence, as also with the command- 
ing officers of such forces as are quartered 
near to you, mIio have also particular orders 
to give you their concurrence either for ap- 
prehending delinquents, or poynding of 
goods upon the said sentences : this being 
aa affair wherein his majesty's service is in 
a special manner concerned in this juncture, 
we expect that you will use more than or- 
dinary diligence in the prosecution of what 
is committed to you, and to have frequent 
accounts of what passes. Signed in name 
and by wan-ant of his majesty's privy coun- 
cil, by 

' Your most humble servant, 

'Rothes Cancel. I. P. D.' 



i 



CHAP. 1.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



19 



Additional instructions to the commissioners, 
anent conventicles, §t. 

' Since, by the 5th act, 2d session, parlia- 
ment 2cl, tlie fines of all men and women, 
who are not heritors, are disponed to the 
sheriffs, stewards, bailies of regality, and 
their deputes, so that no part thereof can 
be applied to the commissioners, and those 
deputed by them ; therefore you arc to ap- 
ply the one half of the fines of all landed 
men, and women, and their children, not 
forisfamiliate, who live within the bounds 
of your commission, to your own use, and 
such as you shall employ. 

' It is declared, that such persons as have 
taken the bond to live orderly, and have 
since recanted the same, or have kept field- 
conventicles sensyne, or baptized their 
children disorderly, shall have no benefit by 
their taking the bond, but may be proceetl- 
ed against for their delinquencies since the 



act of indemnity in March 1674, ac- 
cording to law. ' ■ 

' Albeit there be particular bonds appoint- 
ed for each commissioner and sheriff-depute, 
for dissipating of conventicles, and appre- 
hending of conventiclers at these meetings, 
or passing from them ; yet every commis- 
sioner and depute are authorized to pursue, 
dissipate and apprehend them in any neigh- 
bouring place or jui'isdiction, and to judge 
them before the sheriff-depute or justice of 
peace of that juiisdiction, or before the 
council, as the said commissioner or depute 
who apprehends them, shall think fit.' 

Further, every way to secure this mat- 
ter, the council nominate deputes in the 
different shires, and require a deputation 
from the sheriff-principals, according to the 
subsequent list, to the persons here nomi- 
nate, which I shall likewise add, with the 
council's letter, and the form of deputa- 
tion. 



Liu rf the Sheriff's and other deputes nominate. 



SHIRES AND JURISDICTIONS WITHIN THE 
SAME. 

Edinburgh 
Hiiddington 

Linlithgow and tlie regalities of-j 
Kinniel, Kirkliston, and .' 

Torphiclien ' 

Perth and regality of Athole 
Renfrew 

Upperward of Clydesdale 
Netherwardof Clydesdale and 
regality of Glasgow 



SHERIFFS, &c. 

Lord Treasurer-depute sheriff 

D. Lauderdale sh. 

Laird of Hopeton sh. I 
and lord of regality J 

Blarquis of Athole 

E. Eglinton 
D. Hamilton sli. 
D. Hamilton sh. andl 

lord of regality j 



Mr Thomas Skene. 
Haliburton of Egliscairny. 

James Dundas of Manuor. 

Sir Pat. Threpland of Fiiigask. 

Sempill of Beltrecs.* 

Mr William Cochran of Rochsolcs 

Mr William Nimrao. 



* Francis Sempill of Beltrees was the descen- 
dant of John, son of lord Sempill, and Mary, 
daughter of lord Livingston, noticed by Knox in 
his "Ilistorie" as "John, the dancer;" and 
" Marie, the lustre," (beautiful) at Queen Ma- 
ry's court. 'Iheir son Sir James Sempill of Bel- 
trees wasa singular favourite of king James VI. 
who sent him his ambassassor to queen Eliza- 
beth's court, and the steady and tried friend of 
Andrew Melville. See M"'Crie's Life of ]\lel- 
villc, vol ii. p. 339. Of him says Melville, in a 
letter to his nephew : " The court does not con- 
tain a more religious man ; one who unites 
greater modesty with greater genius, and a more 
matured judgment with more splendid accom- 
plishments. " ib. p. 411. He was the author 
of a work against Selden, entitled " Sacrilege 
sacredly handled," and of another work entitled 
" Cassandra Scoticana, to Cassander Anglica- 
nus ;" and likewise an answer to Tilenus, 
named — " Scoti tou tuxcvto; Parsenesis contra Da- 
nielis Tileni Silesii Paraenesin." He also wrote, 
in part at least, a satirical poem against the 



chiu'ch of Rome, called " The Packman's Pater 
Noster." Sir James married Egidia, daughter 
of Elphinston of Blythswood, by whom he had 
a son, Robert, whose fame is founded on an ad- 
mired poem, entitled " The Epitaph of Habbie 
Simpson, the Piper of Kilbarchan." Robert's 
son was this Francis Sempill of Beltrees (notic- 
ed in the above list) a poet of humorous talent. 
HevsTote " The Banishment of Poverty ;" " She 
rase and lute me in ;" " The BlythsumBridal ;" 
" Maggie Lauder ;" and " Hallow Fair." He 
was an adherent to the Stew^art family, and he 
produced some panegyrics on James VI L while 
duke of York and Albany, and some satires on 
the Whigs as they were now currently called. 
The family of Beltrees, distinguished for poeti- 
cal wit and humour, have been lost to fame in 
some measure by the want of a biographer. See 
Wood's Peerage, art. Sempill. Crawford's Ren- 
frewshire passim, and the interesting introduc- 
tion to a small miscellany called " the Renfrew- 
shire Harp" published at Paisley in 1819. 
—Ed. 



20 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



SniRES AND JURISDICTIONS WITHIN THE 
SAME. 

Dumfries and stewartry of E. Queensberry sli. 



SHERIFFS, &c. 



1G79. 
Wigton 



Aanaudale 



E. Annandalo stRvvard 
Sir Andrew Agnew sh. 

E. Nithsdale st. 

E. Dumfries eh. and steward 

E. Eglinton bailie 

E. Cassils bailie 

E. Wigton sli. •> 

Hamilton of Orbiston bailie j 

• Earl of Rothes sh. and lord of Reg. 

Marquis of Athole St. 
E. Tweeddale 



Stewartry of Kirkcudbright 

Ayr and stewartry of Kyle 

Bailiery of Cunningham 

Bailiery of Carrick 

Dumbarton 

Regality of Kilpatrick 

Fife and Kinross 

Reg. of St Andrews and Crawford 

Stewartry of Falkland 

Reg. Dunfermline 

Keg. Pittenweem easier 

Letter to the sheriffs, ^"c. for nominating 
and deputing the foresaid perso7is in the 
respective jurisdictions abovewritten. 

' My Lord, 

' His majesty, for securing the public 
peace of the kiugclom against all schismatic 
and seditious distempers, amongst other di- 
rections, hath thought fit, by a particular 
and express warrant, dated at Whitehall the 
1 8th of January la.st, to impowcr his coun- 
cil to nominate such persons to be sheriifs, 
bailie-deputes, in such bounds as the council 
should find necessary, who are upon their 
recommendation to receive deputation from 
the sheriifs-principal, and bailies, to put the 
laws in execution, only against mthdrawers 
from the public ordinances, keepers of con- 
venticles, and such as are guilty of disorderly 
bajitisms and marriages, resetting and com- 
muning with fugitive and intercommuned 
persons, and vagrant preachers : which de- 
putation his majesty desires may be required 
from you, to shew how unwilling he is to 
derogate from your rights. And his ma- 
jesty's privy council finding it necessary for 
the king's service, that be by you 

Tiamed depute in the sheriffdom of 
for putting in execution the laws and acts 
of parliament foresaid, they desire your 
lordship to sign the inclosed deputation, and 
to retm'n the same to the council betwixt 
and the second day of April next, which is 
to be without prejudice to any other of 
your sheriff-deputes, to judge jointly with 
the said deputes, or separately. This being 
an affair wherein his majesty's service is 
specially concerned, we doubt not of your 



Lairds of Clavcrhouse and Earlshall. 
Claverhouse and Earlshall. 

{Laird of Lag, Claverhouse and Earl- 
shall. 
{Captain John ratersou. 
Claverliouse and EarlshalL 
f Mr James Cunningham late sheriff'.de. 
{ pute. 
Mr John Montgotpery of Beath. 
Blair of Blairston. 

Major George Grant. 



•William Carmichael of Thurston. 



compliance with this our desire. Signed in 
name, and by AS-arrant of his majesty's privy 
council, by your lordship's most liunible 
servant, 

' Rothes Cancel. I. P. D.' 

The tenor of the deputation. 

'We sheriff principal of the sheriff- 

dom of conform to a recommendation 

of his majesty's privy council signified to 
us by their letter of the date the eleventh 
day of March 1G79, foimded upon an express 
warrant from the king's majesty, dated at 
Whitehall the eighteenth day of January 
last, do hereby make and constitute 
to be our sheriff-depute within the said 
sheriffdom, to the effect underwritten only, 
M'ith full power and commission to him to 
affix and hold sheriff-coiirts at the ordinary 
places accustomed, issue forth precepts for 
summoning persons M'ithin the said shire, 
guilty, or that shall be guilty of contraven- 
ing the laws made against separation, and 
withdrawing from public ordinances, keep- 
ers, or being present at conventicles, persons 
guilty of disorderly baptisms and man-iages, 
resetting and communing with fugitive and 
intercommuned persons, and vagrant preach- 
ers, and to pronounce sentence against the 
persons guilty, conform to the laws and 
practick of this kingdom, and to du-ect pre- 
cepts and other executorials for putting the 
same to due execution, and generally all 
and sundry other things necessar in the 
premisses to do, use, and exerce, as fuUy and 
freely as any other sheriff-depute has done 
or may do, promitten. de rato, ^c. providing 



CHAP 1.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



21 



that thir presents is to be without preju- 
dice to any other of my deputes already 
named, to judge jointly or separately with 
the said sherift'-depute ; and that the grant- 
ing- hereof shall no ways derog-ate to our 
right of j iu"isdictiou as principal sheriff, as 
accords of the law ; and that this commis- 
sion continue during the i)leasure of his 
majesty's privy council. In Avitness where- 
of these presents are subscribed with our 
hand at, &c.' 

How for this was an encroachment upon 
the legal establishment of so important an 
office as sheriffs are, I must leave to others 
to determine : it is a question of law ; but 
one Avould think at this rate the council 
might take any other branch of their power, 
and place it in the hands of deputes of their 
own nomination. But nothing now is stuck 
at, M'hich AA'as thought for the enlarging 
the prelates' power, and the oppi'essing of 
presbyteriaus. 

Jointly with this commission or deputa- 
tion, each of those persons were clothed 
with the power of a justice of the peace in 
the respective shires, and have large and 
severe instructions given them for canying 
on the severities against presbyterians, as 
follows. 

Instructions given by his majesty's privy 
council to sheriffs and other deputes, to 
act as justices oj' peace in their respective 
hounds, until they receive their deputations. 

' 1. As you are by your commission (which 
is to be sent to you) appointed sheriff-depute 
of the shire of you are hereby im- 

powered as one of his majesty's justices of 
peace within the bounds of the said shire, 
with power to you to call the remnant 
justices of peace to the quarter-sessions, 
according to the act of pai'liament; and 
such as you shall convene, they are hereby 
authorized to appoint constables in each 
division, as you shall think lit ; and upon 
any emergent, where more than one justice 
is necessar, you shall call any other of the 
next adjacent justices to your assistance ; 
and in case of their refusal, you shall 
inform one of the clerks of his majesty's 
privy council. 



1G79. 



' 2. You are to use diligent endea- 
vour to inform yourself of any intend- 
ed conventicle, on whatsoever account, which 
is prohibited by the laws, and you are to call 
to yoiu" assistance these forces adjacent to you 
in the country, and there^vith not only to 
dissipate the said meetings, but to appre- 
hend such persons, and to imprison such as 
shall be found thereat, or returning from 
any such meeting, and to seize all such 
horses and arms as you shall llud thereat ; 
and if need be, you shall give information 
to any commander of his majesty's forces 
who is most adjacent, of any such convoca- 
tions, and either require their concmTence 
with you, or require them to proceed against 
these conventicles, as they ^^ill be answer- 
{ able. 

' 3. You are to endeavour to apprehend 
; all vagrant ministers, or who preach with- 
out allowance of then- ordinaries, all inter- 
communed persons contained in the list 
herewith sent to you, or hereafter to be 
sent to you by order of his majesty's privy 
council ; as also, all persons declared fugi- 
tive by the council or criminal court, as 
lists are, or shall be sent from these courts 
to you ; and, on apprehending of the said 
persons, to secure them in secui'e prisons 
within burghs, and to acquaint one of the 
clerks of his majesty's privy comicll there- 
with ; and in the meanwhile to requii'e the 
magistrates of the burghs to whom they 
are delivered, to secure them, as they ^ill 
be answerable. And for enabling you to 
perform the said services, you are to call 
for assistance from any of his majesty's 
forces next adjacent to you, who have 
orders to concur with you, when, and as 
you require them, in execution of their 
employments. 

' 4. You are likevtise to apprehend and 
imprison all such persons as at any time 
shall be ordered by one or more of his ma- 
jesty's privy counsellors by writ under theii* 
hands, till they find caution to answer as 
law will. 

* 5. You are to cite before you any per- 
son or persons, men or women, who shall 
be at field conventicles, or who are guilty 
of illegal marriages or baptisms within your 
jurisdiction, albeit perhaps the meeting was 
without it ; and albeit the said person %vas 



252 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III, 



no constant residenter «itliin youi- ju- 
' risdiction, but a remainer there for 
forty days, and that by officers appointed by 
you for that service : if they be cited and per- 
sonally apprehended, whether they compear 
or not, you are to proceed according to the 
2d act, 3rd session, parliament 2d, Charles 
II. and 5th act, 2d session, 2d parlia- 
ment, Charles II. As also, according- to 
the printed proclamations of council, and 
punctually to observe and apply the said 
lav.'s to each several person, of ^^hat quality 
soever or sex, toties quoties, as they shall 
be found guilty from the 2oth of March 
IGT-i, and to imprison them till they pay, 
or find sufficient surety for payment of the 
said sums, the women always to be fined 
according to their husbands' quality. 

' 6. And if they be cited personally and 
compear not, they are to be proceeded 
against, and unlawed in fifty lib. Scots, 
toties quoties, as frequently as you can. 

' 7. If they be cited at their dwelling 
houses, and not personally apprehended, 
you shall likewise cause their officers cite 
them at their parish church immediately 
after sermon, and at the market cross of 
their head burgh ; and if they compear not, 
you shall fine and unlaw them in such sums 
as the sheriffs within that shire are accus- 
tomed to unlaw absents from their coiu'ts, 
and that toties quoties as they shaU be 
absent. 

* 8. And notwithstanding of their impri- 
sonment in the said case, if they pay not, or 
find not surety, you are to proceed to poind 
their moveables in the ordinary way (for- 
bearing always labouring oxen or horse 
from the last of October to the last of IVIay 
for labouring) and to apply the same for 
payment of the said fines. 

• 9. So soon as they either pay or find 
surety, you are to dismiss them, and so to 
proceed toties quoties. 

' 10. You are warranted and desired to 
apprehend any person who shall contemp- 
tuously disobey the discipline and censures 
of the church, and imprison them till they 
find surety to obey the chiu'ch in that cen- 
sure ; and this upon the desire of the minis- 
ter of the parish. Act 38th, session 2d, 
parliament 2d, Charles II. 

Ml. You are to put the la^\s in execu- 



tion against such as ordinarily and wilfully 
withdraw from the ordinary meetings of 
divine worship in their o\^■n parish churches, 
papists or others, according to the 2d act, 
3rd session, 1st parliament, Charles II. 
whether men or women, and conform to 
the late proclamation of council. 

' 1 2. You are to give timely information 
to one of the clerks of privy council of such 
as are imprisoned by you, either as inter- 
coramuned persons, fugitives, vagrant minis- 
ters, or are apprehended by you by orders 
from the council, or any counsellor, with 
the cause of their imprisonment, and place 
where they are, and magistrates' names to 
whom, and what time they were delivered. 

' 13. You are in these things, and what 
further shall be ordered, to act in concur- 
rence with the other sheriflf-deputes and 
justices of peace, and once to require them 
to concur with you; and you are also to 
concur with them in these things Avhen 
they require you thereto ; but you are also 
impowered to act solely in any emergent, 
or in case of their absence upon any ac- 
count. 

• 14. If any sheriff", sheriif-depute, magis- 
trate of biu-gh, bailie, or bailie-depute of 
regality, stewartry, or barony, or any other 
heritor, or other person whatsoever, espe- 
cially any of his majesty's forces, refuse to 
concur with, or assist you in prosecution of 
the IsLW's against these who oppose the same, 
you are to certify the same to the privy 
council. 

' 1 5. You are to apply the ^hole fines of 
all the persons who are not landed men, to 
yourself, and the other sheriff-deputes, who 
concur mutually with you at each respective 
sentence and proceeding, and to their mem- 
bers of court, and collectors ; and the fines 
of all landed men, and their wives and chil- 
dren, the one half to the commissioners ap- 
pointed within their jurisdiction, the other 
half to be forthcoming to the king, which 
the commissioners are appointed to uplift, 
and be countable for the one half. 

' 16. If any person, cited or pursued by 
you, shall flee from your jurisdiction to any 
other, you shall Mith all conveniency inform 
the sheriff, or other deputes of that juris- 
diction to which they flee, and desire them 
to pursue them, or to return them to you; 



BOOK III] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



23 



and you shall give the like concurrence to 
them, on their desire. 

' 17. You are to hold courts once every 
vveek at least, and ofteuer as you find fit. 

' 18. That, for such heritors as are fined, 
j^ou cause arrest their mails and duties, and 
piu'sue actions to make forthcoming, and 
see the same receive due execution. 

' 19. You are hereby empowered to ap- 
point your own fiscals, and other members 
of court (except clerks) to pursue keepers 
of conventicles, and others guilty of stich 
like disorders mentioned in the preceding 
instructions ; and you are to employ the 
ordinary clerks. 

' Lastly, You are hereby empowered to 
proceed and act as a justice of peace within 
the said shire, against delinquents, conform 
to the preceding instructions, until you re- 
ceive yoiu- commission as sheriff-depute.' 

The reader v\'ill easily guess what sad 
work so many dift'erent persons, clothed 
Avith so large po^vers, and an army to sup- 
port them, would make in these shires. The 
particulars, being in no register, are not 
come to my hands ; but Ave may easily form 
an idea of \\hat people, nominated and 
hounded out by the prelates, would do in 
these circumstances : and many of the fin- 
ings and hardships up and doAvn the coun- 
try, for some years, Avere the fruits of those 
various commissions ; though, after the ris- 
ing Avhich ended at BotliAvell, to which 
such severities gave great provocation, the 
persecution fell a little into another channel 
than Avas at first designed. 

But the divisions among the persecuted 
party themselves last year, and the entry of 
this, Avere heavier to good people's spirits 
than all that the soldiers or commissioners 
could do. The debates about the cess were 
overruled by force ; that imposition was 
crammed doAvn, and the act indeed executed 
itself. HoAvever, debates and disputes con- 
tinued, and papers Avere spread about it. I 
have seen one vindicating the paying of it, 
intituled, ' Queries anent the Cess,' too long 
to be insert here, and others against it. But 
the division upon the indulgence ran yet 
higher : so much Avas said in the close of 
the last year upon this, that I shall add 
little noAV. Ministers who preached in the 



1679. 



fields had not formerly meddled with 
this subject; but January this year, 
some preachers, formerly pointed at, began 
AAarmly to preach up separation from the 
indulged, and in such a broken time as this-, 
no doubt such doctrine Avould take, Avhen 
people's spirits Avere rankled AA'ith so many 
evils. 

When this flame Avas rising, several min- 
isters and probationers in and about Glas- 
gow, Avith a good many of the solid and 
knoAving of the old elderships in that city, 
AA'ho had been Avitnesses to the sad conse- 
quents of the last rent in this church, upon 
the public resolutions, had frequent meet- 
ings, and endeavoured Avhat in them lay to 
put a stop to the gi'OAving division, but 
wcve not able to do so much as they wished. 
About this same time, Mr John Welsh, Mr 
George Johnston, Mi* Gabriel Semple, Mi* 
John Rae, very noted field preachers, Avith 
some others, got a meeting Avith some of 
these young preachers, and gave it as their 
opinion, and advised them to go to the 
meeting of ministers who had licensed them, 
and subject to their direction; Avithout 
Avhich, and the invitation of some body of 
ministers, they gave it as their mind, that 
they ought not to take upon them to preach 
up and doA\'n the country.* And they ear- 



• On the subject of " indefinite ordination," 
as noticed in a former part of tlie History, a 
very keen controversy AA'as carried on for many 
years among the presbyterians. The papers by 
Kirlvton and Baird, on indefinite ordination, 
Avere in Wodrow's list of MSS. ; but in a volume 
Avhich, so far as I know, the advocates do not 
possess. From a letter, if I mistake not, early 
in 1675, it would appear that the subject had 
been under consideration as early as 1673, when 
several students were licensed. The writer 
of that letter urges the ministers in Holland to 
give their opinion, and Brown wrote in favours 
of indefinite ordination in the circumstances of 
the church of Scotland, employing twenty ar- 
guments and answering six objections, to the 
extent of thirty or forty quarto pages. Of 
this there are several copies, one of them Avith 
the ansAver to each paragraph marked alternately 
Avith B. and W., Wedderburn of Irvine it is 
supposed. In September, 1675, Mr Hugh Smith, 
minister of Eastwood, wrote Mr Brown, tak- 
ing the opposite side. Brown replied to him in 
November following. Smith Avrote him again 
in October, 1676, and had a return from Brown 
November the same year. The debate Avas con- 
ducted AVith affection and temper, but neither 
seemed to yield. There are also some papers by 
Mr James Stewart, afterAvard lord advocate, on 
the same question. With the exception of Mr 



S4 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



,pr() nestly dealt with them to forbear 
* preaching up separation at such a time 
as this, when union among presbyterians Mas 
so necessary. They likemse appointed t«'o 
of their number to MTite a letter to one of the 
indulged ministers, to be communicated by 
him to the rest, intreating, that, for union's 
sake, they would endeavour to concert 
matters so among themselves, as to take 
away, as much as might be, some of the 
occasions of clamour against them : and in 
particular, that they would now and then 
come out of their charges, and preach the 
gospel to desolate people who wanted it, 
which they ^^ere of opinion might be of 
great use at this juncture. All those essays 
did not stop the breaking off of considerable 
numbers from the indulged. 

However those things did not hinder the 
endeavours of some places to have presby- 
terian ministers settled among them in a 
private way; and in January this year, I 
find upon a call from the people of East- 
wood, now vacant by the death of that ex- 
cellent and successful minister, Mr Hugh 
Smith, that Mr Matthew Crawford * is en- 
tered upon his trials, in order to ordination, 
and Mas ordained privately among them. 
And the reverend Mi- Neil Gillies, after the 
revolution minister of Glasgow, and before 
this ordained to the family of Argyle, had a 
call to the town of Greenock.f 

There is not much more otFers during 
the beginning of this year from the regis- 
ters. It seems difficulties cast up in the 
transportation of such whom the council 
had banished to the plantations ; and there- 
fore, January 16th, they write the following 
letter to Lauderdale. " Ha^ang, after much 
pains and many processes, sentenced, ac- 
cording to express act of parliament, and 
sent away several disorderly persons to his 
majesty's plantations in a ship, which sailed 



Smith, the non-indulged seemed to incline to 
the affirmative, and the indulged took the other 
side. — Efl. 

• Author of the MS. History of the Church 
of Scotland. 

f Mr Gillies was settled in Glasgow in 1690, 
and died in 1701 ; and was succeeded by Mr 
Alexander Wodrow, brother of the historian, a 
young man of great promise, who, in 1702, was 
appointed colleague to his father in the theologi- 
cal chair, but died soon after, to the regret of all 
who knew hiiH. — Ed. 



hence in December last, we find the pre- 
parative would contribute much to quiet 
our seditious disteiupers, if great pains were 
not taken to persuade people here, that 
such obstructions will be made as will hin- 
der their transportation. And therefore, 
irom a just zeal to his majesty's service, 
and for preservation of the government of 
the church, as it is at present established by 
law, M'e thought it oiu* duty to interpose 
v.'ith your grace that you would use all 
possible endeavours for securing their trans- 
portation effectually to the said plantations. 
And particularly, if your grace find it ne- 
cessary, you may interpose with his majesty 
for procuring one of his frigates to carry 
them thither, without which there can be 
very little hopes of deterring such as Avill 
not cease to trouble the peace of the Idng- 
dom, unless that they see that his majesty 
and his judicatories will concur steadily in 
punishing these who offend." I do not 
find their request was granted; but this 
letter shows with what vigoiu* they piu*- 
sued their sentences. 

Towards the end of January, the council 
issue forth a large proclamation against pa- 
pists. The noise of the popish plot lately 
discovered in England Mas the occasion of 
this sham prochmiation, which did (as one 
of good intelligence at this time writes upon 
the copy of it, now in mine eye) help to 
usher in the trouble and bloodshed which 
foUoM s, the real design of it being against 
others who did not join with the established 
church. The proclamation is long, and 
contains a great many excellent clauses 
against the papists, of which no manner of 
care was taken in the execution. 1 shall 
only give an abstract of it. " Charles R. 
Whereas we have still made it our chief 
care to preserve religion in its purity, and 
to see almighty God (from M'hom alone we 
derive our poM'er) Avorshipped ; and having 
found of late, that the bloody, as well as 
idolatrous princijiles of the papists, have in- 
cited those of that profession to contrive 
plots against oiu* person and authority, al- 
terations in the government, and the sub- 
version of the protestant religion, endea- 
vouring to enslave us and our subjects to 
the pope and the see of Rome ; and yet mc, 
being ever unw illing to punish such as may 



CHAP. 1.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



25 



be I'eclaimed, or even to surprise such as 
are irreclaimable, have therefore thought 
fit, with advice of our privy council, hereby 
to command all Jesuits, priests, or trafficking' 
papists, to depart the kingdom betwixt and 
the first day of March next, with certifica- 
tion that they shall be 2}i"oceeded against 
criminally, according to act 120, parliament 
1 2th, James VI. M'hereby they, and such as 
reset them, are declared guilty of treason ; 
and that the laws against sayers and hearers 
of mass will be execute. All papists, of 
Avhatsomever quality, are required to deliver 
up their arms of all kinds, besouth the wa- 
ter of Esk, against the 20th of February ; 
benorth it against the 20th of March ; un- 
der pain of being punished as contemners of 
authority ; and all magistrates are ordered 
to seek and search for arms in papists or 
suspected persons houses, as also all Jesuits, 
priests, and trafficking papists, and commit 
them to the next prison, that they may be 
piuiished conform to law, and to return a 
report of their diligence at their highest 
peril. Further, we connnand, that no pa- 
pists be suffered to bear any public office, 
or bear arms in the army. Noblemen and 
others are discharged to send abroad their 
children Mith pedagogues, without a testi- 
monial from the bishop, discharging their 
parents, if they turn papists, to entertain 
them, under the pains, act 71st, parliament 
6th, James VI. and act 1st, parliament 16th, 
James VI. and ordain the council to see to 
the education of the children of papists, 
confoi-ra to act 9th, session 1st, of our 1st 
parliament. And to the end all our good 
subjects may unanimously join, not only in 
hearing the word of God, but in partici- 
pating of his holy sacraments, we do hereby 
revive that excellent statute made by our 
royal grandfather, act 17th, parliament 16th, 
That subjects of this kingdom shall com- 
municate once a year ; and that if any shall 
abstain, upon any pretext whatsomever, 
they being by their pastors thereunto re- 
quired, shall pay the penalties mentioned 
in the said act; every earl 1000 pounds, 
lord 1000 merks, baron 500 pounds, free- 
holder 300 merks, yeoman 40 pounds, and 
burgess according as the council shall mo- 
dify. Requiring all magistrates and judges 
to put the said act in execution, against all 
III. 



persons of what profession soever, 
conform to the words, as well as the 
meaning of the act itself. And which we 
the rather do at this time, because many of 
the Romish church do delude and abuse oiu* 
people, under the profession of some,or other 
of those who refuse to conform to the worship 
of this reformed church, as it is established 
by law : and, that all papists may be either 
convinced or convicted, we command and 
appoint them to appear before, and confer 
with the bishop or archbishop of the dio- 
cese, betwixt and the 20th of March, and 
obtain testimonials of the satisfaction they 
have given. And, in case they fail, the 
bishops and archbishops are required to 
take lip lists of all papists, particularly such 
as are excommunicate, or have made defec- 
tion from the reformed religion, and send 
in to our council, betwixt and the first 
Thursday of April next ; with certification 
to all such as do not compear, as said is, 
that letters will be directed against them, 
to appear before the council, on pain of 
rebellion, and their moveables, and the life- 
rent of their lands, rooms and possessions, 
shall pertain to us as escheat. And we de- 
clare, that neither such as shall be denoun- 
ced, or any others for them covertly, shall 
be permitted to enjoy their lands, rents, or 
revenues. And ordain lists of all excom- 
municated papists to be printed, and affixed 
in public places, that no judges may suffer 
any in that list to pursue or bear witness 
in any cause, till they be reconciled to the 
church, conform to act 25th, parliament 1st, 
and act 3rd, parliament 20th, James VI. 
Our will is herefore, &c. Given under our 
signet, January 2.3rd, 1079." 

I can meet with no prosecution of papists 
at this time, for as numerous and growing 
as they were, unless it be that this same 
day the council order G. Young, a papist 
priest, to be sent to the Bass, till further 
order. And indeed, as far as I can find, 
not one of the clauses in the above procla- 
mation were taken any care of by bishops, 
judges, or others concerned, in as far as 
they related to papists : but the other 
branch of it, against nonconformists, was 
made a handle of to harass them. 

At that same diet there is a dispensation 



26 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



c-n granted by the king- to the bisliop of 
Galloway, for his nonrcsidence in his 
diocese, though he wanted not a jj^ood number 
of papists to look after in that country ; it is 
a little singular, and the curious reader will 
desire to see it. January 23rd. His majesty's 
royal dispensation was read and ordered to 
be recorded, " Whereas none of our arch- 
bishops or bishops may lawfidly keep their 
ordinary residence without the bounds of 
their diocese respective, unless they liave 
our royal dispensation, warrant, and license 
for that effect: those are, that iu reg-ard 
John bishop of Galloway is not provided in 
a competent manse or dwelling house in 
the diocese of Galloway, and for the better 
promoving- of our service in the church, to 
allow and authorize the said bishop to live 
in or near the cities of Edinburgh or Glas- 
gow, or in any other convenient place* 
where he may be able to attend the public 
affairs of the church. With whose non- 
residence in the diocese of Galloway, we, 
by virtue of our roj'al supremacy in causes 
ecclesiastical, do by those presents dispense, 
as Avell witli the time past preceding the 
date hereof, as for the time to come, dur- 
ing our royal pleasure; any canon of the 
church, or acts of parliaments, enjoining resi- 
dence, notwithstanding. And we strictly 
require all our subjects, church-officers, and 
others, never to quarrel or call in question 
the said John bishop of Galloway, during 
the continuance of this our royal dispensa- 
tion and license, as they will answer to us 
at their peril. Given at our court at 
Whitehall, May 28th, 1678, and of our 
reign the 30th year." 

By his majesty's command, 

Lauderdale. 

This singular dispensation affords room 
enough for remarks upon that exorbitant 
and boundless supremacy and power over 
chiu'chmen, and matters now lodged in the 
king's hand. Nonresidence in churchmen 
is ^^ hat will not vindicate; and this dispen- 
sation looks forward as well as backward, 
and might be given to all the fourteen 
bishops, and their imderlings too, for any 
reason I can observe to the contrary. The 
way to help the bishop's house had been, 
to oblige him to reside at his charge : and 



the public affairs of the church talked of, if 
any thing be in this but form, one would 
think the argument Aiould hold for the 
nom-esidence of the rest of the prelates, as 
well as his. How long the bishop enjoyed 
his license I know not, but it is probable it 
continued till he was advanced to the see 
of Edinbuigh. 

Upon the 13th of February, the council 
approve of the report of the commission for 
public affairs, ' that twenty-fom* soldiers of 
the earl of INlarr's regiment be sent to the 
castle of Stirling.' The occasion of this I 
know not; A\hat follows is of more impor- 
tance. * That the committee for public 
affairs be authorized and impoMered to 
name some of their own number to be a 
close committee, M'ith power to give war- 
rant to seize and seciu-e such persons as 
they saw fit.' This was a vast poA^er in- 
deed, to be lodged in the hands of two or 
three, and those were either prelates, or such 
as were violently for them. ' That, during 
the remainder of this session, the council 
be kept Tuesdays and Thui'sdays weekly ; 
and that the jirisoners, seized and examined 
for conventicles, have their libel on Tues- 
day.' The council still approve all that 
comes from this committee. 

Beside what has been already remarked, 
upon the 2oth of February, the same commit- 
tee propose, and the council approve, ' That 
some persons, m ho attend the session-house 
as agents, are instruments of disorder i 
through the nation, and correspond with 
vagrant ministers, traitors and fugitives, be 
called before the committee, and give seen- 
rity for their good behaviour in time com- 
ing, 01* take the oath of allegiance, other- 
wise that they be banished the town of 
Edinburgh; that Patrick Glass, prisoner 
now these fom* years, be liberate, upon his 
paying .£-200 of the tine the council im- 
posed; that the town major have ^£50 ster- 
ling reward, for taking jNIr John Mosman, a 
vagrant preacher, according to the king's 
proclamation.' And, February 27th, the 
council order a letter of thanks to be writ 
to the earl of Seaforth for his diligence in 
suppressing conventicles in his country. So 
far north was the desire got, after ordinances 
dispensed by presbyterian ministers. 

Upon the Gth of March the English par- 



CHAP. I. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



27 



liameiit sat dowu at Westminster. The 
former had been dissolved last year, in 
hopes that a house of commons might be 
got more pliable to the king's designs ; bnt 
a spirit of liberty seemed to be upon the 
gi'owing- hand among the commons, and a 
good many of the members in their speeches 
and actings made very bold with the king, 
and such ^hom they took to be evil instru- 
ments and pensioners to France about him. 
There was at this time there a gi-eat current 
against the duke of Lauderdale, and the 
administration of affairs in Scotland, as very 
much favoiiring popish designs. And that 
the reader may know somewhat of the 
freedom taken in England to oppose arbi- 
trary measures, and the oppression of the 
subjects, though their pressures were not 
near so great as ours in Scotland, I have 
insert a speech handed about at this time, 
said to be delivered by Sir Francis Win- 
nington late solicitor general, and now an 
eminent member of the house of commons, 
March 27 * And upon the 29th of the 



* Speech, Sir Francis IFinnington to the house of 

commons. 
The king cannot panlon treason against the 
governmeut, for then the government cannot be 
sate from evil ministers : could kings have done 
it, would not Bell, Hemp, Worsillon, and tlie 
Spencers have been pardoned ? Kings should be 
the sanctuary of the people from the oppression 
of evil ministers, but not the refuge of the ene^ 
mies of the government, of such arch-transgres- 
sors as Danby. If Danby may be pardoned, 
then tlie pai>ist lords in the tower may be so too, 
and all the Jesuits now in Newgate may be par- 
doned. Is this the way to secure the laws and 
protcstant religion? The king is limited in 
power, or it cannot be a legal power as ours is ; 
the limitation is to the good and behoof of the 
people ; but in cherishing of an open and noto- 
ripus traitor, the minister of common mischief, 
and common centre in which all tlie lines of con- 
fusion and mischief meet, is this for the good and 
behoof of the people ? A prerogative is to abate 
the rigour of justice, and not to elude and de- 
stroy justice. If ministers maybe pardoned, at 
the prince's pleasure, for all the wrongs they do 
to the people, whilst the prince is sworn to pro- 
tect the people from these wrongs, and is there- 
fore both intrusted and paid, there is no security, 
and our pretended free and legal government is 
a mere cheat, and we are all arrant cheats. Be- 
sides this is treason impeached in parliament, 
and therefore not pardonable out of parliament. 
This is a national and catholic treason, the life 
and root of the government is invaded, and a 
pardon here is so unreasonable a thing, that it 
ought to be placed to his account, ■who dares 
plead it, and ranked amongst the restof such evil 
counsels. The bill preparing in the house of 
loi'ds is not his punishment, but his pardon a 
salvation by act of parliament. Who will be 



same month, the earl of Shaftsbury 
had another in the house of peers, ' ' 
when upon the consideration of the state 
of the nation, which relates so much to 
our Scots affairs, and made such noise at 
this time, that I likewise insert it.f These 
patriots in England had a much deeper 
sense of the hardships put upon us in 
Scotland by our council than many of om*- 
selves. 

The duke of York was reckoned, by such 
M'ho appeared for the liberties of England, 
to be at the bottom of all the maladminis- 
trations they would have been rid of. Even 
before the parliament sat down the king- 
found a party forming against his . brother, 
ar^d towards the end of February gave it 
liim as his mind, that he should retire from 
com't. The duke was averse, till tlie king- 
sent him his mind in \a rit, under his own 
hand, as follows. 'Whitehall, February 
20th, 1679. I have already given you my 
reasons at large why I think it fit you 
should absent yourself for some time be- 



deterred fi'om treason ? who can make such a 
precedent as this, to escape with impunity, to 
carry away honours and wealtli as the revrard of 
treason, and the poor people's spoils, and that at 
such a time as this, and be tardy to himself? 
If this must be, it must be good and meritorious 
to invade property, betray the kingdom, sell the 
people, encourage popery, suborn witnesses, 
strangle and smother the discovery of the plot. 
Remember how ye use him, you make him an 
example for the rest ; if he must live, let him 
not survive his glory, at least degrade himself, 
sequester him, tliat is, to reduce him of as 

Sir Thomas Osburn, and as poor and indigent, 
and leave him nothing he has got by his mon- 
strous acts. He hatli got what the kingdom, I 
am bold to say, these lords that agree not with 
this, speak one word for him, and two for them- 
selves ; they will do the same thing to end with 
the same security. It is a license to cheat the 
king and kingdom for five years. If this must 
be, I pray let there be a clause in the bill, to 
pardon all villanies and treasons whatsoever, 
against the government, as well for the poor as 
rich. Let not the great rogues escape and go 
rewarded; was Pein, Berry, and Hill hanged 
for murdering Godfrey? must he escape that so 
bitterly discouraged and menaced hini ? Or 
what reason was there that Groves and Ireland 
should die for being on the plot, -whilst he is 
rewarded that did conceal it, and -n'ould have 
turned it upon others ? To conclude, if after 
this discovery made by God, and progressed by 
us as instruments, this point be delivered up, 
they shall not escape unpunished, and God shall 
bring deliverance some other way. 

f Speech of the earl of Shaflsburr/ to the house of 
lords, March 2ith, 1679. 
My lords, — You are appointing the considera- 



28 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK in. 



youd sea. I am truly sorry for the occa- 
* siou ; for you may be sure I shall ne- 
ver desire it longer than it shall be absolutely 
necessary for your good and my service. In 



the meantime 1 think it proper to give you 
it under my hand, that I expect this com- 
plaisance from you, and desire it may be as 
soon as conveniently you can. You may 



tion of the state of England, to be taken up in a 
committee of the \vhole house, some day the next 
week. I do not know how well what I have to 
say may be received, for I never study either to 
make my court well, or to be popular. I always 
speak what I am commanded by the dictates of the 
spirit within me. There are some other consi- 
derations which concern England so nearlj', that 
without them, you will come far short of the 
safety or quiet at home. " We have a little 
sister, and she hath no breasts, what shall we 
do for our sister in the day when she shall be 
spoken for ? If she be a wall, ■we must build 
upon her a palace of silver, and if she be a door, 
•we will inclose her with boards of cedar." We 
have several little sisters without breasts, the 
French protestant churches, the two kingdoms 
of Scotland and Ireland. The foreign protes- 
tants are a wall of defence to England, upon 
w^liich she may build a palace of silver, a glo- 
rious palace. The protection of the protestants 
abroad, is the greatest peace and security that 
the crown of England can attain to, and which 
can only help us to give a check to the growing 
greatness of France. Scotland and Ireland are 
two doors that let in goo<l or mischief upon us. 
They are much weakened by the artifices of our 
cunning enemies, and we ought to inclose them 
with boards of cedar. Popery and slavery, like 
two sisters, go hand in hand. In England, po- 
pery was to bring in slavery, in Scotland, slave- 
ry ^vas to go before, and popery was to follow. 
1 do not think that your lordships, or the par- 
liament have jurisdiction there. It is a noble 
and ancient kingdom ; they have an illustrious 
nobility, a gallant gentry, a learned clergy, and 
an understanding worthy people. But yet ■vve 
cannot think on England as we ought, ■without 
reflecting on the condition they are in ; they are 
under the same prince, and the influence of the 
same favourite and counsels, and they are hard- 
ly dealt with. Can Tve that are the richer ex- 
pect better usage ? For it is certain, that in all 
absolute governments, the poorest countries are 
most favourably dealt withal, when the ancient 
nobility and gentry cannot enjoy their royalties, 
freedoms, and stewartries, w^hich they and their 
ancestors have possessed for several hundred 
years ; but they are now enjoined bj' the lords of 
the council, to make deputations of their autho- 
rities to such as are their own enemies. Can 
we expect to enjoy our magna charta long, under 
the same persons and administr.atiou of affairs? 
If the council-table there can imprison any no- 
bleman or gentleman for several years, without 
bringing him to a trial, or giving the least rea- 
son for w^hat they do ; can ^^e expect the same 
vi^ill ever preserve the liberties of the subjects 
here ? 1 will acknowledge I am not versed in 
the particular laws of Scotland ; but this I know 
that all northern countries have, by their laws, 
an undoubted inviolable right to their liberties 
and properties; yet Scotland hath outdone all 
the eastern and southern couutries, in having 
their lives, liberties, and estates subjected to the 
arbitrary will and pleasure of those that govern. 



They have lately plundered and harassed the 
richest and best countries of that kingdom, by 
having brought down the barbarous Highlanders 
to devour them, and all this without any colour- 
able pretence, nor can there be foiuid out a rea- 
son of state for what they have done, but that 
these wicked ministers designed to procure a 
rebellion at any rate, which, as they managed it, 
■was only prevented by the miraculous hand of 
God : for otherwise, all the papists in England 
^vould have been armed, and the fairest oppor- 
tunity given in that time, for the execution of 
that bloody and wicked design the papists had, 
as it is not possible for any man that duly consi- 
ders it, to think otherwise, but those ministers 
■who acted it, were as guilty of the plot as any 
of the lords that are in question for it. My 
lords, lam forced to speak this the plainer, be- 
cause, till the pressure be fully and clearly taken 
off from Scotland, it is not possible for me, or 
any thinking man, to believe that good is 
meaned us here. We must still be on our 
guards, apprehending the principle is not chang- 
ed at coui't, and that these men who are still in 
place and authority, have that influence on the 
mind of our excellent prince, that he is not, nor 
cannot be to us, what his own nature and good- 
ness would incline him to. I know your lord- 
ships can order nothing in this, but there are 
that hear me who can put a present cure to it, 
and till that be done, the Scots wierd is, mors in 
olla, death in the pot. But there is something 
that most immediately concerns us, the act for 
S2,000 men to invade us on all occasions; this I 
hear the lords of the council have treated (as they 
do all other laws) and expounded it to a stand- 
ing army of 60OO men. I am sure we have rea- 
son and right to beseech the king, that that act 
be better considered in the next parliament 
there. I shall say no more of that kingdom at 
this time, for I am afraid your lordships may 
think I have said too much, having no concerns 
there; but if a French nobleman come to dwell 
in my house, and my family, I should think it 
concerned me to ask what he did in France, for 
if he were thei'e a villain, a rogue, or a plun- 
derer, I should desire him to live elsewhere, and 
I hope your lordships will think lit to do the 
same thing for this nation, if ye find the same 
cause. My lords, give me leave to speak two or 
three words concerning our other sister Ireland ; 
thither, I hear, is sent Douglas his regiment to 
secure us against the French, besides, I am cre- 
dibly informed, the papists have their arms i"e- 
stored, and the protestants are not many of them 
recovered from being the suspected party. The 
sea towns, as well as the inland, are full of pa- 
pists ; that kingdom cannot long continue in 
English hands, if some better care be not takcTi 
of it ; this is in your power, and there is nothing 
there but ■what is under your laws. And 
therefore, I beg at least, that this kingdom may 
be taken into consideration together ■with the 
state of England, for I am sure there can be no 
safety here, if these doors be not shut up and 
made safe. 



CHAr. I,] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



29 



easily believe with what trouble I write 
this to you, there being- nothing I am more 
sensible of than the constant kindness you 
ever had for me. I hope you are so just to 
me as to be assured, that no absence or any 
thing else can ever change me from being 
truly and kindly ' Yours, C. R.' 

When the duke had stepped out of the 
way, and after the utmost endeavours of 
the king and courtiers to prevent it, the 
house of commous now appearing vigorous- 
ly for the protcstant religion, and the civil 
rights of their country, in May brought in 
a bill for excluding the duke of York, and 
to bring- the next protestant heir to the 
succession. And considering that the strug- 
gles of the sufferers I am accounting for, 
w^ere with the duke's party in Scotland, 
and really upon the same foot with these 
of the patriots in England, and that too 
many in these lands are yet hankering after 
tlio chains the English commoners would 
fiiin have thrown off, eveu when now we 
lanj feel the inexpressible benefits of the 
protestant succession's happily taking plitce 
among us by an after establishment upon 
the same bottom with this bill, setting 
aside the whole popish race of claimants : 
upon these grounds I take it not to be im- 
proper to insert an abstract of this bill in 
this place. 

' Foi'asmuch as the kingdoms of England 
and Ireland have long since been delivered 
from the slavery of popish superstition, 
for that it advances the power of the pope, 
and diminishes that of sovereign princes, 
and makes him monarch of the imi verse, 
withdraws subjects from their allegiance, and 
subverts the end of the christian religion. 

' But notwithstanding popery hath been 
condemned by law, for its detestable doc- 
trine, and traitorous attempts against the 
lives of sovereign princes, yet the pope's 
emissaries and agents resort to this king- 
dom, and have by their own arts and poli- 
cies, and the assistance of foreign princes, 
contri\'ed and carried on a conspiracy to 
murder the king, subvert the government, 
and destroy the protestant religion ; and for 
the better effectuating thereof, have seduc- 
ed the duke of York, the presumptive heir 
of the crown, to enter into negotiations with 



the pope, his cardinals and nuncios, 
for promoting the popish church 
and interest, and by his means, advanced 
the poMcr of the French king, to the mani- 
fest hazard of these kingdoms. 

' And forasmuch as the parliament of 
England have hitherto directed and limited 
the succession to the crown, frequently out 
of its ordinary course, but never had such 
reasons as now to use their extraordinary 
power. 

' Be it enacted, that the duke of York, 
(having publicly professed the Romish re- 
ligion, which hath notoriously given birth 
to the late plot) be excluded and disabled 
for ever from inheriting the imperial cro« ii 
and government of this realm: and that 
upon the demise or death of the king, the 
crown and govermuent shall be devolved 
to the next heir of the protestant religion ; 
and whatever acts of sovereign power the 
said duke shall exercise, shall be judged 
high treason, and jjunished accordingly. 

' And forasmuch as the safety of the 
kingdom depends upon the execution of 
this law, be it further enacted, that if any 
person shall aid, counsel, or correspond with, 
or contrive his return to any of the king's 
dominions, or declare him to be lawful heir, 
or, after the king's death, publish or declare 
the duke to be king of England or Ireland, 
or to have right thereunto by word, writ- 
ing or printing, shall be guilty of high trea- 
son. And forasmuch as the duke's returu 
into any of the king's dominions, will natur- 
ally conduce to great mischiefs upon them, 
be it enacted, that if the duke return to any 
of the said dominions, he shall be attainted 
of high treason ; and all persons are required 
to apprehend and secure his person, and in 
case of resistance, to subdue and imprison 
him by force of arms.' 

The event of this bill every body knows : 
the king resolved to venture all before he 
would permit it to go through. To sup- 
port the bill, without doors were handed 
about, ' Reasons against a Popish Successor,' 
a paper not long, and much liked, and 
which deserves our consideration still, and 
it follows.* 



• Reasons against a Popish Succession. 
It is conceived, and that very candidly, with- 



30 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK II!, 



IC79. 



But 1 leave the English affairs to ] by a trick got in major Johnston, one of the 



their own historians, and return to 
what passed among ourselves. Sometime in 
the beginning of this month, a few persons 



out prejudice to others' judgments, or troubling 
ourselves with that so often baffled a cause, 
called popery, that a papist, or one popishly af- 
fected ought not to inherit, or succeed in the 
management of the crown. 

lit-dson I. In strictness of law, because one so 
qualified hath wilfully disabled or rendered him- 
self incapable of that benefit, wliich the common 
law (after the usual course of descent) doth posi- 
tively require ; for it is presumable, that he who 
succeeds in the office of the crown, should be 
legally adopted to execute so great a trust ; and, 
therefore, if 7ni7ius idoneus, be not sufficiently 
ballasted with the notion and intrigues of state, 
others are to govern in aid of him, as in case of 
idiotry, lunacy, or the like, and the parliament 
is bound (as intrusted to redress grievances, and 
secure the nation) to place it where religion and 
property shall be adjudged most safe. There 
are several precedents of this nature. — \vio. Ed- 
gar Atheling (as stories agree) was the un- 
doubted heir, yet William the Norman, com- 
monly called the Conqueror, ■was called in to 
oppose Harold, and invested with the crown, 
and Atheling for ever an exile, and disinherited. 
— 2do. After him succeeded his second son Wil- 
liam Rufus, and not Robert the eldest. — 
Btio. King John not otdy laid aside after, Plan- 
tagcnet his eldest brother's son, but likewise put 
him to death. — Ho. In Sicily, there was lately 
a great contest between the two sons of Charles 
II. Mortelus and Robert, and I find the crown 
awarded to Robert the younger, as inagis dignus 
ad regnandum. — bto. Alexander was demanded, 
to whom he would bequeath his sceptre; he 
said, the worthiest, and to him whose sword had 
the sharpest point, meaning, whose virtue was 
most luculent, and of the brightest iutegi'ity, 
after the disposition of Jacob passing by Man- 
asses, and conferring the blessing upon Ephraim 
the younger, as more deserving and acceptable 
to God. — 6to. The state of France rejected the 
king of Navarre, and appointed another to reign 
over them, because of his religion, and when 
afterward the said king of Navarre came to be 
Henry IV. of France, it was by his forsaking 
God, and complying with the church of Rome, 
by means of whicli he thought to settle the 
crown upon his head ; but was so much mis- 
taken therein, that he thereby left both crown 
and life together. 

Jieason II. Can it be thought, but he that 
succeeds in the crown, should not succeed con- 
currentibux his qui in jure reqvirunt, as the civil 
law expresses it, that is, in all the concernments 
thereof, which are the laws, principally those 
that relate to religion, and not for one man, led 
away with a blind perverseness, renouncing the 
religion, he knows not why (and so wilfully 
attainting himself) to inthral the nation in 
superstition and tyranny, for regularly, in all 
parts where popish lords are in the church, there 
tyranny (of course) rages in the state. 

Reason III. It is a maxim amongst lawyers, 
that lex facit regent, and maxims must not be 
denied. If so then, to speak out after the true 
intendment of law, he that comes not to the 



captains of the train hands of Edinburgh, a 
most violent persecutor, to a house under 
pretext of a conventicle, and threatened 



crown satialim,as the laws notify and prescribe, 
it is no lawful succession, but downright usur- 
pation : and, without scruple, it is the endeavour 
of every good Christian, to withstand an usur- 
per, it being undoubtedly more pleasing to God, 
to put one man by, who thus wilfully disables 
himself, and withal most shamefully usurps, 
than expose millions of souls to damnation, and- 
the streets to flow with blood, by suffering that 
religion to creep in, whose reformation (at the 
mildest rate) will certainly prove fire and faggot. 
For this very cause, Maachah was removed irom 
being queen by her son king Asa, for making an 
idol in a grove, incited thei'eunto by the prophet 
AzarJah. 

Mcasou IV. The succession of the crown, and 
a common descent much dift'er; for if an heir 
that is a subject, prove loose and debauched, it 
little damnifies the public; more deserving per- 
sons may happily perchance step into his house, 
and be more serviceable to the public, the dam- 
age is still but private to his own family; but 
in case of the crown, there is none so senseless 
but inust needs conceive the damage most fatal, 
because universal. The whole nation must in- 
evitably suffer, religion be subverted, and pro- 
perty be destroyed, and the whole people in 
danger of their lives. It is well known in a 
private case, the heir is usually thrown oif and 
disinherited ; if an entail, it may be destroyed : 
and if law justifies it, the like in the public ; and 
therefore the grand inquisitor of state, and con- 
servator of the liberties of England, the parlia- 
ment, may, for weighty causes, refuse the heir 
presumptive, and, for the safety of the nation, 
settle it, where they in honour and prudence 
shall conceive most proper. 

Reason V. We read in scripture (which is the 
golden rule that we must walk by) that I^ibnah 
I'evolted from Jehoram, because he had forsaken 
the God of his fathers ; so we had better for- 
sake man and adhere to God, in keeping our 
religion, than trust to man and lose God, to be 
unavoidably destroyed here and hereafter, irre- 
coverably damned in serving Baal, and parting 
with the divinity now established. 

lieason VI. When Rehoboam had prepared a 
great army to reduce the Israelites, he was lbr~ 
bidden by the prophet. " Thus saith the Lord, 
ye shall not go up, nor fight against your breth- 
ren, for this thing is from me." Mark, he calls 
them brethren, not rebels. Passive obedience 
therefore is simple, and fit for such that know 
no better : now ' God has discovered the snare 
and the pit of ruin, that the pope and the devil 
has prepared for us; if we do not timely coun- 
termine it by cautionary laws, to suppress those 
that digged it, we may in a short space be thrown 
into it lieadlong, and none pity us. But the 
right line, with some shallow-pated talkers, is a 
iwU vie fangere, so sacred (forsooth) that we 
must rather venture body and soul, in subject- 
ing ourselves to all the curses imaginable, that 
hell itself can inflict upon us, than in the least 
alter or control it; a vain frivolous caveat, and 
not to be heeded bj' us; for human examples (as 
I showed before) have been noted against it. 



BOOK III] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



31 



and soundly beat him. This taking air, 
the council v.ere extremely hot upon the 
discovery of it, and issue out a severe pro- 
clamation, March 1 2th, \vhich I have inserted 
below.* Every body who hath any humani- 
ty, much more such as have any sense of 
religion, will abhor the murdering- tenets 
spoken of iu the narrative. Who they were 
who overtui'ued the principles of all society, 
and printed Jesuitical and murdering tenets 
at this time, I know not. After all the enquiry 



and the Scripture warrants it. Samuel foretold 
in the case of Saul, that he would be rejected for 
his disobedience, though not his person degraded 
or deposed, yet that the kingdom should be re- 
moved both from his line and tribe, ■which was 
done accordingly, and transferred on David. 
This proves very fully, that the heirs or next in 
succession are not so immoveably placed, but 
tliat they may lawfully, and on just causes, be 
displaced, if not legally qualified, and others put 
up for God's glory in their rooms. God raised 
Jehu, to purge idolatry, against the house of 
Ahab. All the sons of Aliab were beheaded, 
and in a manner his whole line cut off. For his 
good service he had a promise of a special bless- 
ing for his issue, to continue the throne to the 
fourth generation. Several other instances I 
could give, hut this may suffice. In brief, there 
is no reformed church from the first Waldenses 
of Lyons and Languedoc, to this very day, but 
have held it lawful. 

MeasoJi VII. It is conceived by half-witted 
statesmen, that restrictive laws may prevent all 
mischiefs, and secure the protestants, a very 
vain opinion, and most fallacious ; for laws w^ill 
never bind, but more enrage : shackle him as 
you will, and load him with never so many 
laws, when king, he and his party will be rest- 
less till they have set themselves at liberty, to 
have the protestants under ; for when king, he 
is not impeachable, and the pastes regni will be 
at his disposal. When the wolf is shepherd the 
flock is very safe indeed, and like to be well 
looked after, all may devour that will ; for if his 
party commit such outrages, that no age can 
parallel, what will they do then ? Now no man 
is safe in his bed, then none safe at all, they will 
adventure to murder people in their very houses, 
for they hold it no more sin than to kill a dog. 
'' ReasonWil. In fine, be sure he and his party 
(which will increase daily, and the protestants 
decline) ^vill soon get an opportunity either by 
stratagem, or open force, to avoid all laws, 
though they are never so strong and wary, and 
therefore it will be impossible to be safe without 
a protestant successor. 

* Proclamation, March 12lh, about major 
Jo/ntston. 
Charles, by the grace of God, king of great 
Britain, France and Ireland, defender of the 
faith; to our lovits, 

inacers, or messengers at arms, our sheriffs in 
that part conjunctly and severally, specially con- 
stitute, greeting. Forasmuch as, notwithstand- 
ing of our tenderness and clemencj' to all our 
subjects, which hath extended even to those who 
have not cared to conform themselves to our 



I can make, I can find none of the 



1679. 



suffering presbyterians guilty of any 
thing of this nature. The things alleged 
pointing this way some years after this, shall 
be candidly considered, and I must, till I see 
the matter vouched, reckon this a piece of 
necessary style, upon the false information 
the council had got ; since I find by several 
accounts of this matter at this time, that 
no assassination or murder of the major 
was ever once thought of; and if it had, it 



laws ; yet severals pretending to be of the pro- 
testant profession, have not only disgraced, and 
endeavoured to ruin the true reformed religion, 
established in this our kingdom, and overturned 
the principles of all society and government by 
a bloody and distracted false zeal, which hath 
prompted them to open rebellion, to the printing 
of Jesuitical murdering tenets, and the deforcing 
atul invading such as ai"e clotbed with our au- 
thority; but also have proceeded to such extra- 
vagant and inhumane practices, as tend to the 
destruction of mankind itself. Amongst many 
instances whereof, some villanous murderers 
did lately lay a design to kill and assassinate the 
town major of Edinburgh, for whom they hav- 
ing sent, upon pretext to dissipate a conventicle, 
they did discharge many shots at him and other 
soldiers who assisted him, and thereafter wound- 
ed him and them mortally in several places of 
their bodies, threatening to kill him if he would 
not swear never to put our laws in execution. 
Which affront being done publicly to our autho- 
rity, in the capital city of our kingdom, the very 
day of the meeting of our council, and being a 
practice laid down to terrify all such as serve 
us, and to involve all in a confusion, which they 
most earnestly wish : therefore we, with advice 
of our privy council, do hereby invite all such 
as can make any discovery of that designed hor- 
rid villany and assassination, and assure all such 
as can make tmy discovery, even such as have 
had accession thereto, of our full indemnity, and 
of the sum of one thousand merks, to him who 
shall be the discoverer of any in accession there- 
to, so as they maybe apprehended, but especially 
of Mr John Kay, son to the deceased Mr Adam 
Kay, late minister at Borg, (who is proved to 
have been the ringleader of these miscreants, 
and who was formerly apprehended in the like 
fanatic tumult, and outrageously cried to stab 
the town major) as also Turubull, tenant 

to Broomhall, and Turnbulis his two 

sons, Michael Cameron son to Allan Cameron, 
and Crawford sister to captain James 

Cra'tvford, who lodged these assassinates, and is 
tied with them. Our will is herefore, and we 
charge you straitly, that, incontinent thir our 
letters seen, ye pass to the mercat-cross of Edin- 
burgh, and other places needful, and thereat, in 
our name and authority, make publication of 
the premisses : and ordain these presents to be 
printed. Given under our signet at Edinburgh, 
the twelfth day of March, 1679, and of oiu* reign 
the thirtieth-one year. 

Per actum Domlnorum Secreti Concilii. 

Tho. Hay, CI. 
GOD SAVE THE KING. 



32 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



<-a 'iiig'^it have been easily accomplished : 
but no such thing was in design. So 
that what follows of an attempt of killing the 
major, and mortally wounding some of the 
soldiers, must be looked on as the aggravated 
information of the party. And if any such 
villanous attempt was made, I shall be the 
last man to say any thing in its alleviation. 
After all these aggravations, a thousand 
merks are promised to the discoverers, as 
in the proclamation. Had the information 
given to the council been true, there had 
not been wanting ground for this severe 
l>roclamation. By a letter of theirs to the 
duke of Lauderdale, March 1 1th, I find the 
story told them was ; " that eighteen or 
twenty armed men, prompted by the bloody 
principles of their traiterous books, did send 
for the major to the house of one Mrs 
Crawford, a known and most irregular fa- 
natic, and at his entry discharged several 
shots at him, and those he had with him ; 
after A\hich, with dra^A-n swords, they beat, 
bruised, and threatened to kill him, if he 
would not swear never to dissipate conven- 
ticles ; which he having refused according 
to his duty, they mortally wounded him, 
and some that were with him." This, no 
doubt, Avas represented ; but it is odd how 
it could be believed by the council. He was 
frighted and beat, but for mortal wounds, it 
is a mere aggravation. We have already 
met with a story of this nature trumped up 
by Carstairs, though with less ground than 
was here ; and we shall soon find the major 
well again, and as violent as ever. I am 
well assured this business stood thus. Two 
or three persons whom the major had been 
hard upon, got some body or other to give 
him a hint of a conventicle in a house 
where they were : he took it, and straight 
went there ; and when he came in, he was 
indeed frightened and beat, and threatened 
till he promised never more to be so vio- 
lent against conventicles ; and it Avas mere- 
ly a piece of private revenge for personal 
injuries. 

However, the jest and aflfiront put upon 
the major was carried a terrible length by 
the council ; and to show that every thing 
was made a handle of against the suffering 
ministers, I have annexed an act of council 
made this day, where they order lists of 



all lodgers in Edinburgh to be given up 
every night to the magistrates, and most 
unmercifully vent their spite against the 
wives and families of all outed ministers, 
and oi'der them to be turned out of town 
against the 21st of March, under the pain 
of an hundred pounds sterling.* One may 
justly ask, what had they done ? and Avas 
this justice or reason, because the major had 
been drubbed by some, at Avhose hands, it 
may be, he deserved this, that the innocent 
wives and families of presbyterian ministers, 
who knew nothing of the matter, should 
be sent a wandering and begging ? I find 
this act was likcAvise extended to Glasgow* 
and the magistrates there received the 
same orders, Avhich put many religious 
harmless families to sore straits, many of 
them not knowing whither to flee. 

That same day the council pass a very 
severe act against such as are denounced 
for their noncompearance, in processes for 
conventicles and nonconformity. " The 

* Act of council, March 12th, 1679. 

The lords of his majesty's privy council have 
thought fit, upon several weighty considerations, 
hereby to require and command the magistrates 
of Edinburgh, presently to take up a list of the 
men and Avomen betwixt sixty and sixteen, and 
to deliver the same in to the council, or their 
committee (which lists they are to take up by 
constables, or such other persons as they shall 
think fit to employ. ) And furtlier, the bailies 
of the said burgh are hereby strictly and peremp- 
torily required and commanded to cause tlieir 
constables, or any other for whom they ■«'ill be 
answerable, to take up lists of the names and 
designations of the haill persons, that .are, or 
shall be lodged in the city of Edinburgh, each 
night : and that the said constables, or others 
employed, deliver the same each night to the 
bailie of the respective quarters of the town, and 
the bailie to deliver them to the captain of the 
guard before ten a clock at niglit, who is to de- 
liver them nightly to the major-general, or com- 
mandingofficer, in his absence, under the penalty 
of an hundred merks for each person's name 
Avho shall not be delivered up, to be paid by the 
bailie of the quarter, reserving the bailie his re- 
lief off the constables, and the constables off the 
landlords, and others concerned. And further, 
the said lords do hereby require and command 
the magistrates of the said burgh of Edinburgh, 
to turn out the wives and families of all outed 
ministers, fugitive and vagrant preachers, and 
intercommuned persons, forth of the city of 
Edinburgh, and suburbs thereof, betwixt the 
21 St of jViarch instant next ensuing, under the 
penalty of an hundred pounds sterling, for each 
family of such person or persons, as shall be 
found Avithin the tOAvn or suburbs thereof, after 
the said day. Extracted by me , 

Tho. Hat. 



CHAP. 1.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



33 



lords of his majesty's privy council consider- 
ing that the late schismatic disorders have 
(upon frequent citations before the council 
on pain of rebellion) increased scandalously 
the number of rebels, and the offenders ex- 
pect impunity by being denounced rebels, 
knowing too AveU, that they cannot be 
othermse punished than by declarators 
upon rebellion, whereas the smalluess of 
their estates will not bear the Charge, nor 
will the natiu-e of the process allow so long 
delay, have therefore thought fit to order 
his majesty's advocate to add to the ordi- 
nary certification of rebellion, that the per- 
sons to be cited personally shall be holden 
as confest, and fined in the respective sums 
appointed by act of parliament in case of 
noncompearance, and that the council may 
make choice of either of the certifications, 
for the peace of the counti-y and his majes- 
ty's service, as they shall think fit, where 
the defenders are personally cited." The 
hardships of this act I leave to the gentle- 
men of the law : it seems beyond the coun- 



ministers and such who waited upon 
them, resolved to keep as close to- 
gether as might be. They had found that by 
preaching in separate places, and scattering 
themselves, they were very much weakened, 
and the soldiers got advantage this way a- 
gainst them, and sometimes the ministers 
were in hazard to be seized, and several of the 
hearers were taken. Therefore they deter- 
mined to naiTow themselves into one meet- 
ing in such places which stood most in need 
of the gospel, and where they might gather 
and preach in the greatest safety. Thus 
they continued for twenty Sabbaths with- 
out intermission, from December to May. 
I do not doubt but this course they took 
tended to heighten the separation ; and 
when they were alone without conversing 
^\'ith others, and preaching with persons 
more moderate, severals who joined with 
them did heighten the breach, and screw up 
matters the length they came to. Mean- 
while, Mr Welsh and others of his temper 
preached in other places, with whom there 



cil's power to introduce a new manner of j were not many in arms, and endeavoiu'ed 
citation, especially when so captious as \ to calm matters as much as might be. 
this is. I Upon the 30th of March there was a ser- 

Little more offers tiU the beginning of I mon and large meeting at Cumberhead, in 
May, unless it be some things with relation the parish of Lesmahago, not far from Lan- 
to field conventicles in April this year, and ark. The soldiers hearing of it, sent a good 
the barbarous murder committed upon the ' body of men to dissipate them : the party 



twentieth of that month near Loudonliill. 
Fi'om the parcelling of the soldiers up and 
down, and their numbers and activity, the 
keepers of conventicles were obliged a little 
to alter their method. Towards the end of 
the last year, some ministers began to with- 
draw from preaching with their brethren, 
with whom they used to preach in the fields 
formerly, who were not now for entering 
either upon the indulgence or cess in theii" 
sermons to vulgar auditories, and drew up 
with the young preachers I have formerly 
spoken of, and continued to preach together 
with them pretty much on these points this 
M'inter and spring. Some papers before me, 
writ by some of that side, say, that field 
meetings in the beginning of this year were 
more numerous than formerly, and many 
were obliged to come with arms to defend 
themselves, because they were frequently 
attacked by the soldiers and garrisons ; and 
for their safety as well as harmony, the 
III. 



understanding the numbers of the meeting, 
and how well many of them were armed, 
did not find it convenient to attack them ; 
but kept at some distance, and satisfied 
themselves with rifling some ^vomen, Avho 
were going to the meeting, of their plaids, 
bibles, and the like, and seizing some men. 
This coming to the knowledge of the meet- 
ing, a good number was sent off in arms to 
require the prisoners, and the women's 
plaids, &c. The commander of the soldiers 
refused both, and a scuffle ensued, wherein 
the ofiicer was wounded, and some of the 
soldiers taken prisoners; but they were 
soon dismissed. When the account of this 
came to Glasgow, my lord Ross and the 
soldiers there marched up towards Lanark, 
and the country thereabouts was sore har- 
assed for some weeks. 

The accounts of this scuffle came in to 
the council, April 3rd, very much aggra- 
vated : " and they order the commissioners 

E 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



for assessment in the shire of Lanark, 
to meet and provide hay, stra\r, and 
corn for tlie forces to be sent there against 
some rebels who have lately a^ipearedinarms 
about Lesmahag'o, where it seems the scuf- 
fle was ; and if it be not timeously provid- 
ed, the major-general is allowed to give 
orders to take it where it may be had, upon 
paying the established prices." And next 
day they a])poiut the earls of Marr, Glen- 
cairn, Liulithgovv, lord Ross, the advocate, 
and several others as a council committee, 
with a justiciary power to sit at Lanark, 
and examine this matter. Their commis- 
sion I have annexed.* Accordingly they 



* Commission to committee at Lanark, 
Edinburgh, ylpril 4/ A, 1679. 
Chavles, by the grace of God, king of great 
Britain, France and Ireland, defender of the 
faith ; to all and sundry our lieges and subjects 
whom it effeirs, greeting. F'orasmuch as, we, 
with advice of our privy council, have, in prose- 
cution of our laws and acts of parliament made 
against field conventicles, these rendevouzes of 
reliellion, issued forth several acts and orders to 
our sheriffs, and other magistrates, and the offi- 
cers of our standing forces, and particulaily for 
dissipating any numbers of people convened at 
these field conventicles ; and in case of resis- 
tance, to pursue them by force of arms. And 
whereas, upon the thirtieth day of March last, 
some of our forces quartered in the shire of Lan- 
ark, being informed of a numerous field conven- 
ticle kept at Cumberhead in the parish of Les- 
jnahago, and a party of them having gone to the 
place, and required them in our name to dissi- 
pate that uulaAvful meeting, the said persons 
being formed in companies and troops, and 
armed in a warlike manner, did not only most 
villanously and traiterously refuse to dissolve, 
and express themselves most treasonably against 
us and our authority ; but invaded and assault- 
ed the said party, fired upon them, and wounded 
and took several of them prisoners, which they 
kept and detained during their pleasure; and 
we being fully resolved, that the persons guilty 
of such a treasonable attempt and rebellion, shall 
be proceeded against with all severity according 
to our laws, as also, w\i\\ all those that have 
been aiding, abetting, or assisting to that trea- 
sonable attempt, and that a search shall be made 
after, and tri;il taken thereanent, in the best 
and expedite nianner and method ; and consid- 
ering, that the same may be done most conveni- 
ently upon the places, and that the extraordi- 
nariuess of the exigent, and our most special 
concern therein does require that the same be 
gone about with all the I'espect and observation 
necessary : we therefore, with advice of the lords 
of our privy council, do hereby nominate and 
appoint our right trusty and well beloved cousins 
and counsellors, Charles earl of Marr, earl 

of Glencairn, George earl of l^inlithgow our 
major-general and commander in chief of our 
forces, George lord Ross, Charles Maitland of 
IlaltoD our treasurer -depute, Sir George Mac- 



met April 25th, and made a most diligent 
enquiry, and were not unwilling to have 
foimd some of the country people guilty ; 
but nothing fiu'ther than what is above 
coidd be found. This matter will appear 
best from their own report which they 



kenzie of Rosehaugh our advocate, and Richard 
Maitland of Duddop, to be our commissioners 
to the effect underwritten, with power to them, 
or any three of them, to meet at the burgh of 
Lanark, the twenty-third day of April instant, 
for the first diet, and thereafter to appoint their 
ow^n diets, and places of meeting, with power 
to choose all members of court needful, issue 
forth letters or precepts, for citing of parties or 
■witnesses before them ; and particularly to call 
before them the sheriff-deputes of the shire of 
Lanark (whom our council has formerly in- 
structed to examine all persons dwelling or re- 
siding within the parishes of new and old Monk- 
lands, town and parish of Lesmahago, town and 
parish of Lanark, the parishes of Carmichael, 
Fittlnan, Carluke, Dalserf and Douglas, and 
adjacent parishes, anent their guilt of, or acces- 
sion to a late treasonable attempt and combina- 
tion, and upon the other points contained in 
their instructions) to give an account to them 
of their diligence, and the depositions of the 
persons compeai'ing, and the lists of the absents, 
with power to our said commissioners, there- 
upon to cite before them any heritors or com- 
mons they shall think fit, either for their own 
guilt, or heritors to exhibit their tenants living 
upon their ground, who appear not, and to be 
answerable for them, and to proceed against 
them both, or either of them, either by fining, 
confining or imprisonment, conform to the laws 
and acts of parliament of this kingdom, and par- 
ticularly the 6th act, parliament 3rd, king James 
V. and 144th act, parliament 12th, James VI. 
As also, with full power to them to call before 
them the sheriffs principal, other magistrates, 
or their deputes within the said shire, or other 
shires adjacent, who are to receive and obey such 
orders as our said commissioners shall think fit 
to direct : and siklike, to call to their assistance, 
such of the standing forces or militia, as they 
shall think fit, and to give such orders to our 
major-general, as they shall judge necessary for 
our service, and to do every other thing requi- 
site for prosecuting of this our commission, as 
if our council, or a quorum of them, w^ere pi'e- 
sent, and might do themselves ; promitten. io 
hold firm and stable, &c. And since w^e are 
resolved to punish this attempt in a most exem- 
plary manner, we have thought fit, w^ith advice 
foresaid, hereby to make and constitute the said 
earls of Marr, Glencairn, Linlithgow, the lord 
Ross, treasurer-depute, and Richard Maitland, 
our commissioners of justiciary, to the effect 
following, with power to them, or any three of 
them, to meet at Lanark, or any other place 
they shall think fit, and to affix and hold justice 
courts, issue forth precepts for citing assizes and 
witnesses, and to call and convene before them 
any persons guilty of, or accessary to the said 
treasonable attempt and combination, guilty of 
rising in arms, or contributing of money to 
maintain men as soldiers, in opposition to our 



CHAP. I.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



35 



make to the council April last, which I | Ne^^Ttiilns, which I now come to g-ive ^^^^ 
have insert* ' some narrative of, as what made a 

The reader will observe that they take great noise at this time. And I shall g-ive a 
notice of the mui-der of two soldiers near , candid and fair account of it from letters writ 



authority, and to put them to the trial and know- 
ledge of an assize, and, according as they shall 
be found innocent or guilty, that they cause jus- 
tice be done upon them conform to the laws of 
our kingdom; with power to them to create 
clerks, and other members of court needful, and 
to do every other thing in the premisses, as if a 
quorum of our commissioners of the justiciary, 
who ordinarily meet at Edinburgh, were per- 
sonally present ; and ordain our said commis- 
sioners to report an account of their diligence 
and procedure in the premisses, to our council, 
betwixt and the first day of June next, or sooner, 
if they find cause, for their approbation. 

Given under our signet, at Edinbiu'gh the 
fourth day of April 1(379, and of our reign the 
thirtieth and first year. 

• Report of the committee at Lanark, April 
ult. 1679. 

The report underwritten, of the commission- 
ers of council met at Lanark, by virtue of the 
commission dated the fourth day of April in- 
stant, being read in council, was approven, and 
ai)pointed to be recorded, whereof the tenor 
follows. 

Lanark, 2bth April, 1679. 

Your lordships of the council, having, for fa- 
cilitating that business, appointed Mr William 
Cochran, and INlr William Nimmo, two sheriff- 
deputes of the sheriffdom of Lanark, to cause 
cite the haill tenants in the said parish of Les- 
mahago before them, as also in these adjacent 
parishes, viz. the old and new IMonklands, town 
and parish of Lanark, parishes of Carmichael, 
Pittinan, Carluke, Dalserf and Douglas, and to 
examine them upon their guilt and accession to 
the said violence, and to have their report in 
readiness, to be considered by us at our first 
meeting. Several days before our meeting, we 
caused issue forth summons under the council's 
signet against the whole heritors w^ithin these 
parishes, to appear before us upon the 23d, 24th, 
and 26th instant. At our first meeting, we 
called before us the said sheriff-deputes, for an 
account of their procedure and diligence, who, 
by their report subscribed with their hands, gave 
us an account, that they had caused cite the haill 
tenants of these parishes to appear before them at 
Hamilton and Lanark, upon the 16th and ISth 
days of this instant, whereby we find that very 
few appeared, and these who have appeared, 
have freed themselves by their oath, so that 
thereby no discovery did arise, but do find, that 
the said sheriff-deputes have done all that was 
possible for them in so short a time. We are 
informed that the feuarsof the parish of Strath- 
avcn, wlio belonged to the duke of Hamilton, 
were persons most guilty, who were not insert 
in the first letters, but there being a great multi- 
tude of them, it was not possible, in so short a 
time, to cite them before us, and proceed against 
them in the commission ; and therefore did remit 
it to the sheriff-deputes to proceed against them. 
In the tolbooth of Lanark, these following per- 
sons being prisoners, viz. William Weir servant 



to the goodwife of Bowhouses, James Bailie of 
Glentewin, Joseph Thomson chapman, Chris- 
topher Dick weaver, and tenant to Corhouse, 
William Cassils in Douglas, John Park in 
Lanark, Francis Hastie there, William Lind- 
say in Pittinan, John Williamson in Lesmahago, 
W'illiam Inglis in Douglas, and Robert Graham 
there, which Robert was apprehended at a con- 
venticle in women's clothes; and we being in- 
formed, that the said William Weir was at the 
conventicle at Cumberhead, and was one of those 
that did invade and wound lieutenant Dalziel, 
we were resolved to have processed him for his 
life, and to have hanged him for a public example, 
and to have founded the dittay upon the 4th act, 
pari. 16. James VI. anent invading the king's 
officers ; upon which consideration we fenced a 
justice-court, and called him before us, and hav- 
ing examined him judicially, as also two of the 
dragoons as witnesses against him, it could not 
be made appear that he was either in arms, or 
did invade or strike the lieutenant ; but it was 
clear that he did take hold of the lieutenant's 
horse, and hindered him to get off, and gave him 
ill language, so that we could not be able to 
reach him upon the said act as to his life : where- 
fore we have thought fit to send him in prisoner, 
to be disposed upon as your lordships shall think 
fit. The said William Cassils being taken at the 
said conventicle in arms, and so falling under 
the compass of law for his life; but in regard, 
both by lieutenant Dalziel's own declaration, 
and otherwise, it was made appear to us, that he 
was the person that saved the said lieutenant's 
life, we thought it not fit to process him, but 
ordered him instantly to be dismissed, that the 
whole country might know the king and coun- 
cil's inclination for mercy and favour, to all such 
as give any countenance or assistance to author- 
ity, and assist any of his majesty's forces when 
they are in danger. The I'cst of the persons 
prisoners being mean and inconsiderable, and 
not guilty of any extraordinary thing, we did 
remit to the sheriff-deputes to proceed against, 
and fine them according to law. The said 
James Bailie having confessed himself to be at 
a field-conventicle, and to have entertained 
strangers at his house, being a private house, 
Avithout enquiring what they -^vere, in regard he 
promised to live orderly hereafter, and not to go 
to conventicles, Ave ordered him to be set at li- 
berty, upon caution to that effect, under the 
pain of five hundred merks toties quolies. 

The heritors in the several parishes, being 
called upon the 23d, 24th, and 25th of April in- 
stant, tlie far greater part of them were absent, 
against whom the certification of the letter was 
granted, ordaining them to be denounced for 
their contempt, conform to the rolls and execu- 
tions : and as to these who did appear, his ma- 
jesty's advocate declared, that he restricted the 
"libel to that part thereof, that they themselves 
were guilty, accessory, art and part in the vio- 
lence committed upon his majesty's forces, and 
instead of all fui-ther probation, referred the 
verity thereof to their oaths ; who being all of 
them solemnly sworn thereupon, did clearly pui'ge 



36 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



ic-n l*y good hands, the rather that this 
was the only thing- which couUl give 
any colour for charging those who did not 
conform ^vith murdei'S and assassination: it 
^vas carefully iraproven, and maliciously 
magnified, and laid upon presbyterians most 
groundlessly. All sober persons abominate 
the feet ; and as, I must own, it is uncertain 
who were the actors, so after my utmost en- 
quiry into it, to me it seems to land upon a 
tool and a spy sent in among some who haunt- 
ed field-meetings. This matter stood thus : 
three foot soldiers of Captain Maitland's com- 
pany had been sent to quarter upon a coun- 
tryman near Loudonhill, because he had not 
paid the cess : they continued there near ten 
days ; the man in the house being sick, they 
were not altogether so outrageous as many 
of their gang at this time used to be. The 
wife, or woman servant had during that 
time threatened them, that if they left not 
the house they might come to repent it; 
but they were not much careful about that. 



themselves by their oaths ; and it being intimate 
to them, that by the law, and particularly the 
6th act, Pari. 3. James VI. in case of their ten- 
ants guilty, they are obliged to exhibit them to 
justice, or to be liable for their fine, or to put 
them off their grounil, and in case they returned, 
to apprehend and present them ; they all of 
them acknowledged the same, and undertook so 
to do. In regard that the lord Carmichael wlio 
appeared, who is a person of great interest in the 
shire, he was required and ordered apud acta, to 
attend yom- lordships upon Wednesday next, to 
receive your commands, and to be heard upon 
any proposal he could offer for settling the peace 
of the country; upon that same consideration, 
we did write a letter to the duke of Hamilton 
requiring him to attend your lordships the said 
day. 

Having received frequent informations from 
divers places, of murdering some, wounding and 
I'obbing of others of his majesty's forces that 
were sent to bring in his majesty's cess and ex- 
cise, and particularly in the parishes of Monk- 
land and Strathaven in Lanarkshire, where the 
soldiers were robbed and beaten, their arms 
taken from tliem, and kept prisoners, as appears 
by their depositions herewith pi'oduced, and in 
the parish of Newmilns in the shire of Ayr, two 
of tliG soldiers killed, and others wounded, as 
appears by letters from the commanding officers 
there, and of a tumult and insurrection made 
within the town of Renfrew, upon the sherilf- 
depute's taking of one Walter Scot, a late ma- 
gistrate, a noted ringleader of conventicles, and 
of such like disorders, and of the beating and 
wounding of the laird of Beltrees sheriff-depute, 
to the hazard of his life, and deforcing them, and 
rescuing the prisoner, as appears by the deposi- 
tions of the other sheriff-depute, and two other 
persons. For further discovery of that murder 



and answered, they came by orders, and 
behoved either to have their errand, or or- 
ders to go away. One of the three went 
down to NewTnilns upon Saturday, and staid 
all night, whether he nas any way conscious 
to the design, or only affrighted by the 
warning, was not known. But upon Sab- 
bath morning, April 20th, five horsemen, 
and about as many foot, came about t^vo of 
the clock in the morning, and rudely 
knocked at the barn-door where the re- 
maining two soldiers were lying. They 
taking it to be their comrade come from 
Newmilns, one of them rose in his shirt, and 
opened the door : he was saluted with re- 
proachful ^vords, " Come out you damned 
rogues," and vias shot through the body, 
and fell down dead without speaking one 
word. The other got up upon this, to put 
to the door, and received a shot in the 
thigh from the same hand. The assassin 
alighted from his horse, and came in upon 
the soldier, who grappled a little with him. 



of the soldiers at Newmilns, we thought fit to 
require the earl of Loudon, who has the most 
considerable interest in that place, and on whose 
ground it was done, by a letter, to attend your 
lordships upon Wednesday next, to give a full 
representation and discoverj' of that matter upon 
his allegiance. 

By full and frequent informations we find, 
that in tlie shire of Lanark, and other shires ad- 
jacent, those rebels vi^ho keep field-conventicles, 
have formed a design of keeping strong and 
armed conventicles in many distant places, of 
design to necessitate your lordships to keep his 
majesty's forces togetlier in considerable imm- 
bers, that so they may, in all other places de- 
bauch the people at their pleasure in the rest of 
the kingdom ; and are resolved to hinder the in- 
bringing of his majesty's cess, in the accustomed 
manner by parties, thinking that your lordships 
cannot conveniently quarter great parties upon 
deficients, and if small ones be employed, to 
murder them, as they have actually done, in- 
tending thereby to obstruct the payment of liis 
majesty's forces, whereby we conceiving that 
these rebellious courses are now come to tliat 
height, we thought it our duty to advertise my 
lord chancellor and remanent lords of the coun- 
cil, to meet upon Wednesday next, being the 
last of April, to deliberate and consult what 
is fit to be done in this juncture, for obstructing 
the growth and increjise of these disorders, now 
come to so great a height, and for securing the 
public peace in time coming. We have thought 
it also our duty, in the mean time, by a letter to 
i the duke of Lauderdale his gi-ace, to give him a 
particular account of the dangerous state of 
affairs here, as we have now represented the 
same to your lordships, and have sent him copies 
of the depositions and other papers, for evincing 
the truth and veritv of these informations. 



CHAP. I. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



37 



till another came up and knocked him down. 
He was perfectly dammished (stunned) with 
the sti'oke ; and when he recovered his 
senses, he thought it convenient to lie still 
in the place as dead. The miu'derers came 
into the barn, and took away the soldier's 
arms and clothes, and in a little went off. 
Tliis soldier lived till the Friday or Satiu-- 
day after, and then died of his wounds. 
The people of the house said, they knew 
nothing- of the matter : all the account that 
could be had was from this second soldier 
before his death, and he declared what is 
above, and added, that, to the best of his 
knowledge, the person Avho shot was one 
John Scarlet ; the rest he did not know, 
there being- but little light, and he in a 
confusion. This Scarlet was a notorious 
rogue, a tinker by trade, and had six or 
seven women whom he termed his wives, 
who AA'ent about the country with him. 
Two or three years before this, he had been 
taken, and gifted to be a new levy to some 
French captain, and procured a mutiny in 
the ship, and got off. After this he was iu 
the army, and several accounts bear, that 
he was in that pai-ty before spoke of, com- 
manded by captain Carstairs, when Garret 
was wounded. Last harvest he Avas in 
Home's troop, and was cashiered for some 
misdemeanor, or, as some at that time 
thought, dismissed upon some design : for 
a mouth before this, he had been in the 
shire of Ayr, and was lately in Kilmaurs, 
in a change-house, a night or two, with 
three of his wives. And, that I may give 
all I know of this villain, it seems he was 
after this taken, or offered himself as an 
evidence ; for by the justiciary records I 
find, May 12th, this year, 'John Scarlet, 
tinker, being examined by the lords of 
justiciary, declares, that, in summer 1G74, 
the declarant did take on to serve with Mr 
Jolvn Welsh, and was to have twelve pounds 
in the half-year, and clothes ; that he had 
a horse fiom him, with a sword and pis- 
tols, upon which he rode ; and that he was 
but with him a fortnight, and there were in 
company one Bell, and Sutherland, and 
some others, who still had s^vords and pis- 
tols. Declares he cannot wTitc' Signed, 
G. Mackenzie, Tho. Wallace, James Fowlis, 
David Balfour, Roger Hog. There is no 



more about him in the registers : only 
I find, in one of the prints anent the 
bishop of St Andrew's death, that iu June he 
was arraigned for his treasonable crime of as- 
sisting- and guarding a declared traitor : but 
as the justiciary made nothing of his being 
fourteen days or thereby riding with Mr 
Welsh, who probably, seeing his looseness, 
dismissed him ; so this is a very slender 
gi'ound to make him of Mr Welsh's guard, 
and far less will it be a proof that after- 
wards he might not serve under Carstairs, 
or at this time that he might not be made 
use of for a tool. I have ground to think, 
that the managers were not ignorant of 
what the soldier had declared about him, 
since the gentlemen of the shire of Ayr, as 
we shall hear, sent in my lord Cochran and 
others to Edinburgh upon this incident ; 
and the letter from \a hich the above account 
is given, was writ by a very M'orthy person 
in my lord's family, and, no doubt, but the 
matter in it was communicate to the coun- 
cil : so that I cannot help jealousing, that 
this villain Scai'let, on whom no punish- 
ment was inflicted at Edinburgh, that I can 
hear of, hath been of design dismissed from 
the army, to mix himself with some others 
of another character, and put them to ex- 
tremities. Indeed I find it alleged, that, at 
this time, this rascal came and joined him- 
self Avith some others in arms, who were 
a kind of guard to Mr R. Cameron, who 
preached in the fields: whether it was so, 
or not, I cannot affii-m ; but this report was 
certainly the ground upon which these who 
haunted field-meetings, and particularly 
Robert Hamilton, and some others who 
rode in arms, were loaded Avith this bai'- 
barous murder. Be Avho they will who 
committed it, from this fair and just account 
I have given from letters writ at this time 
it appears to have been a villanous act, and 
that Scarlet was the actor, and that suffer- 
ing- presbyterians cannot be charged with 
it. Indeed all good men must loathe such 
a wickedness. 

This falling out in the shire of Ayr, 
where a handle had been taken from things 
less clamant than this, last year, to harass 
and depopulate that country ; and the no- 
blemen and gentlemen there detesting such 
villauies, they met at Ayr upon the 28th 



38 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III 



of April, agreed upon, and by three 
'of their number sent in the following 
letter to the council, which I am well in- 
formed, was designed both to exoner them- 
selves, and to be a preamble to an intended 
address to the king, for some relief to their 
burdens, and further liberty to presbyterians. 

' My Lords, 

' The noblemen, gentlemen, and heritors 
of the shire of Ayr, underscribing, being 
met here this day, by the knowledge and 
allowance of several of the lords of his ma- 
jesty's privy coimcil, having heard of an 
horrid murder committed upon the person 
of one of his majesty's soldiers, and the 
wounding of another, upon the borders of 
this shire, as also of some armed field meet- 
ings of some numbers of the commonalty, 
sometimes in one place, and sometimes in 
another, upon the confines of this and other 
neighbouring shires, occasioned by a few 
unsound, turbulent, and hot-headed preach- 
ers, most part whereof w ere never minis- 
ters of the church of Scotland, making it 
their work to draw people to separation 
and schism from pure ordinances, and instil 
in them the seeds of rebellion, by their in- 
formations, exhortations, and doctrine, as 
we are informed : we, in the sense of om- 
duty to authority and religion, and the 
peace and quiet of this kingdom, have 
thought it fit and incumbent upon us, in 
all humility, to signify to your lordships 
our detestation of, and dissatisfaction with 
these horrid and dangerous courses ; and 
we shall endeavoiu' not to be wanting, in 
our capacities and stations, in any thing 
that becomes good christians and loyal sub- 
jects. And that we may not be further 
troublesome, the earl of Loudon, lord Coch- 
ran, and Sir John Cochran, will give a 
fuller account of the matter of fact, which 
we humbly entreat may be communicated 
to the lords of his majesty's privy council, 
from, 

* My lords, your, &c.' 

It is very certain, that, about this time, 
matters were running to sad heights among 
the armed followers of some of the field 
meetings. Whether the information here 
as to their doctrine was true, I do not 



know ; but, as far as I can learn, there m as 
yet no disowning the king's authority, 
though it was some of these the gentlemen 
point at, who afterwards did come this 
length : and, until this spring, nothing of 
unsafe doctrine could be at all charged u2)on 
field preachers, and it was but some few 
run this way either. Indeed separation and 
schism from the indulged, was now violent- 
ly inculcate : and at one of the meetings 
this month, the letters before me bear, that 
Robert Hamilton spake publicly to the peo- 
ple, and discharged any hearers of the in- 
dulged, any banders, or payers of cess, to 
join with them, or bring any arms with 
them. One of them cried out, " We are all 
almost cess men ;" and, after some confusion 
among them, Mr Richard Cameron, who 
preached that day, settled the matter, by 
teUing Mr Hamilton, that it would be im- 
possible to purge the meeting that day : yea, 
some of them did openly threaten, they 
would insult the indulged ministers, if they 
met with them ; upon which some of these 
found it needful to retire from their houses. 
These things did miserably distract and dis- 
temper some of the common people in the 
places where they haunted most, and this 
same spirit, as we shall hear, perfectly broke 
the people who met together before Both- 
well ; aud indeed the imposition and violent 
exaction of the cess, and carriage of the 
soldiers through the winter and spring, 
mightily rankled people's spirits. However, 
there Avas no formed rising till June. 

Having thus candidly given an account 
of the state of things during the beginning 
of this year, I shall now end this section 
with some few hints from the council re- 
gisters. ' April 3rd, the council being in- 
formed, that Andrev^ Kirkaldy at the south 
ferry of Dundee, his wife, and several other 
persons about that place, are guilty of de- 
forcing a party that were appointed to trans- 
port the person of Mr Walter Denoon from 
sheriff to sherifi", till he came to the tolbooth 
of Edinburgh, the sheriff-deputes of Fife 
are ordered to call them before them.' Mr 
Denoon was a worthy presbyterian minister 
in the north, and I have no further about 
him. 

Next day a letter is read in council from 
his majesty, " thanking them for their care 



CHAP. 1.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



39 



of the peace of the Highlands, and approv- 
ing all they had done, pai'ticularlv the pru- 
dent management of the earl of Argyle, and 
allowing them to make use of the army for 
further suppressing of disorders there." 
And upon the twelfth the council grant a 
commission to the earl of Argyle for the 
fui'ther securing the Highlands. " Whereas 
upon the discovery of a horrid plot in Eng- 
land, all papists were ordered to be disarm- 
ed: but the lord Macdonald, and several 
gentlemen of the name of Maclean, have 
disobeyed several missives of the council to 
disarm themselves, and compear at Edin- 
burgh, therefore the council grant commis- 
sion to Archibald earl of Aj'gylc, to disarm 
aud reduce the said lord Macdonald, Kep- 
poch, Maclean of Torlaish, Maclean of Ard- 
go%ver, and Maclean of Brolus, or any others 
suspect of popeiy." 

Upon the 4th of April, the council aj)- 
prove the report of the committee for pub- 
lic affairs, " That Andrew Kiunier, an in- 
tercommuned person, nov/ a prisoner, be 
processed ; that the horse taken with him 
be kept by the soldier who took him ; that 
he be fined in 500 pounds, and the horse 
price allowed in the fine : that whereas Mr 
Thomas Ramsay, minister at Mordington, 
connived at in preaching there, hath per- 
mitted several vagrant preachers to preach 
in his pulpit, and that several other indulg- 
ed ministers have done the same, that the 
said Mr Ramsay, and others guilty, be pro- 
cessed for the same, and tiu'ued out ; that 
William Douglas of Mortoun be joined as 
depute in the shires of Dumfries and An- 
nandale." 

The council, April 12th, nominate a com- 
mittee to meet in time of vacance, and up- 
on emergent occasions to give orders to 
magistrates, and the officers of the army, 
and secure suspected persons. They are, 
" The archbishops of St Andrews and Glas- 
gow, the earls of Murray, Linlithgow, and 
Strathmore, the bishop of Galloway, lord 
Eiphinston, treasurer-depute, register, ad- 
vocate, lords Collinton and Maitland, the 
lairds of Lundin and Tarbet, or any three 
of them : Avith power to issue such orders 
as they think fit, for executing the laws as 
to the public peace, and particularly those 
against conventicles, and other disorders. 



with power to call before the council 
themselves, noted delinquents, se- 
ciu-e their persons, examine witnesses and 
parties upon oath, pronounce sentences and 
decreets against guilty persons, and give what 
orders they shall find needful to sheriffs, ma- 
gistrates and officers of the forces, and gene- 
rally to do every thing for the public peace ; 
v^'ith power to nominate a committee of 
themselves by turns to perfoiun what is 
committed to them, with full power to call 
the council, and to issue out orders for dis- 
covering any ponder or lead lately brought 
into the kingdom." Remarks have been 
made before upon such committees as 
this ; aud their quorum of three being ira- 
powered to subcommit such powers as they 
are vested with, is perfectly unaccoimta- 
ble. 

After the report of the abovenamed com- 
mittee at Lanark, May 1st, the council be- 
ing alarmed with the accounts brought 
them of the armed field-mceters, pass the 
folloAving act. " The lords of his majesty's 
privy council considering, that it is notour, 
that there is a party who continue in arms, 
and follow Welsh, Cameron, and some other 
of their accomplices, at their several field 
conventicles, do therefore give warrant to 
the earl of Linlithgow, major-general, and 
commander-in-chief of his majesty's forces, 
to order a commanded party of his majes- 
ty's forces, horse, foot, and dragoons, to 
prosecute and follow that party, into what- 
soraever place Welsh, Cameron, Kid, or 
Douglas keep their field-conventicles, or any 
other whom that standing- party follows ; 
Avith power to the commander of that party 
to give money for intelligence where those 
conventicles are appointed, that thereby 
they may be able to seize and apprehend 
such as shall be found at the said conventi- 
cles; and in case of resistance, to piu-sue 
them to the death ; declaring the said offi- 
cers and soldiers shall not be called in ques- 
tion therefore civilly or criminally. And 
recommend it to the earl of Linlithgow to 
muster his majesty's forces, and see they 
be full and ready for action." The execu- 
tions of these orders, as we shall hear, gave 
the beginning to the rising in June. I 
shall only further observe, April 3rd, Wil- 
liam Carmichael, sheriflf-depute of Fife, is 



40 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUIFERINGS 



[BOOK 111. 



ifi-o appointed by the council to proceed 
against persons guilty of conventicles 
and such disorders, in the parishes of Kin- 
ross, Or^^al, and Cleish. It was this violent 
man's oppressing the country thereabout, 
M'hich provoked several persons to essay to 
put a stop to his extravagancies ; and miss- 
ing him, they fell upon the archbishop of 
St Andrews. This remarkable incident is 
the subject of 



Of the violent death of the archbishop of 
St Andrews, Saturday, May .3d, 1G79. 

The violent taking away of the life of that 
bitter persecutor, Mr James Shai'p, at this 
time archbishop of St Andrews, is a subject 
not a little misrepresented by tory %\riters, 
and what was the occasion of much re- 
proach to, and persecution of presby terians ; 
I cannot therefore pass it altogether, but 
shall endeavour an impartial and just account 
of matters of fact relative to it, not with 
any design to vindicate the action, actors, or 
circumstances of it, which I freely own I 
do not approve, and, as much as any, do 
heartily abhor all assassinations, with the 
principles which lead thereunto ; but only 
to let my readers into a just view how this 
matter really stood, A^hich, as far as I have 
seen, hath not been yet done, and this is my 
work as an historian. 

This bloody and perfidious man was cut 
off, and came to this fatal exit by no pre- 
meditated and formed design ; but circum- 
stances offering an occasion, it was very 
suddenly given into : and however this pre- 
late, in the opinion of many, deserved such 
a fate as Laud the archbishop of Canter- 
bury met with at London, if justice had got 
its free course; yet as the actors had no 
power of the sword, nor were in any pub- 
lic judicative cajjacity, so M'hatever be talked 
and Avrit of former lists of persons who 
were to be killed, and inquiries the night 
before about him, yet I am well assured the 
people concerned had not the least view 
of this, or any design this way, tiU the ac- 
counts of his being near them Mere brought 
to them. And though it does not vindicate 



the fact at all, yet it deserves notice, that 
after the most diligent and exact search, and 
the most fervent endeavours to come at the 
actors, yet none mIio had any active share 
in this matter were ever apprehended. The 
four men executed on this score at Magus- 
muir, as we shall hear, were no wise con- 
cerned in this murder, and the laird of 
RathiUet was indeed taken and executed ; 
but though he was present, he peremptorily 
declined acting in the affair. Andrew 
Guillan was likewise present, but was not 
at all active. 

It is without the least shadow of reason, 
that the fact is charged upon the body of 
presbyterians, who neither knew any thing 
of the matter till it was over, nor reckoned 
themselves bound to approve of it when 
done. It is very true some of them under 
their heavy sufferings, refused to declare it 
a murder, and gave reasons for their so 
doing, which want not their o^^•^x weight ; 
and though they had less than they really 
had, in such circumstances and under such 
pressures, yet this will never, to any judi- 
cious person, fix the charge upon the gen- 
erality of suffering people and presbyterians, 
which their spiteful accusers draw from it. 
The matter is evident, multitudes of cases 
fall in, wherein persons may be very cleai' 
as to what they would do in their own 
practice, and yet not knoM'ing all circum- 
stances, they neither wiU nor can peremp- 
torily judge of the practice of others: and 
in the general it is plain, there are cases 
therein a person may have such evidences 
of the lawfulness of, and reasons for doing 
a tiling, which may be sufficient to himself", 
and, if known to others, for his justification; 
and yet both in their nature and circum- 
stances these may be unknown, yea, in- 
communicable to another. I do not say 
this was the case here; but I say the re- 
flection upon this appeared a strong reason 
to many, not pei'emptorily to declare them- 
selves upon this head. And in such cir- 
cumstances, a person who is really tender 
as to what he does and says in public, may 
be at a stand, and refuse positively to con- 
demn even a thing he does not approve, 
yea, he must judge it the safest course to 
leave the determination to that day when 
the secrets of all hearts shall be revealed, 



CHAP, I. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



41 



and to judge nothing before the time. But 
after all, by far the greater, and the most 
knoviiug part of presbyterians, yea, of suf- 
ferers, did disapprove of the action, and yet 
humbly adored the righteousness of the 
Lord's way with this ill man. 

I have formerly waved a character of 
him, and by this time the reader will be in 
case, from the matters of fact narrated, to 
form one for himself. I shall only here re- 
mark, that in the manner of his death, the 
bishop's dream, while at the university, 
which was known and generally spoken of 
many years before this incident, was very 
plainly accomplished, as the former steps of 
his life had fulfilled some other branches of 
it.* By his death itself, new and cruel 
projects were disappointed, which had been 
formed against presbyterians. We shall 
afterguards find that the last thing he did in 
council Avas the voting and pushing a very 
violent proclamation upon the fii'st of May ; 
and upon Tuesday the 6th of May, he was 
to have taken journey to court, to have 
made his representations there, and used 
his interest for more vigorous and cruel 
methods against the suiFerers. When Saul 
was breathing out cruelty, he was con- 
verted ; but this apostate went to his place. 
Having jiremised these things, I come now 
to give a short nan-ation of the matter of 
fact, as it appears to me from several papers 
before me, avtH at this time, from a narra- 
tion of it a person of very good sense and 
credit had from the mouths of some who 
were present, and a pretty large account 
under the hand of one of the actors ; and I 
hope it Avill be the fullest, as well as the 
fairest that hath been yet given. 



• This dream was shortly this : — that while a 
student at the college, lying in bed with his 
comrade, he fell into a loud laughter in his aleep, 
and being awakened by his bed-fellow, who 
asked him, what he laughed so much for? re- 
turned answer, that he had dreamt that the earl of 
Crawfurd had made him parson of Crail. Again 
in another night, he laughed in his sleep still 
more loudly, when being awakened in like man- 
lier, he said he had dreamt he was in paradise, 
as the king had made him archbishop of St 
Andrews. Lastly, he dreamed a third time, 
and was in great agony, crying bitterly, when 
being awakened as formerly, he said he was 
dreaming a very sad dream, that he was driving 
in a coach to hell, and that very fast. — See Kirk- 
ton, p. S2.—Ed. 



Last year, and the beginning of this, 
the shire of Fife had been mightily ha- 
rassed and persecuted. The primate was much 
fretted to have field-meetings just under his 
nose, and presbyterian ministers and people 
Iiu'king so near him, and sometimes appear- 
ing just under his eye. Besides the sheriffs 
their deputes, and others appointed by law, 
to look after conventicles up and down the 
country, the prelates in many places got 
others joined to them, with equal powers 
from the council, or some counsellors, espe- 
cially if the executors of the law were less 
cruel, and any way moderate in their tem- 
per, and where the presbyterian way Avas 
recovering ground. No doubt the arch- 
bishop would not fail to cast a pattern to 
others in the shire of File. Accordingly 
by a commission from council, as we have 
seen, William Carmichael, a bankrupt mer- 
chant, and once a Ijailie in Edinburgh, is 
impowered in that shire, to seek for and 
persecute all nonconformists and intercom- 
muned persons; this he owed entirely to 
the primate, who, as a privy counsellor, 
added instructions and powers to summon, 
fine, imprison, poind, spulie, and unlaw all 
who absented from the church, and were at 
house or field conventicles. This man is 
said to have spent any thing he had of his 
own in riotous living, and greedily enough 
embraced this post for a livelihood, and con- 
tinued, while in it, most profane and pro- 
fligate : this qualified him the better to be a 
tool for carrying on the archbishop's de- 
signs; and not satisfied with going the 
length of his fellows in that work and the 
council's commission, he went much further, 
as the best way to make up his broken for- 
tune, and recommend himself to his patron. 

It would be endless to narrate all his 
cruelties and oppressions. Besides his ap- 
prehending, fining and imprisoning multi- 
tudes, and poinding, harassing and plunder- 
ing them, it was his custom to seize servants, 
and put fiery matches betwixt their fingers, 
and torture them many various ways, till 
they should discover where their masters 
were, or any thing belonging to them ; fre- 
quently also he used to beat and abuse 
women and children to make them inform 
against their husbands and parents. Innu- 
merable more cruelties and violences are 



4'2 



THE HJSrOIlY OF THE SUFFEKINGS 



[BOOK III. 



r '-o t^harged upon him, besides rapes, adul- 
' teries, and other abominable wicked- 
nesses in informations before me. And mat- 
ters now stood so, that no legal method of re- 
dress from such hardships could be expected : 
all doors were shut ; and this heavy oppres- 
sion put people upon measures they would 
have been perfectly averse to, under a limit- 
ed and well regulate government ; therefore 
several of the wanderers of this shire, who 
were hiding the best way they could, and 
keeping together in dozens and half dozens 
in arms, ^vhere they might, having their 
spirits fretted with their own hazard and 
harassings, together Avith the heavy circum- 
stances of their forailies and friends from 
this merciless persecutor, resolved, if pos- 
sible, to rid themselves of him, at least to 
fright and threaten him, so as they hoped he 
should leave Fife, and they be freed of him, 
and for this piu'pose fixed upon the third 
day of May, when, as they were informed, 
he was to be at the hunting. 

Meanwhile bishop Sharp had been some 
days in Edinburgh, putting- things in order 
for his going up to court : he had, upon 
the first of May, got the proclamation 
anent arms (published May 1 4th) passed in 
council with some struggle ; and May 2d, 
in the afternoon, he went over the Firth, 
and came to captain Seton's house in Ken- 
noway, where he lodged all night. If any 
body came that night to Kennoway inquir- 
ing about him, as the printed accounts by 
the prelatic party say, I am assured it was 
none of the people who fell in «ith him to- 
morrow. May 3rd he went home^Aard to 
St Andrews, and took Ceres in his way, 
stopped there, and smoked a pipe with the 
episcopal incumbent. 

The persons before spoken of, nine in 
number,* some of whom were g entlemen of 
good families, being fond of a meeting with 



• Russel mentions twelve : viz. David Hack- 
ston of Katliillet, .Joliii Balfour of Kinloch, i 
.Tames Riissel in Kettle, George Fleman in Bal- 
bathil, Andrew Henderson, Alexander Hen- 
derson in Kilbranlimont, William Daniel in 1 
Caddam, James, Alexander, and George Balfour 

in Gilston, Thomas Ness in P , and Andrew : 

Guillon. p. 4' 12 of Kirkton. Of these, how- 
ever, three seem to have left them before the as- 
sassination, p. 414. Deposition of witnesses, p. 
413 of Kirkton. 



Carmichael, came abroad pretty early upon 
the Saturday morning, and traversed the 
fields up and down, searched the hills above 
Cupar, and some other places, for some 
hours, but did not find him. The reason of 
their not finding him, as the above accounts 
bear, was, that when Carmichael came out 
to his hunting about Scotstarbet, a shep- 
herd thereabout advised the bailie to go 
home, for some gentlemen had been inquir- 
ing about him, at him, and were very desi- 
rous to meet with him : and Carmichael, 
not without some fear, returning from his 
sport, went homeward. They continued 
searching till near the middle of the day, 
and by this time they were come about a 
mile to the eastward of Ceres ; and being 
wearied, and beginning to despair of meet- 
ing with Carmichael, they were just talking 
together of parting and quitting their pro- 
ject, when a boy, a servant of (Robert) 
Black, a farmer thereabouts, came up with 
them, and informed them, that the arch- 
bishop's coach was in Ceres, and within a 
little to come up towards Blebo-hole, not 
far from them. This, as some of them in 
their accounts say, did very much surprise 
them, and raised many thoughts of heart ; 
the incident was so odd, that just when 
parting, and giving over their search for 
the servant, the master should fall into their 
hands ; that when they had missed the 
enemy they vrere looking for, their arch- 
enemy and fountain of all their woe should 
fall in their way. One of them said, " It 
seems he is delivered into our hands," and 
proposed they should cut him off, having- 
such an occasion. Mr Hackston of Rathil- 
let opposed the motion, as being a matter of 
blood, and, as he thought, of the last conse- 
quence to this nation and church, and Avhat 
required more deliberation by far. But 
what he very strongly urged was not of 
weight enough to stop them from the at- 
tempt. I find some accounts add, that, 
after reasoning upon this head, one of them 
prayed for conduct and direction ; and after 
that RathiUet told them, though for A^hat 
he saw, they seeemed to be clear to go on, 
yet he was not at all satisfied in his own 
mind anent it. However the rest went for- 
ward in their design, and be would not part 
with them. 



CHAP. I. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



43 



In their goingf towards the coach, one of 
the company proposed that some one should 
take the leading and command of the rest, 
and that they should exactly obey his or- 
ders whatever fell out, and Rathillet, not- 
withstanding his opposition, was generally 
named, but he told them there had been a 
difference betwixt the archbishop and him 
in a civil process, Avherein he reckoned he 
was wronged by the primate ; and though 
in any other case he would not refuse to 
do them all the service he could, yet by no 
means could he at all act in this matter ; 
and he was of oixinion, that it Avas very im- 
proper, though he could join with them, 
that he should command them, since it 
would give the world gi-ound to say, that 
what they did, was from personal pique and 
revenge, which he protested he v.as free of. 
They all declared their having no personal 
grudge at the man, but at his way and prac- 
tice, and so chose another of their number 
to be their leader. 

By this time they were come to a little 
village about two miles from St Andrews, 
called INIagus, near to which they descried 
the bishop's coach ; whereupon one of them 
upon a fleet horse, rode up to the coach, to 
see if the bishop was in it. The bishop 
noticing him, cried out to the coachman to 
drive. The gentleman hearing this, cast 
his cloak from him, and pursued at full 
speed ; the rest did the like, and came up 
as fast as they could ; only the person who 
had the debate with the bishop kept at 
some distance, and did not at all engage 
in the action. While pursuing a little this 
way in Magus-muii-, one of the bishop's 
servants, named Wallace, turned upon 
them, and cocked his piece; but two of 
them coming up, soon dismounted him, and 
took his carbine from him. Meanwhile, as 
the coach drove furiously away, they shot 
their musquets at it, but could not stop it, 
till the person upon the fleet horse came up 
to the coach, crying out, ' Judas, be taken.' 
The primate called the more violently to 
the coachman, ' Drive, drive, drive.' The 
coachman kept off" the gentleman's horse 
from him with his whip ; but he came up 
with the postillion, and called him to stop ; 
and he driving on, he struck him over the 
head with a sword, and dismounted him. 



and sti'aightway cut the traces of 
the coach, and stopped it. ' ' 

By this time the rest were come iip, and 
found the bishop and his daughter in the 
coach. The captain ordered him to come 
out, that no prejudice might befall his 
daugliter, whom they would not willingly 
hurt. This he refused, whereupon two of 
them, the rest being taken up in dismount- 
ing and securing the servants, poured in 
their shot on the bishop's body, his daugh- 
ter shrieking and weeping most bitterly, 
and were mounting their horses to go off, 
assuring themselves he was killed. But 
one of them heard his daughter say within 
a little, ' O ! there is life in yet ;' upon which 
he got again to the coach, and called the 
captain, and the others, who found the 
bishop safe and whole, not in the least 
touched. Whereupon the captain com- 
manded him to come out, and some dis- 
course passed betwixt them, which I shall 
set do^vn, as left under the hands of some 
M'ho were present. While the bishop lin- 
gered and cried for mercy, the commander 
said, ' I take God to witness, whose cause 
I desire to own in adhering to the perse» 
cuted gospel, that it is not out of any ha- 
tred of your person, nor from any prejudice 
you have done or could do to me, that I in- 
tend now to take your life, but because you 
have been, and still continues to be an 
avowed opposer of the gospel and kingdom 
of Christ, and a murderer of his saints, 
whose blood you have shed like water.' 
Another of them said, ' Repent, Judas, and 
come out.' All the bishop answered was, 
' Gentlemen, save my life, and I A\ill save 
yours.' The fust replied, ' I know it is not 
in your power either to save us, or to kill 
us ; I again declare, it is not any particu- 
lar feud or quarrel I have at you, which 
moves me to this attempt, but because you 
are an enemy to Christ and his interest, 
and have wrung your hands in the blood of 
his saints, not only after Peutland, but se- 
veral times since, and particularly for 
your perjury, and shedding the blood of 
Mr James Mitchel, and having a hand in 
the death of James Learmont, and your 
periidious betraying of the church of Scot- 
land : these crimes,' added he, ' and that 
blood cry with a loud voice to heaven for 



44 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



.^■r. venoeance, and we are this day to exe- 
lG'/9. . . . 

cute it.' And again he ordered him to 

come out, and prepare for death, judgment, 
and eternity. The bishop still refused, and 
cried for mercy, and offered him money to 
spare his life. The captain said, ' Thy mo- 
ney perish with thee,' and told him, he al- 
loM'ed him time to pray, and commanded 
him again to come out. The bishop still 
refused. One of the company, at some dis- 
tance, cried, ' Seeing- there have been so 
many lives unjustly taken by him, for 
which there is not the least sign of repen- 
tance, we will not be innocent, if any more 
be taken that way.' Then one of them 
fired a pistol at him in the coach, which it 
seems did not touch him, and another 
wounded him with a sword ; at which the 
bishop cried out, ' Fy, fy, 1 am gone.' Yet 
the wound was not mortal. And being 
again called to come out of the coach, he 
said, ' I am gone already, what needs more ?' 
Then they stepped near him, to pull him 
out ; upon which he cried, ' I know ye will 
save my life, 1 will come out ; and accord- 
ingly came out. And being again pressed 
to pray, he fell upon his knees before the 
captain, and said, ' For God's sake, save my 
life, save my life ;' offering him money, and 
promising to lay down his episcopal func- 
tion. The commander told him, he had 
been without mercy, and needed expect no 
mercy, and ho could not spare his life, and 
again pressed him to prepare for death, and 
pray. One of these present, Andrew Guil- 
lan, told my informer, that they were 
stunned to see his carriage, and that by no 
means A^ould he be prevailed with to pray ; 
and another observes, that they were 
mightily surprised at his obdurateness, and 
that there was not the least sign of concern 
about him as yet. This Andrew A\as present, 
and did not touch him, but endeavoured to 
secure his daughter from hurt and danger, 
when she would interpose betwixt the ac- 
tors and him. Instead of offering to pray, 
he, seeing Rathillet at some little distance, 
crept towards him on his hands and feet, 
and cried, ' Sir, I kno\v you are a gentle- 
man, you will protect me.' Mr Hackston 
answered, ' Sir, I shall never lay a hand on 
you ;' and rode a little off, for all this time 
he did not aliffht. 



The bishop finding this art to fail him, 
turned to them, and begged they might save 
the life of an old man, and promised he 
Avould obtain them a remission, it being 
capital to attempt the life of a privy coun- 
seller. The captain warned him, that they 
would not spare him longer ; if he did not 
address God presently, they knew what to 
do. The bishop's courage still continued, 
and he proposed some new desire ; upon 
which they discharged another shower of 
shot upon him, whereupon he fell back, and 
lay as dead. But one of them giving him a 
prick with his sword, he raised himself; 
then they began to imagine shooting would 
not do, and the commander ordered them 
all to draw their swords. Andrew Guillan's 
expression to my informer is, that upon 
the sight of cold iron, immediately his cou- 
rage failed ; and though before he still in- 
sisted in his petitions, and seemed not to 
regard their warnings much, yet now he 
made hideous and terrible shrieks as ever 
were heard. The commander seeing no 
warnings would prevail Avith him to go 
about any thing like preparation for death, 
with a shabble* struck him on the face, and 
one of his chops fell dowai : he essayed to 
speak some;i'hat, but was not imderstood. 
They redoubled their strokes and AA'ounded 
him in several places, and killed him out- 
right. 

After the bishop was killed, the captain 
received any arms which the servants had, 
who Avere five, two riders, a footman, the 
coachman, and postillion. He ordered them 
to deliver all their papers ; they said, they 
had none : then he Avent to the coach, and 
got a little trunk, and finding nothing in 
it but hoods and clothes belonging to the 
bishop's daughter, it Avas set in again. He 
found another little box Avith papers, AAhich 
he seized. In a trunk upon the coach he 
found a few more papers, and a large bible 
full of fine cuts, and the pictures of Christ 
and the Ncav Testament saints, and some 
passages of the history of the Bible in Tali- 
duce, and a case of very fine French pis- 
tols, all which they took. The rest of the 
trunk contained clothes and furnitui'e. 



• " A crooked sword or hanger. 
Dictiona^A^ 



-Jameson's 



CHAP. I.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



45 



which they did not touch, taking nothing 
but papers and arms. In the bishop's 
pockets they found neither silver nor gold, 
but only some letters and papers, and a 
« hiuger w ith silver roves, and knives con- 
form. Several of the forementioned ac- 
counts bear, that they found on the bishop 
a box Avith some pistol-ball, threads of 
worsted, and other odd things in it, which 
they kuew not what to make of. This is all 
I have met with as to the material circum- 
stances of this fact, and I have given it as I 
found it in papers which are writ by per- 
sons present, who only indeed could give 
accounts of this matter ; and they agree, as 
far as I can learn, with the accounts which 
went up and down after the murder was 
committed. All this took up about three 
quarters of an hour about mid-day, betwixt 
twelve and one of the clock, Saturday, May 
3rd, this j^ear. As they went oiF, they met 
a man very well mounted, and asking him 
what he was, he answered, one of my lord 
St Andrew's servants, whom, it seems, the 
bishop had sent off to pay his respects to 
some persons about : they dismounted him, 
took his arms from him, and drove away 
his horse to shift for himself, as they had 
formerly done to the other two riding 
servants, and thus rode away in a body 
to a place three or four miles distant 
from Magus-muir, where this action w'as 
done. 

The actors in this bloody tragedy coidd 
not but v^'onder at their own preservation, 
and that, when this fact was a doing in the 
open fields, at the height of the day, in this 
season of the year, and so many pieces dis- 
chai'ged, they were neither interrupted or 
discovered ; and this was the more strange 
to them, that there were soldiers lying upon 
every hand of them, in Largo, Balchristie, 
Ladernie and Cupar, all within a very few 
miles of the place, beside parties of troopers 
continually ranging up and down the shire ; 
and yet they got off without observation, 
and continued together till night, looking 
over the papers they had got. Among the 
papers they found, these are the most consid- 
ci'able. A gift of nonentries of several gen- 
tlemen's estates in Fife, and elsewhere, to 
Alexander Leslie of Kinninvie, with instruc- 
tions and informations hov»' to prosecute, in 



order to the eviction of the lands, the ^ 
patent of the bishopric of Dunkeld, 
in favours of Mr Andrew Bruce archdeacon 
of St Andrews; several presentations to 
chiu-ches whereof the king is patron; in- 
structions to conjunct deputies, and new 
gifts of the heritor's fines ; a paper about 
popery, whereof a full account could not be 
given when the information whence I take 
this was writ; several missives and other 
papers of no consequence. After they had 
looked through the papers, they continued 
together in the foresaid house till the even- 
ing, and then separated, and every one 
shifted for himself the best way he might. 
This is the best account I can give of this 
matter ; and in the matters of fact, there is 
a concurrence of two or three accounts I 
have seen, none of which that I know of 
have been printed, and therefore 1 have 
given them at the more length. They are 
indeed all upon one side ; and therefore, in 
a matter of this nature, which only can be 
fully known by balanced accounts of both 
sides, I think it but fair the reader should 
see what is said upon the other side. As 
far as I have noticed what is printed, there 
is no very great diflference as to matters of 
fact ; there is indeed considerable diflference 
as to the carriage and character of the 
bishop. The written accounts I have made 
use of, represent him as most averse to pre- 
pare for death, and the printed accounts 
represent him as a saint. It is my business 
to give matter of fact as I find it ; and there- 
fore, that the reader may have the oiher 
side of the story, I have insert * an account 



• Narrative of the murder of the archbishop, 
published by aiUhoriti/. 
On the third of May, a day remarkable in the 
church kalendar for the invention of the holy 
cross, this excellent primate found his, and I 
hope obtained his crown, (in which month also, 
Henry IV. of France, and cardinal Beaton, one 
of his predecessors, w^ere assassinated) about nine 
of the clock in the morning he took his coach in 
Kennoway, a village ten miles distant from St 
Andrews, where he lay the night before, f.cccm- 
panied only with four of his servants, and his 
eldest daughter in the coach with him. About 
half an hour before he was attacked, his great 
soul, it seems, presaging what came to pass, he 
fell on a most pious and serious discourse to liis 
daughter, giving her such pious instructions and 
directions, as he would have done, if upon his 
death-bed, whereuiito she gave such becoming 



46 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK 111. 



of this matter, published by autho- i shall make no reflections on it ; only the 

■ rity and order of the privy council, j matters of fact formerly related in this his- 

The former accounts are taken from the I tory, and the known tenor of the primate's 



actors' and relations' papers, and this from 
the bishop's daughter and servants, and I 



and satisfactory answers, that he embraced, and 
formally blessed her : afterward coming near to 
a farmer's house, called Magus, he says, ' There 
lives an ill-natured man, God preserve us, my 
child.' Within a very little time after, the 
coachman perceiving some horsemen on the spur 
after them, calls to the postillion to drive on, for 
those men had no good in their minds. My lord 
finding the coach run so hard, looked out to see 
what the matter was, and then perceiving armed 
men pursuing, he turning to his daughter, said, 
• Lord liave mercy upon me, my poor child, for 
I am gone :' upon which, presently three or four 
of the ruffians fired at the coach, but touched 
neither of them in the coach; the coachman put 
faster on, and outrun the most part of the rogues 
(my lord's own servants, of which the best 
armed was wounded in the head by a sword, 
being mounted on weak hackney horses, liad 
fallen behind before this, and were disarmed at 
the first coming <ip) while at last, one of the best 
mounted overhighed the postillion, andby wound- 
ing him on the face, shooting the coach-horse 
which he led, in the back, and cutting him in the 
hams, turned the coach out of the way, and gave 
the rest the advantage to come up. Then they 
fired again ; one of them had his pistol so near 
my lord, tliat the burning calfing was left on his 
gown, and was rubbed off by his daughter, 
Avbieh wounded him two or three inches below the 
right clavicle, in betwixt the second and third 
rib, And then another of them on the other side of 
the coach run him upon the region of the kid- 
neys with a small sword ; thereafter they called, 
' Come out, cruel and bloody traitor,' but not 
any offered to lay hands upon, or drag him out 
of his coach, as is falsely reported in the relation, 
the assassinates being all yet on horseback ; 
whereupon most composedly he opened the door 
of the coach himself, and stepped out, and then 
said, ' Gentlemen, you will spare my life, and 
whatever else you please to do, you shall never 
be questioned for it.' They told him there was 
no mercy for a Judas, an enemy and traitor to 
the cause of Christ. ' Well then,' said he, ' I shall 
expect none from you, but promise to me to 
si)are my poor child,' directing his speech to one, 
whom it is suspected, by his looking him broad 
in the face, he knew, and reaching forth his hand 
to him, the bloody villain starts back from my 
lord, and, by a mighty blow, cut him more than 
half through the wrist : then said my lord, ' I 
hope ye will give me seme time to pour out ray 
soul to God, and 1 shall also pray for you ;' and 
presently falling on his knees, he said, ' Lord, 
forgive them, for I do : Lord, receive my spirit.' 
While thus praying on his knees (one of the 
traitors standing some paces off, called to the 
rest, ' Spare those gray hairs') and his hands lifted 
up, they struck furiously at him, and wounding 
him therein in three places, which nevertheless 
he kept up bleeding to heaven, while one of them 
cut him to the very bone, a little above the left 
e5'e, whereupon my lord said, ' Now you have 
done the turn ;' then falling forward, he stretched 



actings give no foundation for such a char- 
acter as the bishop gets in this paper. 



himself out, and laid his head on his ai'm, as if 
he had been to compose himself for sleep, when 
some of the villains from their horses, and others 
a foot (having uligliled) gave him about fifteen 
or sixteen wounds in the head, and in effect the 
whole occipital part was but one wound ; after 
which they rifled his pockets, and took some 
papers out of them ; and so uaad ^vas their spite 
and rage, that even after he was dead, and the 
mui'derers gone some way from the body, one of 
the furious and bloody assassins returned, and 
thrust twice or thrice at him with a sword. 
They robbed his daughter of some gold, and 
other things she had in a little box (they had 
wounded her, thrusting at lier father, betwixt 
whom and them she had intei-posed herself, by a 
stab in her thigh, and one of her thumbs) then 
they took away my lord's night bag, bible, girdle, 
and some papers of moment: they also robbed 
his servants, and took their arms from them, 
and then went aw^ay as they came, and encoun- 
tered one of my lord's gentlemen he had sent off 
some time before, to salute the earl of Crawford 
in his name, having passed near to his house : 
one of them called to kill him, for he was one of 
Judas's servants; others came and took his 
papers in his fore-pockets, and arms, and bid 
him be gone, for his master whs gone home be- 
fore him. The place where this hoi'rid murder 
was committed, is called Magus-muir, wi thin two 
miles, and in sight of the town of i;t Andrews. 

Thus fell that excellent prelate (whose charac- 
ter and w^orthy acts deserve, and, no doubt, will 
find some excellent pen) by the hands of nine 
fanatic rufiians: that they were so, is not to be 
doubted, their names being all now known, and 
all of them denounced or intercommuned, for 
frequenting field conventicles, and the known 
chanipions of that party in the shire of Fife ; 
besides their holy sanctified discourse at the time 
of their bloody actings, shows what temper of 
spirit they were of. I have done with my rela- 
tion (attested to me before famous witnesses by 
my lord's daughter, and those of his servants 
that were so unfortunate to be spectators of this 
execrable villany) when 1 have observed how 
ridiculous the author of the pretended true one 
is, where he endeavours to discover the occasion 
of the murder of the archbishop of St Andrews; 
for what need was there of any thing more to 
provoke them, than his being an archbishop, and 
the primate of Scotland, and the most active, as 
well as the most reverend father of this church? 
Was it not for this reason, that he was, on the 
streets of Edinburgh, shot at by Mr James Mit- 
che], while in his own coach? Was not this the 
reason that these fanatic books from Holland, 
both some time ago and of late, marked out bis 
sacrum caput, as they termed it, and devoted him 
to a cruel death, and gave out predictions that 
he should die so? which they easily might, being 
so active in stimulating and prompting instru- 
ments to fulfil their own prophecies. 

" O Lord, how unsearchable are thy judg- 
ments, and thy ways past finding out !" 



CHAP. I.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



47 



Some other accounts of this matter I have 
seen, ^v■hich I shall very shortly pjiss. One 
was printed at London, a fen' days after 
this fact was done, for D. M. ^vhich is the 
flattest and most insipid account I ever al- 
most saw of any thing, and it deserves no 
further notice. Another account was pub- 
lished about the same time, intituled, " A true 
Relation of what has been discovered con- 
cerning the Murder of the Archbishop of 
St Andrews :" wherein this murder is lodg- 
ed upon Rathillet, and his brother-in-law 
John Balfour of Kinloch; and these two 
persons are represented to have been wrong- 
ed by the primate in some civil affairs, and 
to have murdered him in pique. This pa- 
per was answered by another, intitided, " A 
clear Discovery of the Falsehoods of the for- 
mer," wherein indeed the matters of fact 
advanced in the former seem plainly enough 
overturned; but when this is done, very 
little light is brought to this mattei-, and 
therefore I say no more of it ; only it ap- 
pears to me undeniable, that Rathillet was 
not actively concerned in this matter. And 
as to John Balfour, though it be true what 
is in this paper asserted, that he had with - 
drami from ordinances for many years, 
and was very active about field conventi- 
cles; yet a person's doing so will neither 
make him a saint, nor make the people he 
joins himself to, chargeable with every 
thing he does : and I cannot find that this 
gentlemaia had ever any great character for 
religion among those that knew him ; and 
such were the accounts of him when abroad, 
that the reverend ministers of the Scots 
congregation at Rotterdam would never 
allow him to communicate with them. In- 
deed upon him I find this action is gener- 
ally and principally lodged. 

A third account of this matter I find in 
that virulent pamphlet formerly spoken of, 
intituled, " The Spirit of Popery speaking 
out of the Mouths of plianatical Protes- 
tants," London, 1G80, This writer hath 
little of fact, but what is taken out of the 
council's narrative : he adds the certificate 
of a physician and three chirurgeons, who 
inspected the bishop's body, to prove they 
found one Avound below the right clavicle 
by a shot; and in the same certificate they 
declare, they found three Avounds in his left 



hand, ' which might have proved mor- 
tal,' though he had had no other. I am ' * 
so ill a physician, as not to understand how a 
Avound in the hand in itself can be mortal. 
He adds the names of the murderers in red 
letters, John Balfour of Kinloch, David 
Hackston of Rathillet, George Balfour in 
Gilston, James Russel in Kingskettle, Ro- 
bert Dingwall a farmer's son in Caddam, 
Andrew Guillan weaver in Balmerinock, 
Alexander Henderson and Andrew Hen- 
derson, sons to John Henderson in Kil- 
brachmont, George Fleming sou to George 
Fleming in Balbootliy. As far as 1 can 
learn, Andrew Guillan was only called by 
the actors to look to their horses, or some 
such thing, but was not active, though pre- 
sent at the action. Two Hendersons were 
afterwards imprisoned 1682 on this account, 
and let go. How many other mistakes are 
in this list, I know not : indeed this writer 
hath too many false facts and blunders for 
me to follow ; neither shall I consider what 
he pretends to bring to vindicate this fact 
from presby terian writers, ' Knox, Naphtali, 
Jus popiili vindicatum,' since none of his ci- 
tations came at all up to this case. What 
folloAA'S in point of history, anent the High- 
land host, the murder at Loudonhill, and 
major Johnston, is false, and his misrepre- 
sentations are already taken off in the for- 
mer part of this history. 

The last account of the bishop's death I 
have met Avith in print, is in the " Caveat for 
the Wliigs," London, 1711, part I. j). 57. 
Avherein all the spiteful lies any where pub- 
lished seem to be cast together. It Avould 
be tedious to go through the mistakes of 
this ill natured and malicious author in this 
matter. Wliat he talks of lists of persons 
to be murdered, handed about, with the 
archbishop on the head of them, of the re- 
lenting of the assassinators, their trampling 
his daughter, and many other things, are 
unknoAAU to such aaIio Avere present. The 
rencounter AA'as certainly undesigned, till 
they got notice of the bishop's coming that 
Avay ; and they Avere so far from being stir- 
red up by field preachers to it, that they 
themselves had no thought about it till the 
hour in Avhich it Avas done. The christian 
temper of the primate at his death, Avhich 
this writer hai-angues on, is very perempto- 



48 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



rily denied by such as were present, 
as we have seen ; and I very much 
jealouse those religious expressions are 
made for him. 

Thus on both hands I have laid this af- 
fair before the reader, from what I have 
seen in manuscript and print relative there- 
unto ; and thoug^h many remarks might be 
made upon the whole, yet I shall confine 
myself to one or two, which are properly 
historical. One is, that as none of the real 
actors were taken, so, when the murder 
was over, they came out of Fife for their 
own safety, and joined themselves to those 
who attended these field-preachers who set 
up against the cess and indulgence, of whom 
before ; from which the English papers, yea, 
the narratives of the after acts of council, 
as we shall hear, load the risers at Both- 
well with being art and part in this action. 
I do not question but several of them were 
at Bothwell for their own safety ; but it is 
very ill reasoning, and unfair, to lodge this 
fact upon the whole party, when perhaps 
not one of a thousand knew them, or what 
they had done. Another is, that this inci- 
dent of the bishop's murder became not 
only matter of reproach to the whole suffer- 
ing presbyterians, as Rathillet fairly insin- 
uated to the actors, though indeed the 
calumny was groundless, as hath been 
noticed, but also the occasion of very heavy 
oppression and persecution. The prelates 
and council took hold of it, as a handle for 
prosecuting the cruel designs the primate 
was cut off from finishing. This was made 
use of as a shibboleth for many years, to 
vex poor innocent and ignorant country 
people with, when seized: and so far is it 
from truth which Lesley advanceth, Cas- 
sandra, No. 2. p. ' That the worst of the 
primate's enemies had nothing to lay to his 
charge but episcopacy,' that he was gener- 
ally looked upon as a very ill man ; and the 
impressions of his wickedness, with some 
other things before suggested, made not a 
few unwilling peremptorily to judge of this 
action, which a great many others had 
freedom enough to condemn as murder. 
Several were executed as accessory to his 
death, who were entirely free of it, and 
many others harassed upon that score, 
against all law and justice, as shall be 



noticed in the succeeding history. Upon 
the whole, though the most part of good 
people in Scotland could not but observe 
and adore the holy and righteous providence 
of God, in the removal of this violent per- 
secutor and spring of the most part of the 
former severities, at such a juncture when 
just upon new and violent projects, yet they 
could not approve of the manner of taking 
him off", nor would they justify the actors : 
and the known stanza of that excellent 
man, and, in his time, good poet. Sir David 
Lindsay of the Mount, upon cardinal 
Beaton's death, could not but come in 
people's minds, as not unapplicable ; with 
it I end this section and chapter. 

" As for this cardinal, I grant 

He was the man we might well want, 

God will forgive it soon : 
But of a truth, the sooth to say, 
Altho' the loon be well a^ay. 

The fact was foully done.* 



* " The account Vv'hich Wodrow^, who was 
not partial to Sharp, gives of the murder, must, 
I should think, shock every mind not sunk in 
depravity." So says an ahle and candid histor- 
ian of the chuirh, (Cook's Hist. vol. HI. p. 
34.6) and yet INIr Sharpe is of opinion that 
" Wodrow^ relates all the circumstances with 
the most paternal sympathy and apologetic 
tenderness." Kirkton, p. 407. It is true, he 
does not deal in the harsh invective of the high 
cavalier party on such an occasion, and he would 
be far from maintaining that the prelate did not 
in point of fact deserve to die. But he does not 
defend the manner of the deed, and much less 
the dangerous principles which led to it. He 
takes just that view of it which every moderate 
and fair man on a proper knowledge of the 
dreadful state of the country at the time and the 
agency of Sharp in the persecutions, will he in- 
clined to take. I acknowledge he is wrong in 
stating that no party of presbyterians in Scotland 
at the time approved of the deed. The author 
of the " Hind let loose," p. 6S3, vindicates it on 
the plea of necessity, and speaks of all such 
" attempts for cutting off such monsters of na- 
ture" as "lawful and (as one would think) 
laudable" in the circumstances of the country at 
the time. But certainly the great body of pres- 
byterians disapproved of the deed, and therefore 
it ought not to be brought as a stigma upon their 
cause. " Oppression maketh wise men mad," 
and our wonder is not that cases of assassination 
were occasionally exhibited in the course of that 
dark and gloomy period, but that they were so 
few. — Among the various accounts of the arch- 
bishop's death we may notice that given in 
Defoe's Memoirs of the Church of Scotland, by 
one of the actors ; Ilussel's account as published 
in Kirkton ; and that given by Sir W. Sharp, 
the bishop's son, in his letter to Sir James Baird, 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



49 



CHAP. II. '• nionly caJlefl, from the place of its fa- 

tal issue, Bothwell-bridge. Here I ^^^^• 
OF THE RISING THIS YEAR IN THE WEST OF FBckon myself obliged to givc as particular a 
•SCOTLAND, WHICH ENDED BV THE DEFEAT detail of facts as my materials will allow me. 
AT BOTHWELL-BRiDGE, JUNE 24?d, 1679. The larger accoimts are Dccessary, becausc it 

very much concerns the persecuted party, 
I AM now come to the rising in arms in the that this transaction be set in its due light, 
west country, May and June this year, com- No tolerable narrative of it, as far as I have 



published in the same work. They all agree in 
the most material circumstances. We do not 
know the reason why our historian omits the 
strange circumstance of the humble bee, but 
we shall supply it fVoni an account of the mur- 
der, drawn up by two persons who were pre- 
sent, and which is in Wodrow's hand- writing: 
" They," the murderers, " took nothing from 
him but his tobacco-box and a few papers. 
With these thej' went to a barn near by. IJpon 
the opening of the tobacco-box, a //i';?(5 humming- 
bcc Jieiv out. This either Rathillet or Balfour 
called his familiar ; and some in the company, 
not understanding the term, they explained it to 
be a devil." — Sharp's Kirkton, p. 421. With 
the exception of Danziel, who was killed at 
Ui'umclog, and Hackston and Guillan, who 
were afterwards executed for the murder, none 
of the other conspirators seem to have under- 
gone a violent death. 

We have been favoured by the proprietor, Mr 
Mackiulay, collector of customs at Anstruther, 
with an original MS. account of the archbishop's 
death. It may have been in the possession 
of Mr Wodrow when he drew up his account ; 
but, as it has never been published, and, as it 
vindicates our historian from certain charges of 
omission or misstatement which the Editor of 
Kirkton has brought against him, we shall in- 
sert it entire. It is copied, verbatim et literatim, 
from the original: — 

"^ coppie of the ma7ier of the death of Mr James 
Sharp, late Archprelate of St Anderous, qo 
depairted his life on Saturday, Maij the 3 dai/, 
1G79, betuext 12 and ane a clock in efternoon ; 
w' the particular words on aither syd, and ac- 
tiones yt past at that tyme ^ place yrof faith- 
fullie ^ trewlie related by ane i/npartiall pen. 

" Although it be debait by some in this na'n in 
vvfliat maner god ought to be served, and by 
qm his ordinances of the word, & sacraments, 
&c. should be administrat in this land, yt god 
his ordinances ought to be dispenst, by men, of 
thos men qo have been violentlie thrust into ye 
severall churches of this kingdome, by a publick 
law ; for qch cause a great many disenting No- 
blemen, Gentlemen, Slin'"S and y^ generallitie 
of the commons, have not only suffered sore and 
sad thK% and bonds, imprisonments, fynings, 
banishments, &c., but also death it self, for ad- 
hereing to this yr consentious prin'is, according 
to the sworn work of reforma'n qch was once 
famous in yis land. 

" And although y^^ persecuted people would 
gladlie have given a testimonie befor kings and 
gi'eat men, for the cans of christ & prin"s & 
practises qch they held & acted ; yet, conti'ar to 
the practise of the heathen king Aggrippa, they 
wer not permitted to speak for y'" selfes. 

" This feared a great many, qos joy & crown it 



would have been to have suffered for christ, to 
appeir befor the great councell of thin land qu 
yr they were cited yrunto ; upon qos non com- 
peirauce, they wer not only fyned in great soums, 
but ther persons ordained to be apprehendit by 
Magistrats or any of the stands forces of this 
kingdome ; and, in case they refuised to be taken, 
they wer impowrcd to kill ym ; for qch they had 
indemnitie by act of parlia', confirmed & inlarg- 
ed by acts of the privie Councell. 

" Persons thus in hazard on all hands wer foi'c- 
ed to wander up and doun the solitarie places of 
this land, w' weapons for yr oun defence, stud- 
ing noths mor yn how to have a conscience void 
of offence towards god and towards man. 

" Thus yr innocent cairage doe not a litle trou- 
ble & disqueit the malignant prelaticall partie, so 
yt yr witts & inventions wer continually racked 
in contryving ways, not only how to shed yr 
blood like v/ater upon the earth, (qrin the lord 
permitted ym to come a very great length in,) 
but lykewise to force y" poor afflicted people to 
make ane intestine broyl. 

" They have tryed many deep inventions too ; 
(to tedious to relait, & qch doubtles put y™ in 
great disqueitude, becaus y^ success anzred not 
yr designe,) hot at last they lighted on a notable 
on, qch they thos' would not faill in reducing 
yt people to noths ; & it was, yt yr should be 
persons appointed for suppressing conventicls 
only, who should be impowred in yt effect in 
the severall shyres of Scotland ; and, according- 
ly, this taking effect by tiie prelats instiga'n, and 
privie Councell commands, on Mr Wm. Carmi- 
chell, some tymes merchant bailzie in Ed"' hav- 
ing spent all he had w' harlots and in riotous 
living, (and still continows to be a drunkard and 
adulterer,) give in his very humble petition to 
Bishop Sharp, (qofs) death we now intend to I'e- 
lait,) to be made Sheriff-dep*- of fyffe ; who(s) 
pe(t)ition was accordingly granted, and instruc- 
tions & ordors given to him, to summond, fyne, 
imprison, punde, spoyle, & unlaw for absence, 
&c. : he not being content w' the rigirous extent 
of his commisson, thos' he should ingratiat him- 
self mor in the Bishop's favors yn any oy''* had 
or could doe ; and yrfor, he not only fyned, im- 
prisoned, poyndit, plundered, &c., but lykwayes 
caused fix fired matches betwixt servants fingers, 
yt they mig' discover qr ther m''^ ^ver hyd : he 
caused beat and wound severall women & chil- 
dren & servants, & do many oyr insolences qch 
wer to tidious and lamentable to relait. 

" The wander(er)s in fyffe, taking to yr consi- 
dera'n the deplorable estate and condi'n yt poor 
shyre was redacted to, not only by y"^ want of 
the pretious ordinances, but lykwayes by the sad 
condi'n yr wives and numerous childreji & fa- 
milies, by the cruell actions of that bloodie per- 
secuter, they wer resolved to be avenged on him, 
seeing all doors of accesses for yr releif wer 



50 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[book III. 



observed, liatli been given to tlie pub- 

' lie ; and 1 Iiopc, when this matter is 

fairly narrated, it Aiill not appear so odious 

as some have represented it ; and what- 



stopped up, altho he acted many things contrar 
to the very laws them selfes. In order to tliis yr 
designe by providence, & (some) of thes alllicted 
persons having mett in the east end of fyfe upon 
Saturday the o'' Maij, 1679, theywer resolved 
to meet w' Carmichell if provedence should 
hring him in yr way. It was reported to ym 
by the people yr yt he was gone to hunting, as 
they wer searching throw the fields for him, un- 
til} they wer come a myle hj' east ways, & found 
yr search for him to be in vain, they wer consi- 
dering qr to take up ther quarters, qn immedi- 
atly a boy came to ym in a post hast, and told 
them yt the Bishops coatch was coming towards 
Blebo holl w' 6 horses in it, qr upon (after a 
litle pose,) let us go to liim ; a 2'' said, it seems 
god hes delivered him into our hands; a 3'^ said, 
1 think wee have a clear call from god to goe 
efter him. Efter some serious considera'n among 
j'm selfes, they all resolved to follow the coatch; 
and, as they wer in persuit, a gentleman in y<= 
companie sd yt it will be titt yt some of you take 
the command of us, at qos word let us all be 
obedient. Efter voting, a gentleman of the com- 
panie was chosen, qo answerd and said, god is 
my wittncs y t I resolve to oun the cans of Christ 
^v' my lyfe & fortun, the lord strengthning me 
so to doe; but to be commander in this exployt 
1 will by no means condesend to, hecaus ther is 
a known difference betwixt the Bishop and me, 
so yt qt I doe as commander in this busines will 
seem to have no reference to gods glorie, but only 
for my privat reveng, qch would marr the god- 
lie of the action. Anoyr gentleman, seeing him 
in the companie so resolutlie refuise the com- 
mand upon so weightie grounds, s^, gentlemen 
fallow me ; qrupon they obey'd. During this 
consulta'n, they war all come to a litle toun call- 
ed Magus, at qch toun 2 of ym spurred their 
horse efter the coatch, & on of them halting, the 
oyr advanced to the coatch to sie if the Bishop 
Tvas in it or not. The Bishop, looking out at the 
coatch, commanded the coatciimau to dryve, qch 
he did w' a winged diligence: the persewer see- 
ing, he threw liis clock from him, & cryed to the 
hishop, Judas be taken, and preseutlie he fyred 
at him. Imediatlie yrefter, the oyr 7, (for y^ 
gentleman who had the quarrel w' the Bishop 
stood at a distance during the wholl action,) 
throwing yr cloacks from ym, & fyred severall 
shoots during thetyme of persewing the coatch. 
On Wallace, a servant of the Bishops, having a 
carrbyn on his shulder, took it and oiFered to 
fyre ; qch on of ym seeing, immediatly came to 
him & dismunted him, & took y« carrbyn from 
him. Therefter, anoyr of ym qo wer come up the 
length of the coatch, — for the rest were hot com- 
ing ill very great disorder, — comma(n)ding the 
postilian to stand, qch he refuising to doe, anoyr 
came up to him and strouck him on the face wt 
a sword, qch he smott off part of his chine, & 
also took hold of the reinzie of the horse, and 
came in running to the coatch door, (at qch tyme 
the commander came forward lykwise,) & they 
both desired the Bishop to come forth, qch he 
refuised to doe: the commander s<i, 1 take god to 
■wittness, qos cause I desire to own, in adhere- 
iiig to this persecuted Gospell, yt it is not out of 



ever extremities may have been Avith some 
at this rising- in some things, the body 
of presbyterians in Scotland are not charge- 
able with them. Indeed it Mas the divisions 



hatred to thy person, nor for any prejudice thow 
hes done or could doe to me, for qch wee intend 
to take thy lyfe from the this day ; but it is he- 
caus thow hes been, and still rontinows to he, 
ane avowed opposer of the florishing of christs 
kingdome, and murtherer of his saints, qos blood 
thow hes shed lyk water on the ground. The 
oyr person, who was standing on his foott at the 
coatch door, s"^ to the Bishop, repent Judas & 
come furth. Y« Bishop answerd, save my life, 
and I will save all yors. Y<' oyr replyed, I know 
it is not in your power nather to save us nor kill 
ns ; and I declair heir, befor the lord, yt it is no 
particular quarrell of myneyt moves me to this, 
but becaus thow hes been, & still continows, (a 
traitor) to Jesus Chryst and hes interest and 
caus, & wring thy hands in the blood of the 
saints, not only at Pentland, but severall tymes 
since, and more particularly for the sheding of 
Mr James Mitchell & James Lermount blood, 
qos blood cryes w' a loud voice for vengeance 
from heaven upon ye ; & wee ar this day sent by 
god to execut it : and again desired him to come 
out of the coatch & make readie for death, judge- 
ment, and eternity ; qch he yet refuising, anoyr 
on horse back said, — seeing yr hes been so many 
lifes taken innocently, for qch yr is no signe 
of repentance, if yr be any mor lifes taken 
upon yt account, they shall not be innocently 
taken. 

" After the words, the commander fyred a pis- 
toll at him ; & the oyr person standing at the 
coatch door, thrusting a shabale in him, (qch 
wounded him a litle,) the Bishop cryed, fy ! fy ! 
I am gone ! and yet he wasnot mortallie wound- 
ed : and being desired to come out again, he yet 
refuised, and said, I am gone alreadie, & qt needs 
more : but yet he said to the commander, I know 
you ar a gentleman, 1 will come out to you ; for 
I know you will spare my life : & so he came 
out of the coatch, and satt doun on his knees, & 
said, for gods sake save my life. The comman- 
der s'' yr is no saving of yor life, becaus yee ar a 
sworn enemie to Jesus Christ and his interest : 
upon qch reply, the Bishop rose from his knees 
& stept a litle forward. Y^ commander seeing 
his obdurtucs, & perceaving no signe of contri- 
tion in him, notwithstands of all the wickednes 
he had done, he presently struck him on y<^ face 
w' ashcble; & anoyr of ym strucking him again, 
he fell doun to the ground sorlie \vounded. The 
oyr persone who had lighted came forward & 
cleaved his head in severall places ; at qch the 
gentlewoman qo was in the coatch crye<| and 
said, this is murther ! The oyr replyed, fight, it is 
not mui'der, but gods vengance on him for mur- 
thering many poor souUs in the kirk of Scot- 
land : and, efter he had given y'^ Bishop thes 
wounds, he went himself alone to the Bisliops 
servants, qrof to witt yr wer 5, 2 riders, a coatch 
man, & a postilian and a footman, — and said, 
render yor amies presentlie ! & accordingly they 
did deliver to him yr pistoles and swords. Ther- 
efter this man on foot cryed to his companions, 
saying, gentlemen, be sure that y^ Bishop be 
dead ; and presently yr alighted anoyr, & ran his 
sword throw his bellie, so yt the dirt came out; 
& s'', I am sure he is dead now. Y" person qo 



CHAP. 11.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



51 



and heights run into by some who joined in 
that rising, contrary to the inclinations of the 
better and greater part, with the indiscretion, 



1679. 



rashness, and ill conduct, not to say 
cowardice of Robert liainilton,* who 
took the command upon him, which ruined 



had first lighted, said, take up your preist now : j 
and iinediatly efter he had taken the arms from | 
the servants, he sd, deliver all the papers yee have. , 
They not inaks aussr, he wont to the coatcli him- 1 
self, and took out a litle trutikc, & brack it up, 
and shook out qt was in it ou y^ ground, but | 
found nothK ther bot hoods & scarfes, &c., qch 
they did not meddle w' ; he faud also in the 
coatch a litle box full of papers, qch they took. 
They took also a portmautle out of the coatch, 
qrin yr was severall papers, a byble full of our 
saviors portratiours in all y"= particular passages 
of his estate of humilia<n, as also of his now 
glorified estate of exeltatn : y« bible lykwayes 
contined portraitours of all the Saints, qch all 
ye papists adore : and lastly, in the coatch they 
land a caise of very fyne freuch pistolls, qch they 
also took. Next they fand under allso, the coatch 
box, qch being brocken up, they faud noths in it 
but some baggage : he replyed, we medle w' no- 
ths but papers and arms. Yrefter they rypad 
the Bishops pocket, qrin was nather money nor 
gold, but only a whinger w' silver roofs and knives 
conforme, and a few papers, qch they also took ; 
som of the coatch horses being wounded during 
the action. Efter all was done, qch lasted 3 
quarters of ane hour, they di-ove the coatch of 
the way some paces, and Imediatly the two 
yt wer on foot mounted yr horse ; and all the 9 
rod away deliberatlie to the place qr they had 
left yr cloacks, leaving the dead to be buried by 
the dead ; and as they wer going for yr cloacks 
they encountred w' a man, & having asked him 
qo he was yt was so weel mounted, he anszred, 
1 am one of the lord S' Andrews servants; 
qrupon they imediatlie disarmed him, and caus- 
ed him to light, and they drove away his horse 
to sheift for him selfe in the open feikls, as they 
had done formerly to the horse of the oyr 2 rid- 
ing servants. Then, having come to yr cloacks, 
& charged qt pistols they had discharged, they 
rod of softly in a full bodie to a place 3 or 4 mylls 
distant from yt place qr y" action was done ; and 
having presently put up ther horse, they went 
joyntlie to prayer, giving tha(n)ks to god for qt 
he had stirred ym up to do, & for his wonderfuU 
assistance and yr prcserva'n in considering how 
y'^ lord had so wonderfullie restrained their ad- 
versaries on all hands, albeit yr wer soldiers in 
Largo, Ballcirstie, Ladernie, and Couper, the 
fardest of qch towns was litle mor nor 4 mylls 
from the place qr y^ action wes done ; besids 
a party of troupers runing up and dou"!! all 
corners of yt Shyre continuallie. And, having 
refreshed ym selfes, they begane & searched the 
papers ; the most considerable qrof ar, first, a 
gift of nonentries of severall Gentlemens lands 
of fyfl:e & elsqv, on Alex. Leslie of Kinnivie, 
in the north; vv' instructions & informa'ns how 
to persew y^ action, in ordor to the eviction of 
the lands: (S'^ly), the patent of the Bishoprick 
of dunkell, gi'anted in favors of Mr Andrew 
Bruce, A(r)chdean at S' Anderows : (S^ly), se- 
verall presenta'ns to kings kirks, in favors of 
Currats: (4), instructions to the conjunct de- 
i>uts, & new gift of yi= heritors fyns: (5), a pa- 
per anent establishing of poprie, qr of anent a 
full informa'n cannot be given till further in- 
spection be had yr unto : (6), severall missives & 



oyr papers of som veil : and havs reposed ym 
selfes at yt place till night, & all of ym pub- 
lictly & privatlie, again (i; again, recomend- 
iug j'mselfes to god, & yr ways for yr futur 
protection, they removed from thence w' as 
mucli composure of spirit as yr hearts could 
wish." — Ed. 

* Robert Hamillon, the son of Sir Thomas 
Hamilton of Preston and Fingalton, (a steady 
royalist, but a distinguished friend to the best 
interests of his country,) was born in IG50. He 
was educated under bishop Burnet when pro- 
fessor of divinity at Glasgow ; and, according to 
the testimony of that author, was originally a 
sprightly youth of great promise. Hist. vol. i. 
p. 471. His intercourse with the more strict 
class of covenanters dues not seem to have been 
improved by him to any other purpose than to 
narrow his notions and to infiame his rash tem- 
per. Though personally courageous, he certainly 
wanted the qualifications necessary in a prudent 
and enlightened commander; and he inevitably 
drew upon himself the keenest animosity of 
those partisans whom he affronted by his con- 
temptuous treatment, and did not silence by his 
success. After the defeat at Bothwell, he avoid- 
ed the consequences of his attainder and con- 
demnation by an escape into Holland. There, 
in Geneva and the Palatinate, he endeavoured 
to excite the sympathy of foreign protestants 
with the sufferings of their Scottish brethren ; 
and along with his brother-in-law, Gordon of 
Earlston, he acted as commissioner in behalf of 
the united societies, whom he greatly assisted by 
his influence in obtaining for them the counte- 
nance and support of the continental churches. 
He continued to reside principally in Holland, 
although the English government, apprised of 
his intention of returning with arms and money 
to the assistance of his persecuted countrymen, 
repeatedly urged upon the States an application 
for his delivery. At length the revolution of 
1688 (in which, however, the fastidious nature 
of his principles would not sanction his concur- 
rence) allowed him to return from exile. His 
attainder was reversed, and, on his brother's 
death, he succeeded to the honours of the family ; 
but from religious scruples as to acknowledging 
the prince of Orange, he never applied for the 
succession to his brother's estates. In 1692 he 
was imprisoned for 8 months on account of 
being the suspected author of the " Sanquhar De- 
claration, lOth Aug. 1G92," and was at length 
libei"ated in May 1693, and allowed to spend the 
remainder of his days in undisturbed tranquil- 
lity. Sir Robert died unmarried on the 20th 
Oct. 1701, at Borrowstonness, where he had 
resided for some period before. On his death, 
the Airdrie branch of the Hamilton family 
succeeded to the representation of the Preston 
family ; and both branches are now represented 
by that distinguished scholar and historical an- 
tiquary, Sir William Hamilton of Preston and 
Fingalton. Sir R. Hamilton, with all his faults, 
was a pious man, and his memory will be long 
cherished by the admirers of the Scots worthies. 
See Hamilton's Letters — Faithful Contendings 
— Shield's Life — Anderson's Hamilton Fami- 
ly, p. 357.— Erf. 



52 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



ifr-q tl'St design, and eflf'ectually broke 
all their measures, much more 
than any opposition which was or could 
be made by the king-'s troops. And the 
terrible handle made of this rising by 
the bishops and violent party in the go- 
vernment, in severities, circuits, and op- 
pression of all presbyterians for many 
years after it was over, appears a sufficient 
ground for me to insist at more than ordi- 
nary length, iu giving the account of this 
lamentable story. Therefore upon this 
chapter it will be necessary to give some 
accounts of what succeeded the death of 
the archbishop, with the i)rocedure of the 
managers, until the beginning of this rising ; 
then the particular occasions and beginnings 
of it will come to be inquired into; next, 
the narration of the lesser rencounters at 
Drumclog and Glasgow will fall in : after 
which the state and divisions of the west 
country army, till the approach of the 
king's army. And lastly, the engagement 
itself at Botli well-bridge, and in Hamilton 
Muir, wher-j the west countiy people were 
defeat, must be considered. These things 
v^'ill take some little room to go through, so 
as to give a fair deduction of them, and af- 
ford matter for the following sections. 



Of the consequents of the primate^ s deathy 
procedure of the council, and other things 
until the end of May, 1G79. 

In this section I shall only give a few in- 
stances how much the incident of the pri- 
mate's death was improven by the managers, 
to harass a great many innocent jieople, 
with some account of the proclamations 
issued out during this month, before the 
rising at Ruthcrglen. As soon as the ac- 
counts of this attempt upon the bishop 
came to Edinburgh, the council met upon 
Sabbath, May 4th, and took the oaths of 
some of his servants, and used all imagina- 
ble care to discover the actors. The re- 
cords have not the depositions, but the sub- 
stance of them I take to be in the narrative 
above insert. Expresses were despatched 



to court, and they published a proclamation, 
which I have insert below.* 

The fervour the council could not but be 
in upon the representation made to them 



* Proclamation, May il/i, fur discovert/ of the 
murderers of the archbishop of St Andreivs. 
Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the 
faith: To 

our Lyon king at arms, and his brethren, he- 
ralds, macers, or messengers at arms, our she- 
riffs in that part conjunctly and severally, spe- 
cially constitute greeting. We being fully, and 
by legal proofs, assured of the late horrid and 
bloody murder committed upon Satiu-day last, 
being the third of iMay instant, by ten or eleven 
fanatic assassinates, upon the person of the most 
reverend father in God, James late archbishop 
of St Andrews, primate of all Scotland, which 
barbarous and inhumane assassination and par- 
ricide will (we doubt not) sjiread horror and 
amazement iu all the hearts of such as believe 
that there is a God, or a Christian religion, a 
I cruelty exceeding the barbarity of pagans and 
heathens, amongst whom the officers and minis- 
ters of religion are reputed to be sacred, and are 
by the respect borne to the Deity which they 
adore, secured against all such bloody and exe- 
! crable attempts, a cruelty exceeding the belief 
] of all true protestants, whose churches have 
! justly stigmatised, ■with the marks of impiety, 
I all such as defile with blood those hands which 
' they ought to hold up to heaven, and a cruelty 
equal to any with which we can reproach the 
enemies of this true and reformed church : by 
■which also, not only the principles of human 
society, but our authority and government (the 
said archbishop being one of our privy council) 
is highly violated, and example and encourage- 
ment given for murdering all such as serve us 
faithfully according to the prescript of our laws 
and royal commands, daily instances whereof 
we are to expect, ■whilst field-conventicles, those 
rendevouzes of rebellion, and forges of all 
bloody and Jesuitical principles, are so frequent- 
ed and followed, to the scandal of all govern- 
ment, and the contempt of our laws: and which 
murder is, as far as is possible, I'endered yet 
more detestable, by the unmasked boldness of 
such, as durst openly with bare faces, in the 
midst of our kingdom, at mid-day, assemble 
themselves together, to kill in our highway the 
primate of our kingdom, and one of our privy 
council, by so many strokes and shots, asleft his 
body, as it were, but one wound, and many of 
which being given after they knew he was 
dead, were remarkable proofs they were acted 
by a spirit of hellish and insatiable cruelty. We 
have therefore, with advice of our privy coun- 
cil, thought fit, hereby to command and charge 
all sheriffs, stew^arts, bailies of regalities, and 
bailiaries, and their deputes, magistrates of 
burghs, and officers of our standing forces, to 
search, seek, take and apprehend the persons 
guilty of the said horrid murder, or any sus- 
pected by them, and to imprison them until 
they be brought to justice, and all our good and 
faithful subjects to concur in the taking and se- 
curing, as far as is in their power, these assassi- 
nates: and in respect there is a c<'mpany of 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



53 



by the bishop's daughter and servants, will 
be a kind of excuse for some things in this 
proclamation, which at another time might 
deserve far more severe reflections. All 1 
observe upon it, shall be only, that a handle 
A\as taken from every incident, to rail at 
the whole of the persecuted party, and then 
notice a few things which even the present 
circumstances cannot vindicate. It is bard 
after so many rhetorical aggravations of 
this assassination, some of which will 
scarce bear examination, particularly, that 
" it is equal to any thing that papists had 
done ;" it is hard, I say, to make the king 
add, " daily instances whereof we are to 
expect, whilst field conventicles, those ren- 
devouzes of rebellion, and forgers of all 
bloody and Jesuitical principles are so fre- 
quented and followed." The field conven- 
ticles, whereat the outed presbyterian mi- 
nisters preached, were hitherto as free of 



vagrant and skulking ruffians, who, to the 
great contempt of all government, do ride 
through this our kingdom, killing our sol- 
diers, deforcing such as put our laws in 
execution, and committing such horrible mur- 
ders, who might be easily discovered, if all 
such amongst whom they converse, did, accord- 
ing to their duty, endeavour to apprehend them, 
or give notice where they haunt or resort. We 
have therefore thought fit, conform to the 144th 
act, parliament 12th, king James VI. to com- 
mand and charge all our subjects, that whenso- 
ever any unknown men or vagabonds shall re- 
pair amongst them, that they, with all possible 
speed, certify any of our privy council, officers 
of our forces, or any having trust under us 
thereof; with certification to them, that if they 
omit the same, they shall be punished with all 
rigour conform to the said act. And since se- 
veral of the said assassinates are known to have 
been tenants in the shire of Fife, whose faces 
will be known to such of the witnesses as were 
present, we hereby require and command all the 
heritors and masters of the said shire of F'ife 
and Kinross to bring their tenants, cottars, and 
servants, and others dwelling on their lands, to 
the respective towns at the diets aftenuentioned, 
viz. those within the presbytery of St Andrews, 
to the town of St Andrews, upon the thirteenth 
day of May instant ; those within the presbytery 
of Cupar, to the town of Cupar, upon the six- 
teenth day of the said month ; those within the 
presbytery of Kirkaldy, to the town of Kirk- 
aldy, upon the twentieth day of the said month ; 
and those within the presbytery of Dunfermline, 
to the town of Dunfermline, upon the twenty- 
third day of the said month, at ten o'clock in 
the forenoon, upon each one of the said days, 
there to continue and abide till they be examined 
by the sheriff-deputes of the said shire, who are 
hereby commissionate to that effect, and to be 
seen by the said vi^ituesscs ; with certification to 
such of the said tenants, cottars, servants, and 



any such doctrine as the chm-ches ^ 
were, and neither taught nor vindi- 
cated this attempt upon the bishop ; and if we 
shall judge of principles from incidental ac- 
tions of some in a society, we know where 
to lodge many murders in cold blood, for one 
alleged upon the frequenters of conventi- 
cles. And as in the whole of these twenty- 
eight years I am describing, there are but 
four or five instances of any thing lilce 
assassinations attempted that I mind of, and 
none of them ever defended, that I know of, 
by the suffering presbyterians, but disclaim- 
ed : so in a few months' time, we shall find 
twenty times that number cut off, ivithout 
any process or grouud, by people upon the 
other side : and it is well known since the 
revolution, where repeated attempts of as- 
sassinating kings (as they called them) de 
facto, landed. So I wish, for their own 
sakes, the high-flying prelatists would from 



others foresaid, as shall be absent, they shall be 
reputed as accessary to the said crime; and the 
masters, if they produce them not, or if here- 
after they harbour any that shall not compear, 
they shall be reputed favourers of the said assas- 
sination. And whereas there are some persons 
under caption or intercommuning in the said 
shire for several causes, and lest persons who 
are innocent of that horrid crime, may be there- 
l)y debarred from appearing, and vindicating 
themselves, we have thought fit, hereby to sist 
and supersede all execution upon any letters of 
caption or intercommuning, or any other war- 
rant for securing of any persons for any cause, 
for the space of forty-eight hours before and 
after the said diets of appearance, that they may 
safely come and go without any trouble or im- 
pediment w^hatsoever. And to the end the said 
cruel murder may be more easily discovered, we 
do hereby offer, and give full assurance of our 
indemnity, to any one of the said assassinates 
who shall discover his complices, and such as 
hounded them out, and of present paj'raent of 
the sum of ten thousand merks to any who shall 
inform who were the said assassinates, if upon 
his information they or either of them can be 
apprehended, that they may be brought to con- 
dign punishment. And ordain these presonts 
to be printed, and published at the market cross 
of Edinburgh, and at the market crosses of all 
the royal burghs in the shires of Fife and Kin- 
ross, and to be read at all the parish kirks of the 
said shires, and jurisdictions within the same, 
upon Sunday next, being the eleventh of this 
instant, immediately after the ordinary time of 
divine service in the forenoon, that the same 
may come to the knowledge of all persons con- 
cerned. Given under our signet at Edinburgh, 
the fourth day of May, 1679, and of our reign 
the thirty-first year. 

Alex. Gibson, CI. Seer. Concilii. 
GOD SAVE THE KING. 



5ii 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



,^ henceforth spare such insinuations as 
they lick up from some of the vene- 
mous papers of this time. 

The proclamation goes on to require all 
magistrates to apprehend the persons guilty, 
and subjects to join with them in this. And j 
the act 144, parliament 12th, James VI. is 
revived : and particularly in Fife, the heri- 
tors are required to bring all their tenants 
and cottars, and masters their servants, to 
the places named, that such of the bishop's 
servants as were present, may know their 
faces. No doubt, all methods should be 
taken that are suitable to discover assassi- 
nations, but one would think this a very 
improper way to discover them ; and it is 
scarce to be thought any of them would 
compear so publicly. And masters and he- 
ritors are made liable for absents, if after- 
ward upon their grounds ; which was a 
good handle for much severity in that shire. 
Captions and intercommuning are taken off 
for foi'ty-eiglit horns' space, to encourage 
such to appear: but then, they did not 
kuo^A', but upon other pretexts they might 
be detained, and few or none such appeared. 
In short, an indemnity is offered to any 
of the assassins, who shall discover his ac- 
complices, and ten thousand merks to any 
who shall inform against any of them, so as 
they may be apprehended. 

With this proclamation the council send 
a letter to the king, much of the same strain 
with the narrative of the proclamation, and 
so I need not insert it. In it they complain 
of a paper spread (as they seem to suspect, 
from England) in vindication of Mr Mit- 
chel, which I have not seen. And at the 
same time, send another letter to Lauder- 
dale, with the proclamation, and acquaint 
him with a paper dropt in Cupar some days 
before the bishop's miu'der, threatening such 
as should buy any of the goods of denounced 
persons. All discovered by the multitudes 
of oaths taken, and the utmost enquiry 
could be made, was the above list of the 
names of persons reputed to be actors, who 
came to the barn at Teuchits about three 
in the afternoon, and continued till seven. 
In September, as we shall afterwards hear, 
another proclamation for apprehending the 
murderers was piiblishe(L 

This same day, May 4th, there was a 



meeting at night in the house of IVL's Dur- 
ham. Many conventicles had been in that 
house formerly, I may say, one almost 
every Lord's day ; but they were either 
overlooked or not known, though I am 
infonned the town-major knew of them 
generally as well as the people who came, 
and used to take money to overlook these 
house-meetings. But this day, all being in 
a stir about the accounts which came from 
Fife, the major came upon them in a great 
fury. The preacher was Mr William 
Hamilton, brother to the laird of Ilalcraig 
before described. This young gentleman 
was a very pious and excellent youth, and 
a solid serious preacher. He was a relation 
of Mi-s Durham's, and had about thirty 
hearers, most of them I believe near rela- 
tions. All of them were forthwith com- 
mitted to prison, where some continued 
longer, and some shorter, as their interest 
was greater or lesser with the managers. 
But they were extremely hard on Mr 
Hamilton the preacher. After some weeks' 
close imprisonment, by his ill treatment 
there, he fell ill of a flux, which turned 
very dangerous. His friends presented a 
petition to the council, offering bond and 
caution for his compearing, if he lived, un- 
der what penalty they pleased, and at what 
time ; begging he might be liberate, that he 
might have a change of air, and liberty to 
go to the country, with an attestation under 
the hand of two physicians, that his life was 
in extreme hazard; and this method pro- 
posed a proper mean for his preservation. 
Nothing could be laid to the young gentle- 
man's door, but that he had been licensed 
by presbyterian ministers, and had now and 
then preached to his own relations in a 
house. Yet so inhumane were the mana- 
gers, though the fret by this time, raised by 
the primate's death, might have been off 
their spirits, that they not only refused the 
supplication, but assured his friends they 
would prosecute him for house-conventicles 
next council day. Before that came, he 
died in prison, and had, I may say, a crown 
of martyrdom, since this carriage may as 
well almost be looked upon as killing, as if 
they had sent him to the gibbet : and yet 
this excellent youth had never broke their 
laws in preaching in the fields. He was 



CHAP. IL] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



55 



of" known loyalty, and of a peaceable tem- 
per. He was under no sentence, and had 
nothin<r j udicially proven against him ; and 
all they had to lay to his charge, was his 
preaching once in a relation's house to a 
few friends, after public worship was over. 
Though comparisons be what I do not like 
to make, there are some things in this cir- 
cumstantiate carriage, which do in some 
measure look as much towards Jesuitical 
popish carriage, as many things charged on 
the sufferei*s. 

Besides this instance of severity to a 
person who could have no accession to the 
bishop's death, there were vast numbers in 
Fife and other jjlaces, put to great hard- 
ships. It was not enough for them to com- 
pear at the courts the council appointed, 
but afterwards, upon every jealousy any of 
the primate's friends were pleased to take 
up, they were seized and sent into Edin- 
burgh. I lind by the books of council, a 
good many persons in Fife and Perth taken 
up. May and June, and lying in prison till 
the end of the year, without any trial, when 
upon their petitions they are released by 
the council. I shall but give one instance 
of their iniquity this way, upon John Archer 
candlemaker in Strathmiglo in Fife, brother 
to INIi- Thomas Archer, whom we shall 
afterwards meet with in this history. This 
solid and judicious Clu'istian had been since 
tlie year 1674 several times searched for, 
and forced to abscond, and at length was 
denounced rebel for noncompcarance, for no 
other crime but nonconformity to prelacy, 
and sometimes hearing presbyteriau minis- 
ters. During several years he was for the 
most part obliged to leave his house, trade, 
and small family, and frequently soldiers 
Meroi quartered upon his poor wife and 
children in his absence, who, beside their 
meat and drink, and what they saw good to 
take away with them at removal, had six- 
pence a day, which they forced his Avife to 
pay, reckoning both the day they came to 
the house, and that wherein they left it. 
This was the case of many as well as his, 
and -therefore I have insisted the longer 
upon it. 

Some time after the bishop's death, he was 
seized, when at his work publicly in his own 
house, by John Paterson of Chanwell, who 



commanded a party of horse, and was 
cai'ried straight to the tolbooth of 
Falkland, and from thence very quickly to 
Edinburgh, without any reason given him; 
neither could he guess wherefoi'e it was, till 
in a little time he was brought before the 
council, and charged with accession to the 
archbishop's miu-der. As soon as he heard 
this, he begged that such persons in town 
as he should name, might be called to ex- 
culpate him, which being done, and they 
appearing, all declared they knew him to 
have been in Edinbuj-gh at that time, and 
for some days before and after. Notttith- 
standiug of this clear exculpation, he was 
remitted to prison, where he continued for 
some weeks. Upon application by his 
friends to the chancellor at Lesly, he sign- 
ed a warrant and order to the clerk of 
council to liberate him. The chancellor 
knew the man and his conversation, and 
believed the fair representation given of his 
case ; but when John presented the order 
to the clerks, it was not at all regarded. 
Within a few days Rothes came to town, 
and when he inquired, and found his orders 
not obeyed, the clerks laid the blame on 
Sir William Sharp of Stonyhill, who came 
to the chancellor, and alleged he would 
prove John Aj-cher guilty of the bishop's 
death, though he had already proven him- 
self at Edinburgh for some time before 
that day and after. Such was the equity 
of this period ! Thus he continued in 
prison foiu- months after this, without any 
libel given him, or any shadow of proof 
advanced, which was indeed impossible ; 
for he was a man of quite otlier principles 
and practices. At length, when nothing 
could be laid to his charge, the chancellor 
prevailed to get him liberate towards the 
end of the year. His imprisonment merely 
for fees, besides maintenance, loss of time 
and employment, cost him upwards of a 
hundred pounds. Many others were this 
way oppressed most wrongously ; but this 
instance may suffice. 

I know no place fitter than this, to briug 
in the base murder of one excellent young 
gentleman Andrew Ayton younger of Inch- 
darnie, by the soldiers in Fife at this time ; 
and it ^vas one of the fruits of the furious 
prosecution of the primate's death. I give 



56 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[ROOK III. 



1679. 



it ft'om an attested naiTative sent me 
from a reverend minister of this 
church present with him that day. This 
young gentleman had the blessing of early 
piety ; when at the university of St Andrews, 
he spent much of his time in prayer. After 
his leaving that, he was much concerned 
to have presbyterian ministers brought to 
Fife, and the gospel preached to those who 
could not hear the incumbents. When 
little more than seventeen years of age, he 
was intercommuned, forced to quit his 
father's house, and to go to some of his 
relations in the shire of Murray. When 
there, Mr Walter Denoon, as we have heard, 
was sent south prisoner. Inchdamie fol- 
loAved him at some distance, till he was 
brought to Dundee, and came over to Fife, 
gathered some of his acquaintances, and res- 
cued that good man. He continued lurking 
till May 3rd this year, when my informer 
dined with him in his father's house, and 
parted m ith him about two of the clock, 
when neither of them knew any thing of 
the bishop's death. Thence Inchdamie 
went towards his aunt the lady Murdo- 
cairnie her house ; and not far from Auch- 
termuchty he saw a party of horse at some 
distance riding most furiously to Cupar, 
upon which he rode a little hard to escape 
them, which one of them perceiving, broke 
off from the rest, by order of the comman- 
der, and first wounded his horse, and then 
wounded Inchdamie mortally, by shooting 
two balls through his body, without ever 
asking any questions, or requiring him to 
suiTcuder himself; and then the soldier 
rode back to his party, and came with them 
to Cupar. It was with difficulty the gen- 
tleman could sit his horse till he came to 
the next house, Avhere he got the benefit of 
a bed, and sent for his relation. Sir John 
Ayton of that ilk, whose house was near 
by. Sir John came, and immediately des- 
patched a servant to Cupar for a chiriu-geon. 
But the party had given orders that no 
chirurgeon should leave the town without 
allowance from them. When they were 
applied to, some of their number were sent 
immediately to the place to bring the 
wovmded person to Cupar; when they 
came. Sir John Ayton represented the 
cruelty of taking the dying gentleman three 



miles to ( hipar, and offered them bail, or to 
entertain them there till chirurgeons were 
brought, and they saw what became of 
Inchdamie. But nothing could prevail, he 
was hui'ried a^ay that night upon one of 
their horses to Cupar; he fainted four times 
through loss of blood. And the magistrates 
of Cupar allowed him to be earned to an 
inn, where he died next day about twelve 
of the clock in much jieace and serenity 
with the comfort of his parents being with 
him at his death. The soldier who killed 
him, was a relation of his, one William 
Auchmutie, and came to him professing 
much sorrow for what had happened, beg- 
ging forgiveness, which Inchdamie very 
cheerfully gave him, with some Christian 
advices. This poor man died in the year 
1682, under great teri'or for this fact. But 
I return to the procedure of the council. 

Upon the 8th of May the coxmcil emit a 
proclamation against travelling with arms 
without license, which is annexed.* It is 



• Proclamation, May Slh 1679, against arms. 

Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great 
Britain, France and Ireland, defender of the 
faith : to our lyon king 

at arms, and his brethren, heralds, macers of 
our privy council, pursuivants, or messengers at 
arms, our sheriffs in that part, conjunctly and 
severally, specially constitute, greeting. Foras- 
much as, the bearing of, and shooting with fire- 
arms, such as hackbuts, culverings, and pistols, 
without license from us, is prohibited and dis- 
charged by several acts of parliament, under 
divers great pains and penalties, especially by 
the eighteenth act of the first parliament, eighty 
seventh act of the sixth parliament, and the 
sixth act of the sixteenth parliament of king 
James VI. And we taking to our consideration, 
what atrocious facts are committed by rebellious 
and disorderly persons, who go in arms to field 
conventicles, these rendevouzes of rebellion, and 
presume to make resistance to our forces when 
they offer to dissipate them : therefore we, with 
advice of the lords of our privy council, do pro- 
hibit and discharge all our subjects of this king- 
dom, except the officers and soldiers of our stand- 
ing forces, and of the militia, to travel with any 
fire-arms, as muskets, hackbuts, culverings and 
pistols, unless they have a license from one of 
our privy council, or the sheriff of the shire 
where they dwell, under the pains and penalties 
contained in the said acts of parliament : likeas, 
we, with advice foresaid, do hereby authorize 
and require all sheriffs, Stewarts, bailies, magis- 
trates of burghs, justices of peace, and officers of 
our forces, that they take notice of all persons 
whom they find travelling, not only carrying 
the said fire-ai'ms, but also carrying swords, 
dirks, whingers, halberts, poll-axes, or any other 
weapons invasive, that they seize upon the said 
fire-arms, and secure the persons carrying the 



CHAP. II. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



57 



founded upon the atrocious facts committed 
by persons who go to field-conventicles, 
Avhich hath been already considered; and 
discharges all subjects to travel \vith ai-ms 
without license, and appoints all magistrates 
to seize such, except noblemen, landed gen- 
tlemen, and their children, and servants in 
company nith them, if they be found with 
arms ; and the soldiers are likewise ordered 
to apprehend such. This proclamation 
Hants much of the virulence of many at 
this time, and so I say no more of it, but 
that it was a plain insult both upon the 
safety and liberty of the subjects, and a good 
handle for the soldiers to spoil many of their 
arms, and brought much trouble to many of 
the pei'secuted people. That same day the 
council sent a letter to Lauderdale, acquaint- 
ing- him M'ith the order they had given for 
discovering the bishop's miu-derers iu the 
shire of Fife, and the diligent and strict 



same, not having license from one of our privy 
council, or from a sheriff, or Stewart, granted to 
these within their jurisdiction, until they give 
bond and caution to compear before competent 
judges, and .inswer for their transgression of the 
said acts of parliament ; and in case the said 
travellers be found to carry any of the said 
arms, they not being noblemen, landed gentle- 
men, or their children, or servants travelling 
■with them or their children, and not having 
passes expressing whence they came, and whither 
they go, under the hand of one of our privy 
council, lords of session, sheriffs, Stewarts, bailies 
of royalties or regalities, magistrates of burghs, 
justices of peace, or commissioners of excise, 
granted in favours of these within their bounds, 
that the said persons be examined by our said 
judges and ofiftcers in whose bounds they shall 
be found ; and in case they cannot give a suffi- 
cient account of themselves, that they are none 
of these vagrant persons, disturbers of the peace, 
and committers of the said insolencies, Ave do 
command our said judges and officers to seize 
upon their arms, and secure their persons in the 
next prison, and with all diligence to send an 
account of their names and examination to oiw 
sheriff-deputes specially commissionate for pun- 
ishing of conventicles, and other disorders of that 
kind, that without delay they may proceed to 
the trial of the said persons, according to their 
commissions and instructions. And we ordain 
these presents to continue and endure until the 
first of November next. Our will is herefore, 
and we charge you straitly and command, that 
incontinent, these our letters seen, ye pass to the 
market-cross of Edinburgh, and other places 
needful, and there make publication of the pre- 
misses, that none may pretend ignorance. And 
ordain these presents to be printed. Given un- 
der our signet, at Edinburgh the eighth day of 
May, 1679, and of oiu- reign the thirty-first year. 
Albx. Gibson CI. Seer. Coucilii. 
GOD SAVE THE KING. 



search which had that day beeu 
made iu Edinbtu-gh, which they teim 
the strictest that ever had been made in it 
for suspected persons. That the reader 
may sec the pains used in Fife, I have an- 
nexed the instructions to the sheriif-deputes 
there.* 

The care of the managers is not confined 
to Fife at this time. The earl of Linlith- 
gow is empowered, " to dispose of his ma- 
jesty's forces, as he thinks most convenient 
for reducing conventicles and all unlawful 
conventions." And Adam Urquhart of 
Meldrimi, whom we shall frequently meet 
with afterwards, having signalized himself 
by appearing ag'ainst the persecuted jicople, 
is made a justice of peace in the shire of 
Roxburgh, and is to act in conjunction 
with Henry Ker of Graden, conform to the 
instructions, March 11th last. And this 
month I find the council heap places on 



• Instructions to the sheriff-deputes of Fife, anent 
the trial of the murderers of the late arc/ibishop of 
St Andreivs, 

That all males from sixteen years of age and 
upwards in each presbytery, meet on the days 
appointed, that all the ministers be there, and 
bring with them the communion rolls. That 
they mark all of them who come not to chm-cli 
on the account of fanatv; or popish principles, 
and that these be set aside. That all such as 
are of that tribe, be examined, and obliged to 
give account where they were all the third of 
May, and specially betwixt ten in the morning 
and three in the afternoon, and that they prove 
what they say by sufficient witnesses, or that 
they give up the names of the witnesses that 
they may be examined thereanent. That such 
as cannot prove a good account of themselves, in 
manner foresaid, be secured, and their goods 
seized and secured, till the issue of their trial. 
That such as shall be absent the said day, be 
liolden as probably guilty of the horrid act, and 
their goods secured in manner foresaid, and their 
master be obliged to keep the said goods on the 
ground, or to deliver them presently. That (if 
it can be conveniently) search be made, in the 
time of the said rendezvous, in such places as 
those in the place shall judge most convenient. 
That the names of the absents be published at 
all the parish churches, and at the market-cross 
the next market-day, and a proclamation of the 
council containing all their names, prohibiting 
reset, shelter, or harbour to them ; and also or- 
dering all sheriffs, bailies, magistrates, &c. to 
pursui', apprehend, or kill them in case they re- 
sist, or do not submit themselves, and a severe 
fine on any who refuse or delay to concur in the 
said duties through the whole kingdom. That 
the sheriif-deputes do intimate to the heritors of 
the said shire, that it is the council's express 
pleasure, that they give all possible concurrence 
to them in this examination and trial, under all 
highest pains. 



58 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



him : he is made a justice of piece in 

Teviotdale and the Merse. And May 

27th he is made a justice of peace and 

commissioner against disorders in the shire 

of Selkirk. 

That same day the council approve of the 
report of the committee for public affairs, 
and continue Earlston's case till next diet. 
The report is, " that they had writ a letter 
of thanks to C. Carne, and William Car- 
michael, sheriff-deputes of Fife, for their 
diligence in searching after the murderers 
of the primate ; and had empowered them 
to secure and put under inventory the goods 
of John Balfoiu" of Kinloch, Hackston of 
Rathillet, the three Balfours in Gilston, 
persons most suspect of the murder, until 
they themselves he brought to a trial : that 
they had called before them ten persons 
apprehended in the south by the laird of 
Meldrum, two of which, Robert Neilson 
and Nicol Story, can make great discoveries 
of Welsh, his haunts and reset, Neilson 
having confessed that he rode with him and 
Story; that he collected contributions at 
their meetings, rolls of which were found 
ou him. They are remitted to the advo- 
cate, M-ith other four prisoners sent in from 
Ayr by captain Murray ; and are to continue 
in prison till they receive a libel for being 
at conventicles. That the cautioners of 
Ml- Alexander Gordon having forfeited their 
bond, by not pi'oducing him, be charged for 
five thousand merks ; that Mr Andi'ew 
Kennedy of Clowburn, upon refusing to 
depone, be held as confest, and fined in a 
thousand merks ; that Mr Robert Maxwell 
now confined at Paisley, because of his 
great age and infirmity, have the diet con- 
tinued against him, he finding caution to 
appear when called, under the pain of a 
thousand merks ; that, upon the testimony 
of the archbishop of Glasgow, Mr John Law 
be dismissed, upon caution, to appear when 
called, upon bond of a thousand merks ; 
that Bennet of Chesters continue in prison 
till he receive an additional libel ; and Scot 
of Pitlochle, and his cautioners be cited to 
the next council day." I can only set down 
those hints of things and persons as I meet 
with them ; if the full minutes of the com- 
mittee of public affairs had been preserved, 
larger accounts might have been given of 



them. We had some hints about some of 
them upon the first chapter. 

Upon the 13th of May the council meet, 
and a letter is read from the king, approv- 
ing the di'aft of the proclamation about con- 
venticles, which, it seems, had been agreed 
upon May 1st. He gives them tlianks for 
it, and declares, " that he will maintain his 
authority, and countenance them, notwith- 
standing of the aspersions cast upon them 
and their proceedings, as contrary to law 
and reason. And from the satisfaction he 
received last year, by some of their number 
coming up, and setting their procedure in 
due light, when noise was made against 
them unjustly, he desires them now to send 
up some, that he may have a fuller view of 
the state of things at present, and signify 
his pleasure about many things he cannot 
impart by a letter. He names the clerk 
register, advocate, justice clerk, president, 
and Sir George Mackenzie of Tarbet jus- 
tice-general, to come to him, that he may 
have information in law and in fact." 

Upon this letter they order the publica- 
tion of the proclamation against conventi- 
cles. May 1 3th, Avhich is so remarkable, that 
it deserves a little more to be noticed. The 
reader will find it below.* It beoins with 



* Proclamation, May, against arms at conventu 
cles, 1679. 
Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great 
Britain, France and Ireland, defender of the 
faith ; to 

macers or messengers at arms, our sheriffs in 
that part, conjunctly and severally, specially 
constitute, greeting. Forasmuch as, albeit by 
the fundamental laws of all monarchies, the 
power of arms is lodged in the king, and the 
rising in arms be punishable as treason, and that 
the estates of parliament of this kingdom, re- 
flecting with horror upon the great confusions 
and distempers, and the execrable rebellion of 
the last age, occasioned by the unwarrantable 
rising in arms against our royal father of blessed 
memory, whereby, not only the royal govern- 
ment was endeavoured to be overturned, but the 
properties and liberties of the subjects destroyed 
under the specious, but false pretext of religion 
and conscience, did, by the first act of our first 
parliament, declare, that it should be high trea- 
son to the subjects of this kingdom, or any 
number of them, more or less, upon any ground 
or pretext whatsoever, to rise or continue in 
arms, without our speci.'il warrant and authori- 
ty first interponed thereto ; and by the second 
act of the second session of that same parliament, 
they likewise declared, that if any person or 
l>ersons should levy war, or take up any arms 
against us, or any commissionated by us, they 



CHAP. II. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



59 



au assertion that doth not so well agree to 
a limited monarchy, " that by the funda- 
mental laws of all monarchies, the poA^er 
of arms is lodged in the king, and rising in 
arms is punishable as treason." This was 
indeed the doctrine now set up for,* but 
that it is the fundamental law of monarchy, 
is more than I have seen proven by the 



should be declared and adjudged traitors, and 
should suffer t'ort'eiture of life, honour, lands, 
and goods, as in cases of high treason : yet w^e 
being always most desirous to essay all means of 
clemency, for correcting such of our subjects as 
could be any ways reclaimable, have not hither- 
to put those acts into such execution, as the 
disorders and irregularities of some of our sub- 
jects did require, hoping their going to field 
meetings, those reudevouzes of rebellion, ■with 
arms, might have proceeded merely from custom 
or mistake : but now finding by the frequent 
opposition made in arms to our forces acting in 
our name, the invading of our officers, and the 
exciting others to go to such meetings in arms, 
upon design to oppose our forces, that such as 
frequent these meetings, do go there in arms 
upon a criminal and treacherous design, which 
grows to that same proportion that we use cle- 
mency; and we being desirous that none of our 
subjects should be led in a snare by our former 
lenity, and to the end their condign punishment 
according to these laws, may be the more justly 
chargeable upon the obdurateness and obstinacy 
of the offenders, have therefore, with advice of 
the lords of our privy council, after mature de- 
liberation, thought fit to declare, that we will 
hereafter order the judges of our respective judi- 
catures, and the officers of all our i'orces, to pro- 
ceed against all such who go with any arms to 
those field meetings, as traitors. And lest that 
any of our subjects may pretend, by the just 
rigour we will use against such as do go to con- 
venticles in arms, that we resolve to slacken our 
prosecution of other field conventicles, we have 
therefore thought fit, to require all our judges 
and officers to put our laws and former com- 
mands in vigorous execution, even against those 
w^ho frequent these fieldmeetings without arms, 
we being fully convinced both by reason and ex- 
perience, that those meetings do certainly tend 
to the ruin and reproach of the Christian reli- 
gion and discipline, to the introduction of popery 
and heresy, the subversion of monarchy, and 
the contempt of all laws and government. Our 
will is herefore, and we charge you straitly, and 
command, that incontinent, these our letters 
seen, ye pass to the market cross of Edinburgh, 
and other head burghs of the several shires of 
this kingdom, and thereat, in our name and au- 
thority, by open proclamation, make publication 
of the premisses, that none pretend ignorance. 
Given under our signet at Edinburgh, the thir- 
teenth day of May, 1679, and of our reign the 
thirty-first year. 

Per actum Dominorum Secreti Concilii. 
Alex. Gibson, CI. Seer. Concilii. 
GOD SAVE THE KING. 

* It was set up for long before by that " grand 
schoolmaster of the nation," as he was pleased to 
call himself, king James VI. — Ed. 



passive obedience gentlemen. Next 
follows a recapitulation of the spite 
and venom now ordinarily pom-ed out upon 
the period from the 1638 to the 1C50. To call 
these times of reformation, rebellion, is now 
common style : hut one must he surprised at 
the penner of this paper, his asserting, "that 
then the liberty of the subject Mas destroy- 
ed." This is an odd proposition to be as- 
serted by the managers, till once they had 
got all the excellent laws, made for securing 
liberty and property, and restraining arbi- 
trary attempts upon both, by princes or 
their servants, not only rescinded, hut all 
the copies of them destroyed ; for as long 
as these remain among people's hands, they 
will easily be in case to disprove this wild 
assertion; and perhaps a parallel to the 
good laws betwixt the 1640 and 1650, as to 
their advantage to the subject, can scarce 
be produced any where. 

The acts of parliament referred to iu this 
proclamation, have been already considered. 
The clemency of the government, in not 
putting these acts in execution, is mightily 
insisted upon ; and the former part of this 
history ^vl\\ show what Avere the clement 
executors' methods. They never had any 
risings in arras, but that at Pentland ; and 
we have seen how much blood Avas shed 
upon that score. People's meeting at con- 
venticles, in arras, was not yet declared a 
rising in arms, or treasonable, otherwise 
there was no need of this proclamation, or 
of the king's signing it, before they durst 
venture to publish it ; nor would the pass- 
ing it in council, have cost the late primate 
such a struggle as it did. After they have 
made the king offer an apology for the 
former lenity, as " laying a snare for his sub- 
jects," all judges and officers of the army are 
appointed, " to proceed against all such who 
go to any field-meetings with arms, as trai- 
tors." Judges' procedure against them is 
plain, but for the officers of the army, their 
doing so needs to he explained a little: 
more must be necessarily included it, than 
their seizing them, and delivering them up 
toother magistrates and judges; for they 
were thus to proceed against such who 
had no arms at conventicles. It is then 
either to call an assize of their own soldiers, 
as their practice after this explained it, and 



60 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK 111. 



r<~n pi'oceed to a sentence of death ; or to 
kill and destroy tlieni Aihere they 
found them, without giving- themselves this 
trouble; both which they frequently did, and 
I know no other ^varrant but this proclama- 
tion. Great caution is used in ^;hat follows, 
lest any favour might be su2)posed to be in the 
statutory part, towards such who came to 
hear the gospel without arms, and had the 
coiu-age to venture themselves on the 
mercy of the soldiers and government ; and 
they are fairly warned that no mercy is to 
be shown them, and all concerned are re- 
quired to execute the laws against them. 
The ground of all this severity is, "that 
now the king is convinced fully, that these 
meetings, (cither \i'ith or without arms, 
that 7s, the preaching of the gospel by any 
who ^^'ill not subject to prelacy) do cer- 
tainly tend to the ruin and reproach of the 
christian religion, and discipline, introduc- 
tion of popery, subversion of monarchy, and 
contempt of all laws and government." It 
will certainly, when remarked by posterity, 
leave a lasting reproach upon this period 
and government, to find such a public de- 
claration concerning the pure and peaceable 
pi'eaching of the gospel. The ill grounded 
nature of his majesty's conviction on these 
heads hath been frequently shoAin. 

I shall only remark further, that the 
gentleman I have formerly spokeu of, hath 
this observe upon a copy of this proclama- 
tion now in mine eye. Nota, " This was the 
last act of council the bishop of St Andrews 
had the honour to be present at upon earth ; 
for it was passed in council upon Thursday 
the first of May, and sent up to his majesty, 
and by liim subscribed the Gth of May, and 
emitted here, and published the 13th of 
May. In the interim the archbishop ^\ent 
over the water on Friday the 2d, and was 
cruelly murdered upon Saturday the 3rd, 
his burial was upon Saturday the 17th of 
May." By other accounts, and from the 
nature of the thing, it appears that the arch- 
bishop met with some opposition to this 
severe proclamation. And they all saw 
need, before it was published, to have it 
signed by the king, that this might be a 
warrant to them, if afterwards called to an 
account for it ; and care is takeu to insert 
so much in the title of the proclamation. 



So we may reckon this the primate's le- 
gacy, and an earnest of Mhat he would have 
essayed had he got up to court. No wonder 
such a proclamation drove people to mea- 
sures which otherwise they had no mind 
to. The former laws, and their severe exe- 
cution, forced people to come with arms to 
hear the gospel ; now this is made treason, 
and they traitors. And when no way of 
relief was possible, but by standing their 
ground, we need not be sui-prised, after 
what went before, and this proclamation, 
to hear of a rising very soon, especially if 
we consider the further severe methods 
agreed upon at this time. 

That same day the council remit the 
consideration of an overture proposed, for 
obliging masters either to produce their te- 
nants, or be liable for their delinquencies, if 
they do not produce them to the president, 
advocate, justice-clerk, Collingtou and Tar- 
bet. Upon the 13th of May, tlic overture 
is approven, and transmitted to his majesty 
by such as are to attend him ; the tenor of 
it follows. ' That it is thought convenient 
and legal, to the end that every master may 
be watchful over his own tenants, and that 
every tenant may stand more in awe, be- 
cause he knows that his master stands en- 
gaged, that the Gth act, pari. 3rd, James V. 
be put in execution in this way and man- 
ner: that his majesty and council issue out 
a proclamation, ordaining the justices to 
hold courts twice a 3rear in those counties 
that are most irregular, and to take up dit- 
tay particularly against tenants guilty of 
field-conventicles, and sucii disorders. And 
where any tenant is delated upon oath by 
an informer, and is named and set doMii in 
the Porteous-roll, as use is, that immediate- 
ly the names of the tenants so delated be 
given to the clerk of the justiciary, who 
must produce them at the day assigned for 
their compearance, or else pay their unlaw,* 
to be modified by the justice according to 
the nature and quality of the case and de- 
linquency. But if the master does exact 
diligence, in putting the tenant off his land, 
and does not after reset him, then he shall 
be free of those unlaAvs, conform to 10'?' act, 
Pari, 7th, James VI.' This, we shall hear. 



T})eii- (ins for absence. 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



61 



was gone into, and became the great foun- 
dation of harassing- gentlemen and their te- 
nants in the following years. 

May lith, they have the king's letter, in 
answer to theirs of the 4th dated May 10th, 
wherein he declares, he will resent the in- 
humanity and bail)arity of the primate's 
murder ; that he approves of their procla- 
mation, and hath caused reprint it at Lon- 
don, and recommends that they go on iu 
the search with all vigour ; and puts them 
in mind of his former commands to some of 
their number to come up to him. Next 
day the council send a letter to the king, 
^^'herein they remit the state of things to 
those he has called for, thaul< him for his 
marks of affection, promise to go on in his 
service, and conclude with their hopes, 
that they need not recommend the state of 
the church, and such who serve in it, to 
his majesty, and declaring that their secu- 
rity will still be one of their chief cares. 

At the same time they pass an act against 
that excellent person beforenaraed, Mr Pa- 
trick Simpson. ' The lords of his majesty's 
privy council considering, that Mr Patrick 
Simpson, indulged minister at Kilmacomb, 
was cited to compear befoi-e them in Fe- 
bruary last, to answer for breach of confine- 
ment, and keeping of conventicles; and 
whereas he hath not appeared, and has been 
denounced rebel, they declare the kirk of 
Kilmacomb vacant, and ordain the solicitor 
to acquaint the parishioners that they pay 
him no more stipend.' What was the occa- 
sion of this severity, I know not. After- 
ward, as hath been remarked, he had, upon 
better information given, some favoiu* 
shown him. 

After the persons sent for were gone to 
court. May 27th, the council acquaint his 
majesty, ' That they are convened that day, 
upon a letter from the earl of Argyle, de- 
siring some of the forces to be sent to re- 
press the rebellions and disorderly practices 
of the lord Macdonald and his accomplices ; 
that they found it uot proper to send any 
of the standing forces to Inverlochie, when 
conventicles were so numerous, but have 
ordered the sheriffs of Dumbarton and Bute 
to join the said earl. And, upon informa- 
tion that several persons iu the shii-e of In- 
verness have joined the said rebels, they 



have issued a proclamation against 
them, and have sent to the earl twelve ' 
hundred weight of powder, and baU propor- 
tioned.' That same day also letters are Mrit to 
the earls of Caithness, and sheriffs of Inver- 
ness, to join Argyle in repressing those rebel 
papists, and to take with them forty days' pro- 
vision. We shall afterwards hear the earl 
is called off' this necessary work, to join iu 
suppressing the west country army. 

That same day the coimcil approve the 
following report of the committee for pub- 
lic affairs. ' That they had granted warrant 
to search further in Fife for the murderers 
of the primate, and to bring over witnesses 
against Henry Schaw an intercommuned 
person lately taken. The prisoners taken 
by Meldrum are dismissed upon bond, ex- 
cept Neilson and Story, upon caution given 
to compear before the justices of peace in 
their shire ; and the bonds are sent to him 
and the quarter-master Dalmalioy, to be 
put in execution. Claverhouse liaviug late- 
ly surprised a conventicle in the parish of 
Galashiels, where were present the ladies 
Torwoodlie, Galashiels, and Newton youn- 
ger, the laird and lady Ashiesteil, the lady 
Fernylie, and BIi-s Jean Hunter, spouse to 
Mr Pringle, and his daughter, with several 
other mean persons ; a citation was ordered 
against the said ladies and their husbands 
to compear before the council, and the laird 
of Meldrum was ordered to proceed against 
the rest. Mr Thomas Wilkie, the minister 
taken at that conventicle, and Mr Francis 
Irvine an intercommuned minister sent in 
from Dumfries, are remitted to the council 
(who order them to the Bass.) Mr James 
Daes advocate hath the time of paying his 
fine prorogate till the second Tuesday of 
June, and is to re-enter prison that day, if 
it be not paid.' The rising in June, and 
the consequences of it, put other work than 
this in the managers' hands for some time. 
Of this I come now to give some account. 



Of the occasions, and causes of, and inlets 
to the rising at Boihwrll. 

There can be no exact and full judgment 
passed upon any matter of this nature, espe- 



62 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



cially its j us tice or iniquity, till once it 
' be fully known in its spring's and rise ; 
therefore I begin any account I am to give 
of this business of Bothwell, with some en- 
quiry into these. What I have said before, 
as to the gatheinng' which ended at Pent- 
land, may very much be referred to here. 
There was no preconcert, nor any formed 
design laid down ; but the oppressed people 
gradually fell into this rising-, by a chain of 
things making- it some ^Ya,y necessary to 
them : indeed it ought not to be entirely 
lodged upon any one of these following 
particulars, but upon the whole of them ; 
and, no doubt, several other things helped 
it on, which have escaped my observation. 
I may well begin with the heavy oppres- 
sion of the lieges in their civil concerns, 
some hints whereof may be gathered from 
the preceding part of this history, but it is 
a very small part of it can be now repre- 
sented. Every one who had the least show 
of seriousness was grievously harassed in as 
far as they could be reached, and plain 
spulies were committed upon all who would 
not concur actively Avith the soldiers in 
their oppressive methods. These things 
soured the spirits of not a few ; and if, as 
Solomon tells us, oppression makes a wise 
man mad, we need not wonder at any 
heights run to at this time, but rather be 
surprised that things were not much further 
carried. We have already had some view 
of the barbarous invasion upon the west 
country by the Highland host, and the suc- 
ceeding severities in exacting the cess last 
year and this. The meetings for hearing 
the gospel, in houses and the fields, were 
violently attacked, and frequently the sol- 
diers did discharge their loaded pieces 
among poor unarmed country people ; some, 
we have heard, were killed, and many were 
wounded. The dreadful havoc made in all 
the corners of the west and south of Scot- 
land, by the parties of soldiers marching up 
and down, and the garrisons, is what cannot 
be expressed. When the soldiers got no- 
tice of the houses of any of the fugitives or 
intercommuned persons, there they exer- 
cised their greatest fury, yea, upon the 
houses of such as were the relations of the 
former, and of all who kept not the church 
regularly. And it was odd to observe how 



few such they missed in their traversings 
of the country; they had generally their 
information from the episcopal incumbent 
in every parish whither they came. At 
such houses the soldiers used to stay, not 
only living at discretion, and eating up as 
much as they saw good, killing sheep and 
other cattle for their own use, and giving 
their horses a great deal more than was 
needful, but also carried away every thing 
portable which made for them ; and either 
kept it, or when their luggage turned cum- 
bersome, they would make money of it at 
the next place they came to, and even force 
people to give them money for what they 
had robbed others of. Yea, to such a height 
came their rage, as they most mahciously 
destroyed wliat they could not eat up. In 
some houses they took the threshed corn 
out of the sacks, and cast it into the run- 
ning Abaters, and took the meal, and trode 
it in the dunghill ; and in other places set 
fire to the stacks of corn and other victual, 
and burned the threshed victual : and many 
other dreadful abuses did they commit, of 
which there «as no room to complain. 
Many particular accounts of these outrages 
I have seen, and a good number are before 
me, too tedious to insert here. 

It was no great wonder then, that not a 
few, Avho perhaps had no great sense of re- 
ligion, joined with such as were forced to 
be in arms, and wander up and down for 
their principles, and sided with any party 
who might procure their relief in their pro- 
perty and civil liberty so dreadfully in- 
vaded ; especially, when they could have no 
view of redress, but in an hostile way, and 
by repelling force with force. Indeed, the 
quarrel upon which several in this rising 
stated themselves, was self-defence, and the 
recoverinsT of their civil liberty, as well as 
the freedom of hearing the gospel preached : 
and the greatest part of the west and south 
were subjected, not only to the arbitrary 
government of the prince, and the more 
arbitrary procedure of the council, but to 
the cruel and covetous lust of every private 
sentinel. Invasions, generally in an evil 
time, are made both upon religion and lib- 
erty: these ordinarily stand and fall to- 
gether; and when measures are well laid 
and concerted, it is certainly the most ten- 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



63 



ahle and justifiable quarrel for rising in 
arras, which is stated upon property and 
right, and Avhere civil liberty is defended 
and maintained with an eye to its influence 
upon, and subserviency to religion. 

Several things have been already noticed 
concerning the strict pursuit of the field- 
meetings in the west and south, by the gar- 
risons formerly mentioned ; and as it was a 
branch of this Avhich gave the immediate 
occasion to the rising, so the long and 
groinng tract of those severities prepared 
matters for it. Some of the ministers and 
people who used to have such meetings 
with very little observation and noise, and 
but in small numbers, found it needful, be- 
cause of the insults of the soldiers, to keep 
more closely together, and narrow them- 
selves into one meeting, sometimes in one 
place, sometimes in another, where they 
best might with safety. I have ab-eady ob- 
served, that such as were concerned in this 
ambulatory sort of meeting, were of the 
warmer sort, who had freedom to go some 
lengths, AA'herein the most part by far of 
presbyterians could not follow them ; and 
some of these afterwards Ment far gi'eater 
lengths than at this time were set up for. 
To this meeting a good many brought arms 
for defending themselves, and the ministers 
who preached to them, against the garri- 
sons and parties of soldiers ; and they were 
armed a great deal better than any other I 
hear of. The soldiers hearing of the num- 
bers in arms, endeavoiu-ed by all means to 
catch people, at least in their coming, and 
going. Their hazard this way fi'om the 
garrisons, and rambling parties of the sol- 
diers, whose orders were to apprehend, 
assault, yea, to kill, if any defence were 
made, brought them at length to this, that 
the most part of the constant attenders upon 
these meetings, save the country people in 
every neighbourhood, who came merely to 
hear, were armed. By this the soldiers 
were a little frighted, and did not so much 
trouble them as formerly, and somewhat 
scared from firing among poor naked people, 
killing and wounding of some, and dragging 
others to prison and banishment. And this 
way they kept up the preaching of the 
gospel for a good many weeks, which now 
to some of them was indeed dearer than 



their lives; and the soldiers, when ac- 

. • 1G79 

quainted with their numbers, thought 

good to keep at distance, and withdraw. Ac- 
counts of this were sent to Edinburgh, and 
the numbers of the armed at this meeting 
were no way diminished : yea, many lies came 
in to the council, both by the clergy and com- 
manders of the soldiers. These issued in 
new and more severe proclamations, as we 
have heard, and orders to the army. And 
more soldiers were brought west and sent 
to the places where the field-meetings were. 
This again increased the numbers of people 
in arms at the meetings : and warm persons 
coming in among them, projects were spoke 
of A la-volce; and some put upon courses 
they at first had no view of, nor design to 
come to. They continued together in par- 
ties through the week ; and their tempers, 
by hardships and conversation being height- 
ened, there was talking of going some fur- 
ther length than mere self-defence : but any 
thing that way, came never to any bearing 
till Drumclog. 

We may add the severe and cruel laws 
made especially after the primate's death, 
and some before it. The being in arms at 
field-meetings is made treason by law, which, 
as hath been observed, was much the same 
to many, as if the hearing of the gospel 
preached by outed presbyterian ministers 
had been made treason, since the case of 
not a few was such, as without arms they 
could not be present at field-meetings : and 
I do not question this drove many a great 
deal further than at first they projected. 
Travelling with arms, or, as the soldiers 
execute the act, the having of arms at all 
without the council's license, which none 
of the persecuted people could ever look 
for, was punishable at pleasure; and the 
soldier's pleasure came in room of the coun- 
cil's, and was extravagant enough. Terrible 
powers were granted by the council to the 
commissioners, sheriffs, and their deputes, 
as we have seen, and a good many poor and 
rakish gentlemen, were clothed with these 
powers at the request of the bishops. And 
to crown all, the officers of the army were 
warranted, not only to apprehend, but 
wound and kill such as they found with 
arms at field-conventicles, or any coming or 
going to them, if they made resistance : and 



64 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



BOOK III. 



.. the parties who ranged u[} and down, 
" were not w anting in executing these 
powers granted them. 

All these laid together, may discover 
what extraordinary hardships and difficul- 
ties great multitudes were brought under. 
They found such sweetness in the gospel 
piu-ely and clearly preached to them, that 
they looked on it as the greatest blessing, 
and what was most necessary to them ; and 
it was but a few who had access to it from 
the handful of presbyterian ministers who 
were indulged. They were most averse to 
take up arms, until they were forced to it, 
and that merely in their onn defence. For 
a long time, though they had arms with 
them, yet they made no use of them, and 
never desired any occasion of using them : 
and being made' guilty of treason for this, 
they were obliged to continue in this way, 
^yhich the fury of their persecutors had 
forced them unto. And thus, by one step 
after another, they were necessitate to this 
rising I am now to give the account of. 

That the party who gathered at BothweU 
were in concert with the discontented and 
countiy party in England at this time, I 
cannot believe, since I find no jjroofs of it. 
The English writers upon the one side, do 
assert it, without giving any thing, that I 
have seen, which looks like a solid reason : 
and when I consider all circimistances, it 
appears to me a thing that could not well 
be. The virulent writer of the " Caveat 
against the Whigs," alleges there was a close 
correspondence betwixt Shaftsbury and the 
Scots rebels as he calls them ; and talks of 
forty copies of his speech in March this 
year, sent down by the fii-st post to Scot- 
land. We have ah-eady found good cause 
not to receive matters of fact upon the 
credit of this author's assertion. I see no 
reason to doubt, but this is a story of his 
own making, and of a piece with many 
other untruths in these pamphlets, writ at 
a juncture wherein somewhat of this sort 
was necessary to the helping forward the 
designs of a popish and persecuting party, 
against the constitution and religion of 
these kingdoms, upon the back of the al- 
most fatal turn of affairs towards the close 
of queen Anne's reign. When this rising 
was begun, and some thousands got together 



in arms, ^ve shall find, that in order to mo- 
derate the warmth of some there, and to en- 
large the bottom upon which that appear- 
ance was to be stated, motions were made 
from Edinbiu-gh, that the declaration they 
emitted might be such as those in England, 
who appeared for the liberties of their 
country, might be the better brought in to 
espouse, if need wei'e: but this plainly 
enough says, that this rising did not flow 
from any correspondence with the earl of 
Shaftsbury; and indeed the naiTow lay* 
tipon which the first gatherers together set 
up, makes this matter beyond debate ; and 
when this proposal was made from Edin- 
burgh, Ave shall find these people would not 
go into it. Further, to me it ajipears al- 
most incredible, that a handful of poor in- 
significant country people, hearing and fol- 
lowing some field-preachers, aa ith no other 
view, than to have the benefit of the gospel, 
and preserve it in the land, should enter 
into a concert Avith the English peers. I 
am morally sure, that their ministers had 
no such correspondence. Hoav far some 
feAv gentlemen, and others AA'ith them, who 
had civil liberty in their vieAv in their rising, 
and by this motive encouraged others to 
rise, might take heart from the appearances 
in England against arbitrary and oppressive 
measures there carrying on, I shall not de- 
termine; but I can learn nothing of any 
direct or indirect concert or correspondence 
Avith England, nor perceive any indications 
of it. I am AAcll assui-ed from some yet 
alive, aaIio preached in the fields at this 
time, that they never heard any thing of 
this nature. Yea, to me it appears very 
probable, that if matters had been concerted 
Avitli that party in England, this business 
would have been more regularly and pru- 
dently managed and carried on. Wlien the 
country people Avere got together, and the 
accounts had reached London, I doubt not 
but Shaftsbury and others there, might 
Avish the people at BotliAAell Avell, and use 
their interest to have the duke of Mon- 
moutli's instructions as favourable as might 
be, since they knew that i)arty were really 
struggling for liberty, as they themselves 
professed to do. This is all that offers to 

* Foundation. 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



65 



lue upon this matter ; but the author of the 1 
" Caveat for the Whig-s" will have every thiii"^ 
that displeases him, to come, from au imagi- 
nary concert betwixt the republicans in 
England, as he names all who made any 
ittand ao-aiust arbitrary measures there, and 
the presbyterians in Scotland, and the 
Dutch. 

Perhaps, a way for the beginnings, at 
least of this gathering, might likewise in 
some measure be paved by the heats about 
the indulgence and cess, coming to a great- 
er height this year than formerly. We have 
already heard, that this tlame was now ris- 
ing and spreading. Mr Thomas Douglas, 
]Mr Donald Cargil, and some young preach- 
ers, Mr Richard Cameron, and others in 
some of the field meetings, Avere openly 
preaching against hearing the indulged mi- 
nisters, and speaking some very harsh 
things of them : and Robert Hamilton, with 
some others who were with them ia arms, 
did very much widen this breach. And yet 
we shall find, that although Mr John 
Welsh, Ml- David Hume, Mr Semple, and 
others who likewise preached in the fields, 
were very averse from this coiu-se, as tend- 
ing to divide and break presbyterians 
among themselves, and so to ruin them ; 
yet they and many of their followers, join- 
ed with them who rose at this time, and 
endeavoured to have the differences remov- 
ed, though with little success. 

And, in the last room, it may not be al- 
together improbable, that John Balfour, and 
some others concerned in the murder of 
bishop Sharp, might help on the warmth 
upon that side to which they joined, and 
endeavour to bring matters to such an issue, 
as to save themselves by a formed rising ; 
though, as I said above, their accession to 
that fact Avas not generally kno\A'n at Both- 
well ; and the people concerned in that ris- 
ing did never approve of that attempt : and 
whatever reproach was cast upon them by 
Balfour, and some others being of their 
number, yet it hath no foundation at all. 
Whatever be in this, no doubt it was this 
party headed by Mi* Hamilton, who, as they 
violently pushed forward the country peo- 
ple to a rising, so by their indiscretion and 
want of conduct, evidently ruined the west 
country army, and effectually hindered the 



1679. 



fair prospect there once was, that they 
might have been a mean of delivering 
the chiu-ch and nation from the burdens 
they were under ; and the upshot of all was, 
divisions came in, joint measures were not 
taken. A great many left them when they 
saw whither matters were going, and far 
more never joined them ; and such as con- 
tinued together could never do any thing 
of consequence : and when they came to be 
attacked, the high-flyers withdrew first, and 
left the poor country men to the mercy of 
the king's army. 

These things were the occasions of this 
rising ; and from them it is evident it was 
no premeditated or concerted thing in its 
first beginnings, but gradually one thing 
fell in upon the neck of another, till the 
people \vere brought together in arms ; and 
\A'hen once together, no doubt they might 
have done far more than they did, had they 
improven their first successes, and kept 
joined among themselves : which brings me 
forward to give some account of the begin- 
ning and progress of this rising, and the 
unhappy differences which fell in among 
them, which I shall run through as quickly 
as I can, that I may come to the action it- 
self, and the sufferings following upon it, 
which is my proper task. 



Of the declaration at JRutherglen, May 29/h, 
and the first rencounters, and smaller 
skirmishes at Drttmclog and Glasgoio, in 
the beginning of June. 

This rising in the west of Scotland, like 
many other considerable turns, had but very 
small beginnings : and it is scarce to be 
thought that the persons concerned in them 
had any prospect that what they did, and 
particularly their attempt at Rutherglen, 
May 29th, would have been followed with 
what succeeded. 

Hitherto the persons concerned in that 
united and contracted meeting before spoken 
of, had contented themselves with coming 
to sermons preached in the fields by the 
ministers and preachers who AA^ent their 
lengths, and defending themselves when 
attacked : but their numbers increasing as 



m 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[I500K III. 



1G79. 



MoU as tlipir warmth, against such as ' 



differed from them, Mr Hamilton, and 
some others in the company, moved, " that 
somewhat further should be done by them as 
a testimony against the iniquity of the times." 
The reader wiVL have the best view of what 
they came to, from one of their own papers 
just now before me, as follows. " After se- 
rious consideration and prayer, they (speak- 
ing of these concerned in the above men- 
tioned meecing) resolved to contimie in 
hearing- the gospel, and reckoned they 
would plainly quit their duty, if upon the 
account of danger they gave up this privi- 
lege ; and considering the smallness of their 
number, the strength of their persecuting 
adversaries, together with their own mani- 
fold infirmities and failings, they feared, 
that, if the Loi'd in his providence should 
permit them to be dispersed, or to fall be- 
fore their enemies, their cause would like- 
wise fall; thei-efore they judged it their 
duty to publish to the world their testimony 
to the truth and cause which they owned, 
and against the sins and defections of the 
times." Those who were violently against 
the indulgence, entered into this resolution 
towards the end of May, and Mr Hamilton 
was very active in pressing it, and pushing 
forward a public appearance, as the way to 
form and strengthen their party, and pre- 
vail with others to come and join them 
when they set up openly against the evils 
of the time. 

In prosecution of this resolution, some 
were pitched upon, the said Robert Hamil- 
ton, brother to the laird of Preston, Mi- 
Thomas Douglas, one of the ministers who 
preached to them, with about eighty armed 
men, to go to some public place, and burn 
the acts and papers which shall just now 
be named, and publish their declaration. It 
needs scarce be again here noticed, that 
neither this resolution nor the underwrit- 
ten declaration were formed in any concert 
Avith the ministers or people who kept field 
meetings in other places, far less with any 
concurrence of the body of presbyterians 
through the nation ; and consequently the 
good or evil in the matter or manner of 
these is chargeable only upon the few who 
•were engaged. The 29th of May was by 
them found to be the most convenient day 



for making this appearance, being the anni- 
versary day so much abused, and against 
which, among other things, they were to 
testify. I am informed tlie city of Glasgow 
was the place where at first they resolved 
to have published their paper; but hearing 
the king's forces were many of them come 
down from Lanark, and lying there, they 
altered their resolution, and went to Ruth- 
erglen, a small royal burgh two miles from 
Glasgow. Accordingly they came there in 
the afternoon, and, extinguished the bon- 
fires with which the day was solemnized, 
and at the market cross, burned the papers 
just now to be mentioned in their testimo- 
ny, and read publicly, and then affixed upon 
the cross a copy of the following declara- 
tion. 

The declaration and testimony of some of 
the true presbyterian party in Scotland, 
published at Rutherglen, May 29th, 
1679. 

' As the Lord hath been pleased to keep and 
preserve his interest in this land, by the testi- 
mony of faithful witnesses from the begin- 
ning, so some in our days have not been want- 
ing, who, upon the greatest of hazards, have 
added their testimony to the testimony of 
those M'ho have gone before them, and who 
have suffered imprisonments, finings, for- 
feitures, banishment, tortiu-e, and death 
from an evil and perfidious adversary to 
the church and kingdom of our Lord Jesus 
Christ in the land. Now we being pursued 
by the same adversary for our lives, while 
owning the interest of Christ, according to 
his word, and the national and solemn 
league and covenants, judge it our duty 
(though unworthy, yet hoping we are true 
members of the church of Scotland) to add 
our testimony to those of the worthies who 
have gone before us, in witnessing against 
all things that have been done publicly in 
prejudice of his interest, from the beginning 
of the work of reformation, especially from 
the year 164-8 downward to the year IGGO. 
But more particularly those since, as 

' 1. Against the act rescissory, for over- 
turning the whole covenanted reformation. 

' 2. Against the acts for erecting and 
establishing of abjured prelacy. 



CHAP, n.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



67 



' 3. Agiiinst that tleclaration imposed 
upon, and subscribed by all persons in pub- 
lic trust, where the covenants are renounced 
and condemned. 

' 4. Ag'ainst the act and declaration pub- 
lished at (jrlasgow, for outiuir of the faithful 
ministers who could not comply with prela- 
cy, whereby 300 and upwards of them were 
illegally ejected. 

' 5. Against that presumptuous act for 
imposing- an holy anniversary day, as they 
call it, to be kept yearly upon the 29th of 
May, as a day of rejoicing and thanksgiving 
for the king's birth and restoration ; where- 
by the appointers have intruded upon the 
Lord's prerogative, and the observers have 
given the glory to the creature that is due 
to oiu" Lord Redeemer, and rejoiced over 
the setting up an usurping power to the de- 
stroying the interest of Christ in the land. 

' 6. Against the explicatory act, 1GG9, 
and the sacrilegious supremacy enacted and 
established thereby. 

' Lastly. Against the acts of council, their 
warrants and instructions for indulgence, 
and all other their sinful and unlawful acts, 
made and executed by them, for promoting 
their usuq)ed supremacy. 

* And, for confirmation of this our testi- 
mony, we do this day, being the 29th of 
May 1679, publicly at the cross of Ruther- 
glen, most justly burn the above mentioned 
acts, to evidence our dislike and testimony 
against the same, as they have unjustly, 
perfidiously, and presumptuously biu-ned 
oiu" sacred covenants. 

' And, we hope, none will take exception 
against our not subscribing this oiu* testi- 
mony, being so solemnly published ; since 
^ve are always ready to do in this as shall 
be judged necessary, by consent of the rest 
of our suffering brethren in Scotland.' 

I have seen a good many copies of this 
paper in Mrit, and they generally agree 
with that M hich is printed by the society 
people, in their " Informatory Vindication," 
Edit. 2. p. 171. and Avant the clause anent 
the indulgence. But this, and some other 
copies I have seen, 1 have reason to believe, 
is the extended copy published at Ruther- 
glen. Whether this draught agrees with 
what was resolved on by the publishers' 
constituents, 1 cannot determine. Although 



1079. 



probably the bulk of that meeting, 
where it was agreed upon, were hear- 
tily against the indulgence, yet I question if 
they all came the length of burning the acts 
hereanent, and I am ready to suspect, that the 
warmth of some imposed upon the simpli- 
city of Mi' Thomas Douglas, and this alter- 
ation or addition was made when the paper 
was extended for publication. The ground 
of my jealousy is a copy I have before me, 
which agrees with the most I have seen, 
and with that in print, and so needs not be 
inserted as a note, bearing this title, " Double 
of a paper resolved upon to have been read 
at the cross of (ilasgow. May 29th, 1G79." 
wants this clause, and yet, by that inscrip- 
tion, it seems to liave contained what was 
at first resolved upon : the most part, as I 
have said, want it, and that copy, published 
by that set of people, in print likewise. If 
this conjecture hold, it is a new proof of 
Mr Hamilton, and others engaged, their 
zeal to form their public appearances very 
soon against other presbyterians, and the 
indulged in particular. Be this as it will, 
in their after debates this was cast up, and 
this testimony was urged against joining 
with such who could not acknowledge the 
evil of the indulgence, and it was likewise, 
some time after this, alleged to import a 
denying of the king's authority : but the 
framers of it plainly say, as we shall after- 
wards hear, that this v^•as only waved, and 
not determined or denied ; matters among 
them were not yet come this length. 

From this short account of the matter of 
fact, as it passed at Rutherglen, the gross 
ignorance of our affairs in Scotland, to call 
it no worse, in the author of the " Caveat for 
the Whigs," part L p. G 1, will be plain. That 
writer tells us, that at Ragland they pro- 
claimed the covenant; which is just of a 
piece with his senseless story, p. 6b, that 
the presbyterians, at their armed field-con- 
venticles, used to take the covenant openly, 
to the number of seven or eight thousand 
in a body ; which he alleges to have been 
the cause of the government's dealing se- 
verely with them. The English writers 
have many a time surprised me with their 
palpable mistakes in matter of fact, when 
they meddle with oiu- Scots affairs : but in 
the accounts of this period, I own, allow- 



68 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



TBOOK III, 



1G79. 



ances must be made them, as beinff im- 



posed upon by Sir George Macken- 
zie's Vindication of the reigns of king Charles 
and king James, and the little idle stories vent- 
ed by some of our Scots episcopal clergy, 
since the revolution retired into England, 
who have made up a great many untruths, to 
blacken this national church, and to gratify 
their own fretted spirits, as well as the in- 
clinations of some of the high-flyers in 
England. Indeed presbyterians may in 
part blame themselves, who have not given 
our neighbours and the world a fair and 
just account of this period. 

But I leave this appearance at Ruther- 
glen, and come forward to what followed 
upon it. Mr Hamilton and his party re- 
tired from Rutherglen towards Evandale 
and Newmilns, after the publication of their 
paper; M'hereabout Mr Thomas Douglas 
was to preach next Lord's day. The pub- 
lishing of this declaration, and the extin- 
guishing the bonfires made a mighty noise, 
both at Glasgow and Edinburgh. The 
thing was magnified, and the officers of the 
king's forces at Glasgow Avere in a terrible 
fret. Mr Graham of Claverhouse, whom 
we shall frequently meet \a ith in this pe- 
riod, afterwards created discount of Dundee, 
was now a captain of one of the new levied 
troops, and had been, beyond his compan- 
ions, active in oppressing the country, and 
bearing down of conventicles. This gen- 
tleman had large powers granted him, and 
marched upon Saturday May 31st, in quest 
of these who had made the appearance at 
Rutherglen * He had his own troop, two 



* The character of Graham of Claverhouse is 
thus drawn by one who must be held as at least 
not over partial to the covenanters: — "The se- 
verity of his character, as -n'ell as the higher 
attributes of uudaunted and enterprising valour, 
■which even his enemies were compelled to admit, 
lay concealed under an exterior which seemed 
adapted to the court or saloon rather than the 
field. The same gentleness and gaiety of expres- 
sion which reigned in his features seemed to in- 
spire his actions and gestures; and, on the 
whole, he was generally esteemed at first sight 
rather rjualified to be the votary of pleasure than 
of ambition. But luider this soft exterior was 
hidden a spirit unbounded in daring and in 
aspiring, yet cautious and prudent as that of 
Machiavel himself. Profound in politics, and 
embued of coui'se with that disregard of indivi- 
dual rights which its intrigues usually generate, 
this leader was cool and collected in danger, fierce 



others, and some foot given him, to go on 
this expedition. These men, especially 
his own troop, were rude profane wretches. 
One instance shall suffice out of many. 
One of them, James Blair, who had been 
chancellor to the assize who gave their 
verdict against the four men executed at 
Glasgow, for being at Pentland, came out 
to Rutherglen the day after Mr Hamilton 
had been there; whether for information, 
or what end I know not : he raged up and 



and ardent in pursuing success, careless of death 
himself, and ruthless in inflicting it upon others. 
Such are the characters formed in times of civil 
discord, when the highest qualities perverted by 
party spirit, and inflamed by habitual opposition, 
are too often combined with vices and excesses 
which deprive them at once of their merit and 
of their lustre." Tales of my Landlord, vol. II. 
p. 287 — S. If we are not greatly mista'ken, the 
following lines from the Poetic Mirror claim the 
same authorship with the Tales. 

" There, worthy of his masters, cam.e 
The despot's champion, bloody Graham; 
To stain for aye a warrior's sword, 
And lead a fierce, though fawning horde ; 
The human blood-hounds of the earth. 
To hunt the peasant from his hearth ! 

Tyrants ! could not misfortune teach. 
That man has rights beyond your reach ? 
Thought ye the torture and the stake, 
Could that intrepid spirit break, 
Which even in woman's breast withstood 
The terrors of the fire and flood !" 

Claverhouse married Jean, daughter of lord 
Cochran. Her mother was a sister of that 
lord Cassilis (son of the good earl) who was 
the only person that voted against the act 5. 
1670, imposing death on preachers at field-con- 
venticles. (Burn. I. Wi, fol. ) It was on her 
account, and also on that of her sister Margaret, 
w^ife of bishop Burnet, so noted for her attach- 
ment to presbytery, that the family was esteem- 
fAj'anaticcd ; and it is a singularfact that Claver- 
house ivas turned out of his posts for marrying 
into it; but his lady is said to have been a bitter 
enemy of presbyterians, and to have expressed 
her wish that the day she heard a presbyterian 
minister, the house might fall upon her. Being 
in Rotterdam, after she was lady Kilsyth, she 
had strayed in to hear sermon in the Scots 
church there, and next night her lodgings fell 
and smothered her and her child. (Wood's Peer- 
age, art. Dundonald. Wodrow's Analecta, MS. 
ill. p. 236, 252. Remark. Providences, MS. 
p. 20.) Mr Kobert Fleming, afterwards iu 
London, and the well-known author of the Dis- 
courses on Prophecy, was then minister in Rot- 
terdam, and is said to have mentioned in his 
discourse that there were some in the assembly, 
he did not know who, very near a sudden stroke. 
(See MS. Rem. Providences, &c. id supra.) 
Those w^ho wish to see a full account of the 
circumstances connected with the discovery of 
the body of lady K. and her son at Kilsyth in 
1796, may consult the Statistical account of that 
parish, vol. XVIII. p. SOO, &c. 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



69 



down tbe streets like one possessed, threat- 
ening and abusing the inhabitants, and ask- 
ing where these eighty men were who 
sleekened out the fires yesternight, swearing 
bloodily he would run his sword through 
their soul if he had them, with many other 
senseless and execrable expressions. This 
poor man was kiUed next day save one at 
Drumclog. Claverhouse's commission and 
powers were very great, though 1 cannot 
say but they were agreeable to the acts of 
council formerly mentioned ; and had he 
not been stopped, was abundantly ready to 
have executed them in all points : he had 
liberty to kill and destroy all he found m 
arms, at any field-meeting, to deal with 
them as traitors, and to discover, seize, and, 
upon resistance, to kill aU who had any 
share in the appearance at Rutherglen. 
Accordingly upon the Saturday afternoon, 
he came up in a surprise upon the town of 
Hamilton, where he got notice of Mr John 
Kino- and some others, who were come to 
that place, or near by it. Whether Mr 
King was to go to the meeting at Loudon- 
hill,''or to preach himself near by Hamilton, 
1 know not; the last is most probable, for 1 
do not find him among those who ordinarily 
were with Mr Hamilton, IMr Thomas Dou- 
glas, and others of their sentiments. Claver- 
house seized Mr John King preacher, in 
Hamilton, or, as some papers say, in a house 
a little south-east from the town, and about 
fourteen more country men, mostly strangers, 
either come with IVIr King, or going to the 
meeting to-morrow. There was some pre- 
tence to seize Ml- King, being a vagrant 
preacher, and, 1 think, intercommuned ; but 
there Avas no law for seizing the rest, they 
not being in arms, or any thing to be laid 
to their charge. When this was known, 
some who escaped, and the people near by, 
began to entertain thoughts of rescuing Mr 
Khig; and some of them went toward Glas- 
gow" acquainting their friends by the way, 
and hearing of the meeting towards Loudon- 
hiU, went thither, expecting assistance from 

thence. 

Meanwhile Claverhouse was likewise ad- 
vertised of that conventicle designed next 
day, and resolved to go and disperse them, 
and come from thence to Glasgow, with his 
prisoners. I am told he -was dissuaded, by 



some of his friends, from going thither, ^^^^^ 



and assured there would be a good 
many resolute men in arms there, yet trust- 
ing to his own troop, and some others of 
horee and dragoons he had with him, he 
would go. Accordingly upon the Sabbath 
morning, June 1st, he marched very eariy 
from Hamilton to Strathaven town, about 
five miles south, and carried his prisoners 
with him, which was happy for them. They 
were bound two and two of them together, 
and his men di-ove them before them hke 
so many sheep. When they came to Strath- 
aven, they had distinct accounts that Mi- 
Thomas Douglas was to preach that day 
near LoudonhiU, three or four miles west- 
ward from Strathaven; and thither Claver- 
house resolves to march straight >vith his 
party and prisoners. Public worship ^vas 
begun by Mr Douglas, when the accounts 
came to them that Claverhouse and his men 
were coming upon them, and had Mr King 
and others their friends prisoners. Upon this 
finding evil was determined against them, all 
who had arms di-ew out from the rest of the 
meeting, and resolved to go and meet the sol- 
diers and prevent their dismissing the meet- 
ing ; and, if possible, relieve Mr King and the - 
other prisoners. They got together about 40 
horse, and 150 or 200 foot, very ill provided 
with ammunition, and untrained, but hearty 
and abundantly brisk for action, and came 
up with Claverhouse and his party in a 
muir, near a place called Drumclog, from 
whence this rencounter hath its name. 
This little army of raw undisciplined coun- 
trymen, who had no experience in the 
business of fighting, neither had they offi- 
cers of skill to lead them, very bravely stood 
Claverhouse's first fire, and retiu-ned it with 
much gallantry; and after a short, but very 
close and warm engagement, the soldiers 
gave way, were entirely defeat, and the 
prisoners rescued. Claverhouse and his 
men fled and were piu-sued a mile or two. 

In the engagement and pursuit, there 
were about twenty, some say forty of the 
soldiers killed, and Claverhouse himself was 
in great hazard, had his horse shot under 
him, and very narrowly escaped. Several 
of the other officers were wounded, and 
some of the soldiers taken prisoners, whom 
having disarmed, they dismissed without 



70 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[I500K 111. 



1G79. 



any further injury, having no prison- 
house to put them in. All this ^las 
done with very inconsiderable loss on the 
country men's side. Some accounts before 
me say, only one man, John Morton, Mas 
- killed ; others say, two or three, and some 
few wounded. Some of them died in a few 
days, as Thomas Weir, and William Dan- 
ziel, who was concerned in the bishop's 
death. Mr Hamilton in this action discov- 
ered abundance of bravery and valour, and 
from this day's success, he reckoned himself 
entitled to command afterwards wherever 
he was, though he had no experience in 
military affairs ; and some reckoned him of 
a passionate and positive temper. I find 
some papers blame him for one of the sol- 
diers' being killed after quarters given ; but 
how far this is true, 1 cannot determine ;* 
and they add, that after this, his conduct, 
coimsel, and courage evidently failed him. 
Other accounts before me give the honour 
of this success to WiUiam Cleland, after- 
wards lieutenant-colonel Cleland, well 
known for his piety and bravery, at, and 
since the revolution, and say, he made the 
country people, upon the soldiers present- 
ing their pieces, and firing, fall flat to the 
ground, so that they quite escaped their 
shot. However this matter stood, Claver- 
liouse and his men were totally routed ; and 
it was the opinion of not a few, that if the 
coimtry men had pushed their success, fol- 
lowed their chase, and gone straight to 
Glasgow that day, they might easily with 
such as would have joined them by the 
road, upon the notice of their success, have 
dislodged the soldiers there, and very soon 
made a great appearance ; but they did not 
so, and in a few hours returned to the meet- 
ing. (Some accounts before me say, they 
went straight to Hamilton.) Thus the for- 
ces at Glasgow had the alarm, and were 
prepared to receive them to-morrow, as 
shall be noticed in its place. 

When they returned, and had consulted 
some time among themselves, what to do in 
their present circumstances, Mr Hamilton 



• Hamilton in his " Letter of Self-vindica- 
tion," published in 1684', seems to acknowledge 
this, and even to ijlory in it ; for says he, " being 
called to command that day, I gave out uhe word 
that no quarter should be given I" — Ed. 



and his party came to a resolution to con- 
tinue and abide together in arms. The 
grounds they went upon Mere many. When 
things were at this pass, it appeared abso- 
lutely necessary they should stick together ; 
they could not separate Mithoixt evident 
hazard ; they knew well their persecutors' 
rage Mould be sharpened by this ruffle; 
and if when they Mere merely passive, and 
made no resistance, they and others used to 
be sought for at their dwelling houses, and 
in their Manderings taken, tortured, and 
murdered, or at least banished ; Mhat might 
they not now expect? As soon as ever 
they separate, the soldiers would be upon 
them one by one, and destroy them. Upon 
these reasons they resolved to abide to- 
gether in this extremity, till they saw M'hat 
turn things M'ould take. This was the be- 
ginning of the rising which ended at Both- 
well. 

It is not M'orth while to refute the sense- 
less blunders of the writer of the " Caveat 
for the Whigs," upon this skirmish at Drum- 
clog. Every line almost contains a mis- 
take. He talks, " that the country men 
upon June 1st rendevouzed upon London- 
hill, to the number of fourteen or fifteen 
hundred men, well armed, the foot com- 
manded by one Weir, and the horse by 
Balfour and Hackston, murderers of the 
primate, M'ith Hamilton and Patron." I 
fancy he M'ould be at Paton of MeadoM- 
head, but he was not come up till some 
days after Drumclog. I need not expose 
the lies in every word of this ; it is just 
made up to expose the country people, and 
extenuate Claverhouse's shameful defeat. 

Mr Hamilton and those M'ith him, after 
their success, marched that night to Hamil- 
ton M'ith an eye to the city of Glasgow. 
Claverhouse, when after his narrow escape 
got to that city, sufficiently alarmed my 
lord Ross, and the rest of the officers of the 
king's army there, and, to be sure, did not 
lessen Mr Hamilton's numbers. By this 
means the soldiers there were upon their 
guard, and had formed barricadoes and 
some kind of shelter for themselves at the 
cross and other places in that open and 
large city, before the country people could 
reach it. 

Upon Monday June 2d, Mr Hamilton and 



CHAP, ll.l 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



71 



his party marched from Hamilton to Glas- 
gow ; the success they luid the day before, 
the numbers joined to them in their march 
to Hamilton, and betwixt Hamilton and 
Glasj^ovv, where the country had been 
alarmed with Mr King's being' taken, and 
encourag-ed by Claverhouse's flight, had 
elevated tlicm too much. They would 
scai'ce have attempted to dislodge the regu- 
lar troops, had they duly considered their 
number, the skill of their oificers, my lord 
Ross, major White, Claverhouse and others, 
and the care they would take to put them- 
selves in the best posture of defence the 
place would allow ; and they had not been 
idle, but formed themselves in the centre of 
the town, and covered themselves at the 
cross with carts laid over with deals and 
other things at hand, the best way they 
might; behind these they stood and re- 
ceived the shot of the country men, ^ith- 
out any hazard almost. About ten of the 
clock the country men came to Glasgow, 
and divided themselves into two bodies. 
The one, under command of Mr Hamilton, 
came up the street called the Gallo\vgate ; 
and here their leader did not show that gal- 
lantry he had the day before discovered, 
and some question if he looked the soldiers 
in the face, and say he stepped into a house 
at the Gallowgate bridge till his men re- 
tired ; the other party came in at the head 
of the town, by the wyndhead and college. 
The coinitry men showed abiuidance of 
courage, but were under mighty disadvan- 
tages ; their horses were of no use to them 
at all ; they were perfectly open to the fire 
from the closses and houses, as well as that 
of the soldiers who lay behind the rails and 
barricadoes covered from their fire ; yet so 
brisk were the country men in their attack, 
that, 1 am told, several of the soldiers gave 
way, and some of their officers saw good to 
retire behind the tolbooth stair. And it is 
not improbable if the country men had had 
officers to direct and lead them, they might 
have chased the soldiers out of their nest. 
But after six or eight of them were killed 
in the attack, among- whom I find Walter 
Paterson, a choice and pious youth iu Cam- 
busaethan parish, and Uyo or three M'oimd- 
ed, who were afterwards taken, the country 
men retired in order, finding- the attempt 



too warm for them, and drew up in 
two bodies a little from the Gallow- 
gate port, expecting- the regular forces ^vould 
venture out of their baiTicadoes.and give them 
fair play in the open fields : but the soldiers 
liked their entrenchment very well, and 
were not fond to follow them, and content 
to lie still with whole skins. I am told in- 
deed a few were sent out to view the coun- 
try people's army, but, as soon as they dis- 
covered a party sent to meet them, they 
retired. After they had waited some time 
in the open fields Avithout any appearance 
of a visit from the soldiers, Mr Hamilton 
and those Avith him marched back again to 
Hamilton, where they formed a kind of 
camp ; the people not being unfriendly, and 
the duke and duchess at London, they took 
the liberty to put their horses into their 
parks. This discomfiture very much dis- 
heartened the raw and unexperienced sol- 
diers. It was, indeed, a rash attempt, aud 
if they w^ere left in the attack by their 
leader, it could not be but discouraging; 
but the numbers from all quarters -who 
flocked to them, soon made them forget tliis 
disappointment. 

When they are fairly marched off, the 
king's forces came out of their barricado. 
Great was the inhumanity of the soldiers 
to the dead bodies left in the streets. I find 
some papers asserting that Claverhouse and 
some of the officers gave orders that none 
should bury them, but that the butchers' 
dogs should be suffered to eat them. lean 
scarce prevail with myself to think there 
were any such orders given ; but it is cer- 
tain that the seven dead bodies lay upon the 
street from eleven of the clock till night 
came on, and the common soldiers would 
not permit them to be carried into houses, 
yea, actually hindered by force people who 
were going about this act of humanity : 
yea, which further discovers their naughty 
barbarity when in the evening they were 
taken into houses, and dressed up for their 
burial, the soldiers came in and tm-ned the 
bodies out of their dead clothes, and went 
off" with the linens. And when a kind of 
connivance was given to bury them, none 
durst appear to do this last office but wo- 
men ; yea, when these were carrying them 
up the street to their burial-place such vvas 



7^ 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



IBOOK III. 



the unparalleled rudeness of the koI- 
diers, that they attacked the women, 
cut the mort-cloths with their swords, and 
forced away the bier-trees from them. Upon 
this the women turned off some of their own 
plaids, folded them by their leng-th, and put 
them under the coffins, and went ou A\-ith 
them, till the merciless soldiers, after they 
had scattered those who were not carrying-, 
came and took the plaids from them, and 
would not suffer them to carry the coffins 
to their graves, so they ^vere set in the 
alms-house near the Hinh-cluu-ch, and I 
think continued there till Mi" Welsh and 
some of their friends in a few days came 
and buried them, as shall be noticed in its 
own room. 



Of the procedure of the council, and mo 
tions of the lung's forces until the duke of 
Buccleugh and MonmoutKs coming down 
June \Sth, 1679. 

I SHALL in this section essay a narrative of 
the procedure of the manag-ers and council 
at Edinburgh, upon this rising, now begun 
in the west, from the registers, and take 
uotice of the orders they send to the army, 
and their motions in prosecution of these 
as far as the hints in the books of council 
lead me. 

Very early June 3d the council meet by 
advertisement from the committee for 
public affairs, who had received a letter 
from Claverhouse to the major-general, 
giving an account of the opposition he had 
met with at Drumclog, and another from 
my lord Ross acquainting them with the 
attack made upon Glasgow. Immediately 
they form and pubhsh the proclamation 
against the rebels in arms in the west, 
which I have insert.* The first accounts 



* Proclamation against rebels in arms in the west. 
June 3rd, 1679. 

Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great 
Britain, France and Ireland, defender of the 
faith : to all and sundry our good subjects, greet- 
ing. Whereas by the clear and express laws and 
acts of parliament of this kingdom, it is declared 
to be high treason, for the subjects of the same, 
or any number of them, more or less, upon any 
ground or pretext whatsoever, to rise, or con- 



of matters of this nature are not readily the 
best, and it is the lame post brings the sur- 
est news : accordingly we shall find, in 
running through this paper, mistakes in 



tinue in arms, without our special authority and 
approbation : yet nevertheless, a party of disloyal 
persons, disaffected to our governinent and laws, 
who have formerly tasted of our royal bounty 
and clemency, whereunto they owe their lives 
and fortunes, having forfeited the same by their 
former rebellious practices, under the cloak of 
religion, the ordinary colour and pretext of re- 
bellion, have risen in arms, in great numbers, 
and upon the twenty-ninth of May, came to the 
town of Rutherglen, head burgh of the shire, 
where they proclaimed their rebellious covenant, 
and burned our acts of parliament, and at Lou- 
don-hill, upon the first of June instant, they did 
actually oppose, and fight our standing forces, 
and thereafter did pursue them to, and assault 
them within the city of Glasgow, and have, 
seized upon the persons of divers of our good 
subjects, plundered and robbed them of their 
horses, arms, and other goods, and have done 
and committed many other outrages, and trea- 
sonable deeds and attempts, against our author- 
ity, and against, and upon our loyal subjects: 
and we, out of our royal tenderness, for the 
peace and quietness of this our ancient kingdom, 
being careful to repress the said rebellion, and 
that simple and unwary people be not ensnared 
by the said rebels, and their emissaries, and in- 
volved in their rebellion, and to take oif all pre- 
tence of ignorance, or excuse, do therefore, with 
advice of the lords of our privy council, declare 
the said insurrection to be an open, manifest, 
and horrid rebellion, and high treason, and that 
the authors and actors in the same, and their 
adherents, are, and ought to be pirrsued, as pro- 
fessed and declared traitors to us ; and do here- 
by command and charge all persons who are in 
arms, against, or without our warrant and au- 
thority, to desist from their rebellion., and to lay 
down their arms, and to render and present 
their persons to the earl of Linlithgow our ma- 
jor-general, and commander-in-chief of our 
forces, or some other of our officers, or magis- 
trates, within twenty-four hours, after publica- 
tion hereof, w^ith certification to them, if they 
continue in rebellion after the said time, they 
shall be holden, and proceeded against as incor- 
rigible and desperate traitors, and that tliey^jill 
be incapable of mercy and pardOTiT and we do 
hereby prohibit and discharge any person or per- 
sons to aid, abet, assist, harbour, reset, or any 
ways supply the said rebels, or any of them, un- 
der the pain of treason; and that they do not 
keep correspondence, or commune with them, 
without waiTant of our said major-general, un- 
der the pain foresaid. And we do expect in this 
juncture, and do require and command all our 
subjects to be assisting to our major-general, and 
our forces under him ; and 1)eing required by 
him, or others having authoritj', to that elfect, 
to rise in arms with all their power, and to join 
and concur with them, for suppressing the said 
rebels, under the pain of treason, if they refuse 
or disobey. And further, we do strictly enjoin 
and command all masters of families, heritors, 
and other landlords, that they be careful and 
vigilant, that their children, servants, domestics. 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, 



73 



matter of fact. We have done so in former 
papers of this nature, and ere long we will 
meet with more of them. I shall make 
but a few remarks on it. 

The foundation of aU that follows, is what 
hath been considered, the laws declaring^ it 
treason for any subjects to rise in arms 
A^'ithout the king's authority. It is added, 
that the people now up in arms had tasted 
of the king's bounty and clemency, which 
the reader may judge of by the preceding 
history. If harassings, huntings, fugitating, 
intercommuning, and daily searchings and 
perils be the bounty and clemency of this 
period, they tasted abundantly of them. 
The cloak of religion is made the ordinary 
pretext of rebellion, which does not at all 
hold as to presbyterians, how far soever it 
may be true of papists : the religious rights 
and reformation of Scotland was indeed 
made a part of our legal constitution, and a 
good many of the public appearances point- 
ed at here, and called rebellion, were for 
both. It is not worth while to consider the 
honour the council do to the little burgh of 
Rutherglen, in making it the head burgh of 
the shire, for the sake of a little aggravation 
of the rising there. But, that the persons 
who came there, proclaimed the covenant, 
is what is not matter of fact. We have 
seen what they proclaimed, and indeed it 
differs very much from our covenants. 
That they seized upon the persons of divers 
of the king's subjects, plundered and robbed 
them of their horses, arms, and other goods, 
is likewise a misinformation, unless they 
understand it of what they did to the sol- 
diers, whom they took in their flight : nei- 



and their tenants, and others under their power, 
do not break out, and join with the said rebels ; 
certifying them if they be found negligent in 
their duty, or otherways culpable in that behalf, 
they shall be looked upon, and severely punished, 
as disaffected persons, and favouring and com- 
plying with rebels. And hereby we give war- 
rant and command to our lyon king at arms, and 
his brethren, heralds, macers, pursuivants, or 
messengers at arms, to pass to the market-cross 
of Edinburgh, and other places needful, and 
make publication hereof; and that these presents 
be printed, that none pretend ignorance. Given 
under our signet at Edinburgh, the third day of 
June 1679, and of our reign the thirty-first 
year. 

Tiio. Hay, CI. Seer. Concilii. 

GOD SAVE THE KING. 
III. 



1679. 



tlier did they commit any outrages 
against the king's loyal subjects. 

After this narrative, the reader will jud<>-e 
M'ith what ground that insurrection is de- 
clared to be " an open, manifest, and horrid 
rebellion," and that all the authors, actors 
and adherents are to be pursued as pro- 
fessed traitors. After this declaration, 
which does not appear to me any great en- 
couragement to lay down their arms, all are 
charged to desist from their rebellion, lay 
down their arms, and render their persons 
to the earl of Linlithgow, or any other 
officer or magistrate in twenty-foiu- hours ; 
with certification, they shall be proceeded 
against as desperate and incorrigible traitors. 
For my share, the tenor of this paper looks 
as if designed to make the country desper- 
ate. They are declared professed traitors, 
invited to come in, without any promise of 
pardon, in twenty-four hours, and after that 
they are to be treated as desperate traitors, 
and incapable of mercy. What could this 
mean, but to put them to the greatest 
heights ? AU are discharged to harbour, or 
supply them, or correspond with them, 
without warrant of the earl of Linlithgow, 
and required to join with the army, and rise 
in arms, under pain of treason to the re- 
fusers. Masters of families, heritors and 
landlords ai-e required to be careful lest any 
of tlieir children, servants, or tenants join 
the rebels : " Certifying them, if found neg- 
ligent, they shall be looked on as disaf- 
fected persons." This clause was improven 
after Bothwell, with a witness, by the sol- 
diers and others. 

Unto this proclamation, when the news 
of multitudes joining Mr Hamilton, and the 
people now in arms came east, the council 
added another with relation to the militia, 
dated June 5th, which is likewise inserted.* 



• Proclamation, June 5th 1679, for the Militia's 
being in readiness. 
Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great 
Britain, France and Ireland, defender of the 
faith : to macers 

of our privy council, or messengers at arms, our 
sheriffs in that part, conjunctly and severally, 
specially constitute, greeting. Forasmuch as, 
there have lately appeared in arms, and are now- 
risen in manifest rebellion, in some western 
shires, great numbers of persons, who have had 
the boldness to light and oppose our standing 
forces: for pursuing and dissipating of which 
rebels, we, with advice of our privy council, 

K 



7i 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK 111. 



It is founded upon act 2d, session 
1st, 2d parliament, Charles II. and 
act 1st, session 3rd. All the outriggers 
of the militia, and officers thereof, are 
ordered to come out, and keep their 
diets of rendevouzes, and to join and act 
with the standing forces, when required 
by the privy council or commander in chief, 
the earl of Linlithgow, under the certifica- 
tion of being fined toties quoties for ilk day's 
absence, as the act specifies, and being 
looked npon as favourers and compliers 
with the rebels, and pursued and punished 
accordingly. The fines are very severe. 



having issued forth several orders to the earl of 
I^inlithf;o\v, major-general and commander in 
chief of our forces, and to the militia forces, 
horse and foot, in divers shires, to concur and 
join with our forces, as they shall be ordered. 
And whereas by the second act of the first ses- 
sion of our second parliament, and the first act 
of the third session of that same parliament, we, 
and our estates, have, for the greater security of 
the public peace, settled a militia in the several 
shires, appointed days of rendevouz, and deter- 
mined the penalties of absent officers and sol- 
diers, in time of peace and war ; and particu- 
larly the outriekers of horse and foot, are liable 
in six pounds Scots for the absence of ilk horse- 
man, and two pounds Scots for ilk footman, each 
day of tlie rendevouz in time of peace, and the 
double thereof in time of war; and the officei's 
of the militia, to be liable to, and forfeit the fines 
following, viz. a major, and a captain of foot, 
and a lieutenant, and colonel of horse, fifty 
pounds, and the other inferior officers, twenty- 
four pounds, for ilk day's absence, in time of 
war, and the half thereof in time of peace. And 
albeit we doubt not, but that the whole officers 
and soldiers of our militia Avill, upon this occa- 
sion, when such a rebellious rabble do presume 
to appear in arms, attack, kill and invade our 
forces, cheerfully witness their zeal for our ser- 
vice and their own security, and come forth and 
join in opposition to these rebels, as they shall 
receive orders: yet we have thought fit hereby, 
in pursuance of our said laws and acts of parlia- 
ment, to intimate and make known to the whole 
officers and soldiers of the militia, that if they, 
or any of them shall refuse to come out, and 
keep their several days of I'endevouz, and join 
and act with our forces, as they shall be requir- 
ed by our privy council or commander in chief, 
that they shall not only be fined in the particu- 
lar penalties above expressed, -without favour or 
defalcation ; but if they shall be negligent in 
their duty herein, they shall be looked upon as 
disaffected persons, and favourers and compliers 
with rebels, and pursued and punished accord- 
ingly. And we ordain these presents to be 
piinted, and published at the market cross of 
Edinburgh, and other places needful. Given 
under our signet at Edinburgh, the fifth day of 
June 1679, and of our reign the thirty-first year. 

Tho. Hav, CI. Seer. Concilii. 

GOD SAVE THE KING. 



and doubled in time of war j and became 
matter of much trouble to not a few, after 
this business was over. I have no accounts 
of the militia's doing any great things 
when the time of action came ; however, 
this, with what follows, discovers both the 
fear of our counsellors and their care to 
provide against the country people now to- 
gether. Their care continues : and that I 
may give all the proclamations at this time 
together ; June 7th all the heritors and free- 
holders are called to attend the king's host, 
by the proclamation I have added.* Tho 
narrative of this proclamation shows it was 



• Procla?7ialion, calling out heritors to attend the 
/cing's host, June 1th, 1679. 
Forasmuch as the insurrection in the western 
shires is grown to an open rebellion, and that 
the number of these desperate rebels do increase 
so, that all his majesty's loyal subjects in their 
several shires, ought timeously to look to their 
own security, and put themselves in a posture 
to defend the king's authority, and to oppose all 
attempts of desperate and wicked rebels : and 
albeit his majesty's privy council have already 
issued forth their orders for drawing forth the 
militia forces, horse and foot, in several shires, 
and appointed particular days of rendevouz, 
and upon such occasions may require all fencible 
persons, betwixt sixty and sixteen, to rise for 
suppressing of these rebels ; yet at this time, 
they have thought fit only to call out and re- 
quire the regiments of the foot militia, in the 
shires aftermentioned ; and all heritors and free- 
holders, who are fencible persons, and their ser- 
vants and followers, to come out upon horse- 
back ; and for this cause, to forbear to require 
the militia troops, in these shires uiider\vi-itten, 
at this time, notwithstanding of the orders al- 
ready issued forth, in so far as concerns the horse 
militia alkMiarly ; and do hereby require and 
command all heritors and freeholders, who are 
fencible persons, with so many of their servants 
and followers as they can bring on horseback 
with arms, within the shires of Edinburgh, 
Linlithgow, and Peebles, Haddington, !~tirling 
and Clackmannan, Berwick, Roxburgh and 
Selkirk, Fife, Perth, Forfar, Kincardine and 
Marshall's ])art of Aberdeen, Bamff and Errol's 
part of Aberdeen, Ross, Elgin, Forres, Nairn, 
and this side of Ness, to convene at the places 
and times aftermentioned, and to receive their 
orders, and to be i>nder the commarui of the 
persons underwritten, viz. Edinburgh to meet 
at the Links of Leith upon the eleventh day of 
June instant, and to be under the command of 
the lord CoUington ; Linlitligow and Peebles to 
meet at the Links of Leith the eleventh day of 
June instant, and to be under the command of 
general Dalziel ; the shire of Haddington to 
meet at Beinston Muir the eleventh day of June 
instant, and to be under the command of the 
viscount of Kingston ; Stirling and Clackman- 
nan to meet at the town of Stirling, and from 
thence to march to the Links of Leith upon the 
eleventh day of June instant, and to be under 
the command of the lord Elphinston ; Berwick to 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



75 



formed wheu the regular forces, coming 
back to^^'ards Glasgow, thought good to re- 
turn ; since it represents, that the insurrec- 
tion in the western shires is now grown to 
an open rebellion. Upon this the council, 
though they might have required all be- 
twixt sixty and sixteen to rise, yet at this 
time, they only call out the regiments of 
the foot militia in the shires mentioned in 
the proclamation, and require the heritors 
and freeholders «'ho are fencible men, with 
so many of their servants and followers as 
they can bring out upon horse, to repair to 
the jjlaces specified, and supersede the 
horse militia. The whole western shires 
are omitted, and those named are, Edin- 
burgh, Linlithgow, Peebles, Haddington, 
Stirling, Clackmannan, Berwick, Roxburgh, 
and Selkirk, Fife, Perth, Forfar, Kincar- 
dine, Marshall's part of Aberdeen, BamfF, 
and Errol's part of Aberdeen, Ross, Elgin, 
Forres, Nairn. All benorth Forth are to 
march immediately after their rendevouz, 
to Stirling-bridge ; and all besouth Forth to 
the links of Leith. Full power is granted 
to them to seize all disaffected persons ; 
and, in case of resistance, to use them as ene- 



nieet at Fogo-muir upon the eleventh day of 
June instant, and to be under the command of" 
the earl of Hume, and in his absence, his brother 
Charles Hume ; Roxburgh and Selkirk to meet 
at Ancrum Bridge upon the sixteenth day of 
June instant, and to be under the commiand of 
the lord Llibauk, and the laird of Stobs, who 
are to command according to the division of the 
militia troops ; Fife to meet at Cupar the twelfth 
day of June instant, and to be under the com- 
mand of the lord iSeWavk; Perth to meet at 
Perth the thirteenth day of June instant, and 
to be under the command of the marquis of 
Montrose, and such persons under him as he 
shall appoint ; Forfar to meet at Forfar upon 
the thirteenth day of June instant, and to be 
under the command of the earl of Southesk ; 
Kincardine and Marshall's part of Aberdeen to 
meet at Aberdeen Links upon the nineteenth 
day of June instant, and to be under the com- 
mand of the earl of Aboyn ; Ramtf and Errol's 
part of Aberdeen to meet at Turreff upon the 
nineteenth day of June instant, and to be under 
the command of the earl of Kintore ; Elgin, 
Forres, Nairn, and this side Ness, to meet at 
Forres upon the twentieth day of June instant, 
and to be under the command of the earl of 
Murray, and in his absence the lord Duffus ; 
Ross to meet at Chanry the twenty-third day of 
June instant, and to be under the command of 
the earl of Seaforth ; and ordain all the heritors 
and freeholders of the shires benorth Forth, to 
march immediately after the rendevouz to the 
bridge of Stirling, and all the heritors and free- 



mies, ivithin their respective bounds. 

167d 
especially such as shall be suspected to 

be going out of the shire, to join the rebels. 
Heritors who come not out with their best 
horses and arms, and all their servants and 
followers they can bring on horseback, 
shall be liable to the pains and penalties 
provided by acts of parliament, against such 
who do not attend the king's host, or de- 
sert the same. This proclamation Avas 
matter of very grievous fining to a great 
many gentlemen and others, who from dif- 
ferent reasons could not attend the king's 
host, as we shall afterwards have occasion 
to remark in its own place. I shall only ob- 
serve further, that all or most part of the 
officers named for that host were the most 
violent persecutors of presbyterians ; and 
there were not a few among them favourers 
of popery, and some professed papists. This 
was plainly contrary to law, and their own 
late proclamation this very year, and flowed 
from the strength of the duke of York's 
party in council. 

These proclamations, especially this last, 
of June 7th, were very burdensome to the 
country; and at this junctm-e there was a 



holders of the shires on the south side of Forth, 
to march after the rendevouz to the Links of 
Leith, there to continue till further order : with 
full power to them to seize upon all disaffected 
persons, and in case of resistance, to use them as 
enemies, within their respective bounds, or such 
as shall be suspected to be going out of the shire 
to the rebels ; with power likewise to the said 
commanders, to appoint officers under them, to 
command in the several divisions of the shires 
above mentioned ; ordaining hereby the respec- 
tive commanders aforesaid, to cause public pro- 
clamation and intimation to be made hereof to 
the respective shires under their command, at 
the several places already appointed for the first 
day's rendevouz of the militia, that the said 
meetings may be punctually kept ; certifying 
hereby all such heritors, and others foresaid, as 
shall not come out upon horseback themselves 
with their best horses and arms, with so many 
of their servants and followers as they can bring 
out upon horseback, they shall be liable to the 
pains and penalties provided by the acts of par- 
liament against such as do not attend the king's 
host, or desert the same, and looked upon as 
disaffected persons, and favourers and compilers 
with rebels, and pursued and punished accord- 
ingly. And ordain these presents to be printed, 
and published at the market cross of Edinburgh, 
and other places foresaid, that none pretend 
ignorance. 

Tho. Hay, CI. Seer. Concilii. 

GOD SAVE THE KING. 



76 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



paper writ by a very able hand, en- 
' titled, " A Letter of Advice writ by 
a geiitleraan to his friend, on the occasion of 
his going out to Mait upon the army, con- 
form to the pi'oclamation, June 7th, 1679." 
The author of which takes notice of ano- 
ther proclamation for volunteers, which 1 
have not seen, whereby he says, " all tlie 
papists in the kingdom are armed, and call- 
ed out to the fields ; and reckons that, and 
this anent heritors to be among the greatest 
grievances. He complains heavily, that af- 
ter so large a taxation, for maintaining a 
standing army, gentlemen should be obliged 
to come out themselves : and notices, 
that east Lothian, Kincardine, and Mar- 
shall's part of Aberdeen, were under popish 
commanders named by the council, contra- 
ry to la«', and their o^i'n late proclamation. 
And that those officers had the power of 
naming inferior officers." He takes notice, 
" that the presbyterians were forced from 
their meetings in houses (permitted in Eng- 
land and Ireland) to the fields, and then 
hunted, apprehended, imprisoned, tortured, 
blocked up in prison ; and some of them lay 
there many years who never had been at a 
field meeting ; and when thus forced to the 
hills, they Avere given out as designing a 
rebellion, and then pursued by armed men 
as traitors ; many of them apprehended, 
some wounded, some killed, and multitudes 
put in close prisons, others tormented and 
sold as slaves ; and women most barbarous- 
ly used, stripped naked, their clothes taken 
away, and left in that condition in the open 
fields. And when their patient bearing of 
all had the more exasperated their persecu- 
tors, the Highland host was sent among 
them, whose cruelties and horrid abuses 
were too villanous and shamefid to be 
named by any Christian, or a man who 
must own himself a countryman of such 
who committed them, or of those by whom 
they were authorised." He further oh. 
serves, " That an act of favour by the king 
to his presbyterian subjects, was suppressed 
by the bishops, and instead of that a procla- 
mation emitted, declaring it treason to have 
arms at field-meetings : and after all they 
had met with, he falls in with the earl of 
Shaftsbury's remark, that it was a greater 
Avondcr they had borne so long, than that 



now they were in arms for their own de- 
fence. And then asks his friend some very 
home questions as to his joining with the 
king's host, though there be a proclamation 
for it, contrary to law, and the king's coro- 
nation oath, as well as opposite to the king's 
own declared intentions of clemency." 
He represents, " that the king of France 
never imposed officers upon his nobility 
and gentry, and exposes the council's mak- 
ing very mean persons, never before sol- 
diers, cornets of troops, wherein the earl 
of Lothian, earl of Dalhousie, viscount of 
Oxenford, lords Torphichen, Balmerinoch, 
&c. ride troopers, and where the duke of 
Buccleugh can, according to the proclama- 
tion, pretend no higher than the right hand 
of the first rank." The matter is summed 
up in short. " The bishops have helped 
the duke of Lauderdale, and therefore the 
whole nobility and gentry in the kingdom 
must serve their interests, when he is the 
king's minion : and he lays it down as a 
rule, that he is the best friend to his king, 
that is, the best friend to his country, and 
laws and liberties thereof ; and shows, that 
as the prelates of England had of late cast 
the balance in parliament against the ex- 
clusion of a papist, and in behalf of the im- 
peached lords; so in Scotland, since their 
being set up, they had been the great pro- 
moters of arbitrary power and oppression : 
and presbytery must of necessity, and in 
its very nature, be the greatest bulwark 
against popery, the total extirpation of 
which is he great thing every honest man 
should be set upon." These heads and 
several others are very handsomely enlarged 
upon, and this letter being pretty long, and 
never published that I know of, and writ, 
as I have ground to think, by a masterly 
hand, I believe it will be acceptable to the 
reader to find it below.* 



Letter, June 1th, 1679. Advice to a gentleman 
going to the army. 
Opportunity is the life of action, without 
which the deepest and most subtilly devised 
counsels prove abortive. Statesmen know, that 
for all designs, which otherwise might be startled 
at, there is no opportunity comparable to that of 
sudden emergents, whether happy or unhappy, 
if they appear of any great concern : for men's 
spirits, by those being set aloft, <ind so rendered 
unwary and inadvertent, fair pretexts are then 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



They send orders to the militia, compan. 
ies of horse and foot, to meet at the times 



undcrwriltep. These in Haddington, 
Berwick, Linlithgow, Peebles, and 



77 



1679. 



likely to take, if ever; because afsuch times, 
menhave not, or take not leisure to search to the 
bottom of things, or to consider them on all 
sides, and according to all their present and fu- 
ture importance. A recent instance of this, are 
several grants of the parliaments, both of Scot- 
land and England, to his present majesty, upon 
the happy and amazing surprisal of his restora- 
tion, which neither he, nor king Charles I., nor 
yet king James his fifty years' peaceable reign, 
though all assisted with very wise and politic 
counsellors and profound devices, could ever be 
able to work out, till that opportune juncture 
had made way for them. Of which I shall 
only say, that I wish they may prove as effec- 
tually beneficial for the true and lasting interest 
of his majesty and his kingdoms, as I am bound 
in charity to suppose they were affectionately 
meant for the good of both. To apply this to 
our present commotions : though I cannot po- 
sitively charge those who are at the helm, of any 
underhand contrivance, or certainly conclude the 
same from the outward appearance of their act- 
ings, it being possible that such important sud- 
denties, as have now fallen out, may prompt 
them to over-reach themselves in their com- 
mands, as well as us in our, may be more zealous 
and forward, than well-advised and really duti- 
ful obedience : but, as long ago it was told me, 
by a witness, of a certain gi'eat man's behaviour 
at the engagement, anno 1648, that he would 
not say, for all the world, that he had betrayed 
them, yet he could justly say, that if he had got 
a household of gold to betray them, he could 
have done no more ; so I will not assert, with 
the church or state fanatics of this time, that our 
counsellors are really designing to introduce 
upon us, popery and arbitrary government, and 
are catching tlie advantage of the present con- 
fusions in prosecution thereof; but in reason I 
may say, that had they the most real and for- 
w^ard intention of so doing, they could hardly 
have fallen upon more likely and favourable 
courses, for that end, than some of those they 
are taking. 

There is much talking of a popish plot, and if 
there be such a design of arbitrary power, it 
being also a work of darkness, that dares not 
assault us with open face, and meet to go in 
hands with the other, I may call it another plot, 
which must work underboard until hell be pre- 
pared to defend it. And these two proclama- 
tions, the one for volunteers, whereby all the 
papists in the kingdom are armed, and called out 
to the fields; and the other charging, under 
highest pains, the whole nobility, gentry and 
heritors to attend the army, under the command 
of officers appointed by the council, are like two 
mines sprung upon the chief bastions of om- 
liberties and religion, and we, like fools, hear 
the noise, and gaze upon the smoke, but discern 
not, nor consider what it hath carried away 
with it. For my own part, to give you my 
judgment freely, as you have desired it ; amongst 
all the grievances which we have been complain- 
ing so much of, these 5'ears by past, there are 
but few, that either better deserve the name, or 
are indeed of greater weight than this ; neither 
know I any one step, whereby popery and arbi- 
trary power have had occasion of making swifter 
progress towards their settlement amongst us, 



or whereby they have gained more ground of 
us, than by these two acts, however lightly 
regarded. 

By the constitution of our government, we 
are not onlv ruled by laws, but also by customs, 
the obligation whereof is many times equivalent 
to that of our most positive laws : must it then 
be a custom, and consequently a law amongst 
us, that, to satisfy the humour or interest of a 
court favourite, we may be liable to most heavy 
burdens, and taxes upon our estates, to furnish 
him with power to oppress and crush all that 
will dare to oppose him? And notwithstand- 
ing that we bestow such large parts of our for- 
tunes for the maintenance of soldiers for that 
end; yet, v/hen by the long continuance and 
extrernity of those oppressions, which were 
enough to make even the soberest and wisest 
men mad, he hath forced wars and disorders of 
the highest nature and consequence, it may be, 
designedly too, for ought that is seen, and as by 
no small politicians is reasonably alleged, we 
nevertheless must be obliged also to come out in 
person, with our lives in our hands, and serve as 
soldiers under such commanders, as the council, 
being mostly his creatures, think fit to appoint : 
wherein these things are noticeable, which gen- 
tlemen would do well in time seriously to con- 
sider, if they be indeed content that they go into 
a law, lest afterward they repent too late. That 
when we have granted never so large taxations 
for paying of soldiers, the council, without a 
parliament, or ovu- own consents, may never- 
theless command us to serve as soldiers ourselves, 
though it were but to uphold some particular 
interests amongst us, which, thus circumstan- 
tiate, will be found to be somewhat more than 
what either our old custom of waiting upon the 
king and his host with forty days' provision, or 
yet the la e offer of our parliament of all betwixt 
sixty and sixteen, do import. That they may 
impose commanders upon us, without or con- 
trary to our choice or consent, whom if we offer 
to reclaim, we may be obliged upon our alle- 
giance, to obey, as I hear they have done in the 
case of the gentlemen of East- Lothian. That 
they may so oblige us to serve under popish 
commanders, as they have done with East- 
Lothian, Kincardine, .and Marshall's part of 
Aberdeen, even though there are so many stand- 
ing acts of parliament against them, and albeit 
by a late proclamation they are all prohibited 
the wearing of arms. That those commanders 
thus forced upon us, shall have the pov/er of 
nominating their own ofiicers. And that, to all 
this slavery we maybe subjected, without any 
foreign invasion, for the destruction of our 
fathers, children, brethren and kinsmen, per- 
haps for no other crime, than their standing to 
the just defence of their and our liberties, against 
the incroachments of some court parasites, or 
whatever else it be, that yet his majesty's will 
being pretended, or at whatsoever rate procured, 
it must be presumption in us, or somewhat 
worse to inquire further into the cause. And 
after all this, what is ours? and what privilege 
is there that we can lay claim to? If we will 
not think upon these things, when represented 
to us, nor lay to heart our great concernment in 
them ; it may be said, without wronging us, that 
we deserve no less than all the slavery and 



78 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



1679. 



Stirling Monday next the 9th instant. 
Those of Fife upon the 10th. Angus 



misery, that by sueh preparatives are designed 
for us*. Are all the nobility and gentry of Scot- 
land content to settle this yoke upon us and our 
posterity? Must we be the degenerate succes- 
sion of so noble and worthy progenitors, by 
yielding, without a testimony, those liberties, 
which, with such pains and care, they retained 
through a tract of so many ages, and transmitted 
entire into our hands? Were we born to be the 
betrayers or sellers of oui- own and our succes- 
sors' "birth-rights? and so to be marked as the 
perpetual shame and opprobry of the history of 
our nation, unto the end of the world? 

As our readiness to serve our kings, to obey 
their just laws, and to defend their persons with 
our lives and fortunes, hath long time been no 
small part of the glory of our nation ; so hath 
no less been the native courage, and resolute 
boldness of our ancestors in resisting, and oppos- 
ing to their face, such flatterers, as, preying 
upon the goodness of their prince, have at any 
time, by misrepresentations of persons and af- 
fairs, endeavoured to abuse his authority, by 
forcing or insinuating upon his faithful subjects, 
customs different from, or contrary to their set- 
tled laws, or derogatory to the honour, and op- 
posite to the true interest of king and kingdom. 
The cabal, who, it seems, knew well enough 
that their counsels would never be proof either 
of law or reason, and so behoved only to be pro- 
pai;ated by authority and force, liad good reason 
to obtrude upon the late parliament of England, 
that test, whereby they were to declare upon 
oath, that it was unlawful to resist with arms, 
any person acting by the king's authority, which 
they, seeing the project, and foreseeing the event, 
found no less reasonable, for the good both of 
king and country, unanimously to reject. For 
to say, that no man acting by the king's autho- 
rity ought to be resisted, is all one as to say, that 
it is impossible that kings can be abused; and 
all one as to say, that if a wicked minister de- 
sign the ruin both of king and kingdom, under 
colour and pretext of authority, it is unlawfid to 
hinder him, though it were in our power. If 
Haman's plot had taken effect before Esther's 
access to the king, who will judge it to have 
been a crime, though the Jews had stood to 
their own defence, until such time, as his treach- 
ery, their innocence, and the king's damage had 
been represented ? though God in his mercy and 
justice provided a better outgate for them, and a 
worse end for him ; a dreadful example, and 
which ought to strike with horror all abusers of 
their king's favoin- and authority. He deserveth 
that a tyrant should reign over him, and is not 
worthy of the protection of a lawful prince, that 
will not cheerfully hazard his life and fortune 
for the defence of his person, honour, and just 
laws. But what if the king's name be made use 
of, to acts manifestly contrary to his interest in 
all these, and which, it may be, every reasonable 
man, and loj-al subject is bound in duty to be- 
lieve, his majesty would abhor, if impartially 
consulted in them? If this be not impossible, 1 
hope our next parliament will see to it, and con- 
sider what the former hath done ; and till then, 
before you engage yourself too deep in the cause, 
you have good reason to examine, both what are 
the true causes of these poor people's aj)pearing 
in arms, and what they would be at; and if they 



upon the 1 1th. That all have ten days' pro- 
vision with them ; and the militia troop of 



be oppressed contrary to justice, or demand not 
unreasonable things, you would think, what may 
become of you and us all when they are broken. 
They say, the devil should have his due ; and 
to deal no worse with the presbyterians, though 
they were as bad as he, 1 must confess, that 
never a people on earth ■R'ere dealt more liardly, 
or more unreasonably with than they. They 
stand upon a scruple of conscience, that they 
must liave no meddling with the bishops, and 
that both by scripture, and their solemn oath to 
God, which they think no man can dispense with, 
together with an opinion of more sensible benefit 
to their souls, they are bound to hear none other 
than those of their own way ; which being granted 
them, as it was once the utmost of their aim, so, 
no doubt, would fiave, as absolutely secured 
them to peace, and obedience to magistrates, as 
any other subjects whatsoever: but this not 
being allowed ihem, they, for avoiding public 
offence and the reach of the la^v, assembled them- 
selves privately in houses for hearing their 
preachers; which, albeit the same be done open- 
ly, and without either challenge or punishment, 
in England and Ireland, yet here was looked 
upon, as so notorious a crime, that strict and 
most severe acts were immediately issued forth, 
and the poor people hunted from house to house, 
apprehended, imprisoned, some in close prisons, 
some tortured for procuring confessions from 
them, some weak or sickly persons blocked up, 
till they died in prison, others fined in great 
sums of money, some whereof paid again and 
again, to the great diminishing of their fortunes, 
and detriment of their posterity, others not pay- 
ing were kept still in prison, some whereof have 
been prisoners many years bypast, and are yet 
so, who never saw a field-conventicle. Thus 
they were constrained to betake themselves to 
the hills and deserts in the fields, for shunning 
of these severities, for which they w^ere more 
cried out upon than ever, as persons not only 
disobedient to the king's laws, but designing a 
rebellion against his person and authority by 
these field-meetings. They, like so many Ro- 
man vindicators of their liberties and rights, 
knew that desperate diseases required desperate 
remedies, and therefore thought no hazard too 
great for them to undergo, for preventing the 
bondage threatened against them and their pos- 
terity; while we, like so many asses, crouch 
under the burden. He must see to his freedom, 
he to his life, he to his fortune : and though our 
endeavours in those methods befool us never so 
often, yet we will sit still and see the public in- 
terest sink, rather than think of another way. 
If our wounds ^vill not cure without pain, we 
will let them rot upon us; But behold the end 
of this sure dealing, of this thin-skinned and 
effeminate tenderness. Fie upon it! it looks as 
if this generation were made for no other end but 
to be trampled upon, then destroyed, and well to 
deserve both. Upon this head, the then armless 
multitude was pursued from hill to hill, as so 
many traitors; armed men sent against them, 
by whom many of them were apprehended, 
some wounded, some killed, some imprisoned in 
close prisons, some tormented, some sold as 
slaves to foreign plantations, though, by the pro- 
vidence of God, delivered in a strange way, to 
tlie shame of theii- enemies. Some of their 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



Edinburgh to-morrow on the Links of 
Leith, and the foot ou the 5th instant. At 



women, both old and young, most barbarously 
tj«e(l, being stripped naked by the rude soldiers, 
their clothes parried away, and they left in that 
destitute condition in the open fields. And as 
if all this their patient suffering, had served for 
no other end, but to incense their adversaries' 
fury and implacable malice the more against 
them, as a more eminent proof of their desjiite 
at them, they raised a great army, with a sump- 
tuous train of ammunition and artillery, to fight 
against the very wind of the west country, as 
carrying alongst with it an infectious presby- 
terian air, ^vhereby other places iniglit be endan- 
gered ; for the poor people in the meanwhile 
Tvere all sitting peaceably in their houses. This 
their liost mainly consisted of barbarous High- 
landers, by whom, like as many savages, cruel- 
ties, oppressions, plunders, and other horrid 
abuses were exercised upon them, too great, vil- 
lanous, and shameful to be named, by any man 
who owns himself a coiuitryman of those who 
committed them, or of those state ministers by 
whom they were authorized. In the meantime, 
by an act of non-addresses, and another of inter- 
communing, whereby it is unlawful for the son 
to give a bit of bread, or to speak to his father, 
or the wife to her husband, though lying star\'- 
ing at their doors, all access by supplication, or 
otherwise, either by themselves or their friends, 
being cut off from them, either to his majesty or 
his council ; and whatever acts of grace his ma- 
jesty was pleased to send in their favours, the 
same being either so minced and clogged, or 
wholly suppressed by the means and power of 
the bishops in the council, that they were alto- 
gether deprived of the benefit thereof, as was 
done with a late order from his majesty, for 
liberty to them to preach in houses: and after 
all this, a proclamation being emitted, whereby 
it is declared treason for them to be fonnd at 
those meetings with any arms, and the standing 
forces having received orders of fire and sword 
against all that should withstand them ; which 
being put in execution by captain Graham of 
Claverhouse, to the effusion of much blood, and 
the same measure being declaredly appointed for 
the whole remainder of that party ; let any sober 
and disinterested man judge, if, with that wise 
and honourable counsellor the earl of Shaftsbury, 
it may not rather be thought a miraculous work 
of God, that these people, having the hearts of 
men in them, should have sitten and suffered so 
much and so long; than be thought sti'ange, 
that now at length they appear in arms for their 
own defence iVom such utter and imminent 
ruin ; or yet strange, that such numbers should 
flow in to them at such a nick of time, when 
both those of our own nobility and gentry, who 
have so much endeavoured to represent to, and 
convince his majesty of our grievances, have, by 
the forgeries and insinuations of evil counsellors, 
been so often, and yet are, not only totally frus- 
trated, but slightingly and misregardfully treat- 
ed, as persons opposite to his majesty's interest 
and designs: and also by proroguing of the 
English parliament, men's hopes of help and 
safety, either for liberty or religion, so univer- 
sally fail them, and the succession of the crown, 
as well here as there, is so likely to be devolved 
upon a known and avowed papist. 



their afternoon's sederunt, they send 
a letter to Lauderdale, together with 



79 



1679. 



Are you willing, then, to bestow your assis- 
tance, for comi)leting the sum of all these op- 
pressions ? Or do you think that your loyalty 
engageth you so to do ? Yet before you go, 1 
would have you answer me seriously these two 
or three questions. Are you sure that your 
loyalty would fortify you to suffer patiently all 
those things, if the bin'den were on your own 
shoulders ? Have all these argnments, that you 
are so well furnished with, against implicit 
faith to churchmen in church affairs, no propor- 
tionate weight at all against implicit faith to 
statesmen in state affairs ? Or can you not say 
that the streams are muddy, unless you conclude 
the fountain to be so also? Who had greater 
respect to the king's honour, interest, and laws, 
those, that without the conditions required by 
the law, in obedience to the act of council, found 
caution of lawborrows for his majesty's safety? 
or they, who in obedience to law, reason, con- 
science, and their allegiance to their prince, did 
altogether refuse it, both as a thing wherein the 
law could not be ansvvered, and which they 
found exceeding derogatory to his majesty's hon- 
our, dignity, and sovereign authority, which 
our allegiance obligeth us, ' with our lives and 
fortunes, to the uttermost of our power, con- 
stantly and faithfully to maintain, defend and 
advance against all and whatsoever persons, 
power, or estates, who shall presume in any 
ways to prejudge, hurt, or impair the same?' 
James VI. parliament 18th, chapter 1st. In 
which, by the way, it is worth the noticing how 
miserably those patrons of supremacy, those 
champions of the arbitrary letter law overreached 
and faltered themselves, by this their notable 
legal invention for supplying the room, and sav- 
ing the credit of their illegal bond, in that, while 
they are contending so much to exalt the king 
above the law, they, in the meanwhile, not only 
make him a supplicant and demeaiier of himself 
to the law, but subject him to so mean and hum- 
ble a degree of necessity of supplicating, a de- 
gi'ee so far unsuitable to a supreme governor 
over all persons, and in all causes, that not only 
he is the first of all kings, that ever was made, 
by his own counsellors, to stoop so low, and 
like to be the last; but, even amongst his own 
subjects, there are many thousands, that w^ould 
think it very far below them to lawborrows of 
such as his majesty, at least his council declareth 
him ready to take by that act, yea, who have so 
much honour to maintain, as would make them 
disdain the very thought of such a practice. We 
may judge then what a shift our council hath 
been put to for a colour of la^v to their actings, 
when they behoved to make this their choice. 
Now this was a proclamation and act of council, 
j'et how contradictory, both to the true honour 
and interest of the king's majesty, and to those 
fundamental standing laws, whereby our whole 
representatives have luianimously bound them- 
selves and us, and their and our successors to 
the perpetual and unalterable maintenance of 
both, is evident to all that will not wilfully 
shut their eyes. Is it for us then, to take upon 
trust our king's mind, honour, or interest fiom 
such lawgivers ? Or if we do, may we not 
afterward be found as culpable in obeying, as 
they in commanding. If this prevail not, con- 



so THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 

Claverhouse, and my lord Ross their 



[BOOK III. 



1679. 



letters, which I have insert, -f- that 



sider but these heads of the oath of coronation, 
wherewith, and whereupon our kings receive 
the crown of tliis liingdom, ' that they shall rule 
the people committed to their charge, according 
to the honourable laws and constitutions received 
in this realm -; that they shall procure to the 
uttermost of their power, to the kirk of God, 
and haill christian people, true and perfect peace 
in all time coming ; that they shall forbid and 
repress, in all estates and degrees, reist, oppres- 
sion and all kind of ^vrong; that in all judg- 
ments, they shall command and procure, that 
justice and equity be kept to all creatures with- 
out exception, as the Lord and Father of all 
mercies be merciful to them.' James VI. pari. 1, 
cap. 8. Think then how deep it may draw upon 
their score, not only before God, but before man, 
who presume to take upon them to advise or 
persuade his majesty to act, or to act themselves 
under colour of his authority, things manifestly 
contrary and repugnant to this solemn oath of 
God, and chief f'undamental law of our nation ; 
and of what fatal consequence it may afterwards 
prove, not only to them, but also to their abet- 
tors, aiders, encouragers in such wicked unlaw- 
ful counsels and practices ; at least, if ever 
iicotland be so happ}' as to return again to the 
unbiassed right use of law, reason or conscience; 
and yet more especially, when, to the conviction 
of all men, our king is of himself so naturally 
propense and inclinable to all ways of justice 
and clemency. 

It is known, that his majesty, at his restora- 
tion, declared himself resolved not to alter the 
government of the church then established. It 
is known, that of late also, a plenary and uni- 
versal indulgence was granted by him, in favours 
of the nonconformists. These are the native 
effects of our king's inclination, goodness and 
clemency, by either of which all these imminent 
mischiefs might have been prevented. Who 
then were the obstructors? Ought they not 
now rather to be searched for, looked upon, and 
dealt with as the greatest enemies of king, people 
and government, than assisted in the prosecution 
of such pernicious counsels as have occasioned so 
unhappy and so unseasonable a breach in our 
peace and safety? Shall I ever believe that his 
majesty, who, of his own nature, is so wise, and 
so just a pattern of civility and obligingness, and 
■who ruleth by compact betwixt him and his 
lieges, would ever liave forced commanders 
upon the nobility and gentry ? especially at a 
time, when it appears, he needeth so much their 
service, and they are so willing to bestow it. 
When the French king, who hath no other law 
for his actings but his own will, yet doth not so 
much as propose any officer to the gentry, when 
he calleth them forth, but remitteth that matter 
wholly to lot. Can it be supposed, that his 
majesty, whose life, honour and kingdoms are so 
hunted for, by plot after plot of these bloody 
emissaries of Satan, the papists, the greatest and 
most insolent enemies of monarchy, and the 
most incurable plague and bane of all human 
society, and who therefore commanded lately 
his proclamation to be issued forth, for appre- 
hending or banishing many, and wholly disarm- 
ing all of them within all the corners of the 
land, would ever not only have restored to them 



the reader may have the accounts sent in 
by the army, and observe the plain niis- 



the power of their arms, hut have put great 
numbers of his faithful and honourable protes- 
tant subjects under some of their commands? 
Can any man think it his majesty's will, that 
bailie Baird's son, Avho was never a soldier, 
should be cornet of a troop where the earl of 
Lothian, earl of Dalhousy, viscount of Oxenford, 
lord Torphichen, Balmerino, &c. are to ride as 
troopers, and where his grace the duke of Buc- 
cleugh, when he arrives, can, according to the 
proclamation, pretend no higher than the right 
hand of the first rank? And since we have 
such ground to doubt of these, and it is so well 
known, that his majesty did not of himself in- 
trude bishops upon us, but only, by the selfish 
treachery of some who were employed to secure 
us from them, he %vas persuaded, and made to 
believe, that that government would best agree 
w^ith us : who, in reason, can, or ought to 
imagine that it proceedeth from his majesty, 
that his subjects of his three kingdoms should be 
engaged in blood, wars and devastation of their 
fortunes, whereby they may be rendered a prey 
to foreign enemies and lurking papists, and unfit 
to serve his majesty in a more necessary cause, 
and of far gi'eater concern to king and kingdoms, 
with the uncertainty of what further ruin these 
evils may grow to, rather than part now ■with 
that government of the church, when he sees 
how far he hath been misinformed Cijncerning 
it ? His majesty's, both mind and true interest 
being thus cleared, this then, in plain ternis^ as 
a consequence clear enough of itself, must be 
the true state of the affair. Duke Lauderdale is 
obliged to the bishops, they helped well to up- 
hold him when he was tottering, and yet help 
him, and therefore we must uphold them, though 
we should all fall in the quarrel. Is the cause 
then sufficient? Can you take your life in your 
hand, and securely rest your conscience upon it? 
Though you could, are you sure that his gain 
shall be yours? And. pray, whether was it in- 
terest or conscience, that made that statesman, 
when he was last amoiigst us, endeavour so 
much to have struck in with the presbyterian 
party, those rebels against the king and govern- 
ment, when he saw them growing so fast, and 
so difficult to be borne down ? which likely had 
taken effect, if he had not been checked in the 
bridle at his first starting aside, and so behoved 
to rene^vv his engagements, with fresh and evi- 
dent testimonies of his reality, not finding it fit 
to unhinge himself of the one party, ■while he 
■was yet unsure of the other. 

If this then be the sum of the matter, that 
the bishops serve duke Lauderdale's interest, 
and we therefore must serve the bishops'interest 
at any rate, lest otherwise we should seem weary 
of being tread upon ; all I can say is, that cap- 
tain Carstairs, bailie Carmichael, the town- 
major and his men, are like to come to no small 
credit by so noble and numerous a train of as- 
sessors, as the whole nobility and gentry of 
Scotland. However, on some accounts, they 
must yield to them the preeminence, those only 
having the advantage of profit for their service, 
being mercenary rogues, and having others also 
under them to wait their commands, ■while these 
have the honour to testify their zeal, by far 
greater condescendency of serving under com- 



CHAP. 11.] 



takes ia matters of fact, that through haste 
and misiuformation the council run into. 



inand, and some under those they hate, some 
under those that hate them, some under insi^rnj. 
ficant green-horns, and others under worse than 
some that are, or have been their hired servants, 
and all this not only gratis, but to their great 
expense, and with the exposing of their lives 
and fortunes. If you think this honourable for 
you, you may be doing as much, and as silent as 
any, albeit on all the forenamed grounds you 
have so just and handsome a way to retreat: if 
not, 1 freely give you ray advice, that, as I 
doubt not but you will both be as forward and 
cordial as any man, in testifying your affection 
for the real maintenance of his majesty's autho- 
rity ; so, if you find not yourself indeed con- 
cerned to give proof of it in this quarrel, you 
disengage yourself in time ; or if otherwise, that 
yet you go not out, nor do any thing without a 
protestation of salvo jure, upon the forementioned 
accounts, tliat, by a bad preparative, you be not 
the occasion of an irreparable damage to your 
country; which, at such a time, were I of one 
of those shires that are called out, you may be- 
lieve me, I would think it my duty and honour 
to do, though with the greatest hazard, and 
though there were not another to second me. 
When the public interest is like to suffer, by the 
ignorance, neglect or cowardice of all, he merit- 
eth double glory, making all his nation, and all 
their posterity his debtors, who steppeth in at 
such a nick of extreme need, with opportune 
help and assistance. 

lake courage then, and regard not the clamour 
of court sycophants, who live upon their coun- 
try's ruin, and will be crying down such heroic 
acts, as opposite and prejudicial to his majesty's 
authority. But be you confident, that it shall 
always, at long run, be found and seen, that he 
is the best friend to his king, that is the best 
friend to his country, and to the laws and liber- 
ties thereof, which both king and parliament 
have declared to be the birth-right and inheri- 
tance of the subject, and the security of their 
lives and fortunes, Charles II. pari. 1. act 17. 
and that these two interests are as individable 
in the body politic, as are those of the head and 
the body natural. For what is fui'ther, consult 
the scripture and your conscience, and be fully 
persuaded in your own mind. For me you 
know, how much, and how often 1 have con- 
tended for episcopacy : but now l.have consid- 
ered their partial behaviour in the matter of 
Danby and the lords in the Tower, those arch 
enemies of our king and government. I see 
them both there and here so knit to the bias of 
the court, that they will rather sell their souls, 
and the whole interests of the kingdom, than 
not swing to that side right or wrong. I see 
them generally to be men altogether set upon 
their own profit and advancement, and that, 
when once they can make their court well, they 
little mind religion, or the care of souls. I see 
they take no effectual course for curbing of pro- 
fanity, and that, if a man will but stand for their 
grandeur and revenues, they easily dispense with 
his being otherwise what he will. I see, that 
almost any scandalous fellow that will own 
them, and hath but an M before his name, may 
have a kirk ; too many whereof I know, and 
more here than with you. I have considered 
bishop Sharp, as their head and last introducer, 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 

They say, the Ruthcrglen declaration 



81 



traitorously asserts the kiujj to be an 



IGl 



whose reward hath been terrible in the justice 
of God, whatever the actors have been. And I 
have considered bishop Faterson as the tail, 
whose reward is no doubt waiting him also, if 
he mend not his manners. I have not forgot 
their cruel, arrogant and blood-thirsty stopping 
of his majesty's gracious bounty, and keeping up 
of his remission after the business of Fentland, 
which, with their torturing and hanging of the 
poor people, after quarters given them in the 
fields by general Dalziel, as it was a singular 
reward to him for his good service done tiiem, 
so may it, to all honest hearts, be as palpable, as 
ii is an odd example of their faith and manners. 
I see the very off'-scourings of the earth em- 
ployed by them, as their trustees and heroes, for 
propagating of their conformity, and some of 
them, though base all over, and despicable above 
all expression, yet owned and caressed by them, 
as brave fellows, and chief promoters of their 
principles and interest : yea, so little choice make 
they on this head, whether as to profanity, 
popery, atheism, or what else you can think on, 
that, for ought that appears, as many devils out 
of hell would be welcome to them, to prop their 
dagon of prelacy, and to be a scourge to the 
fanatics. I see, force and the rigour of the law 
are their two grand pillars, the Jachin and 
Boaz of their temple; and that their whole 
power, interest and endeavours are so jointly 
and entirely bestowed upon the suppressing of 
conventicles, and for hindering the preaching 
of the gospel, by those of the nonconformist 
party, which renders it to me dreadfully suspi- 
cious, that their cause must be but so and so, 
when themselves judge it the main support and 
security thereof, that it never come to a fair 
hearing ; for the truth is, they reckon themselves 
imdone, if ever the people get leave to hear these 
men. I see, most of them look either with af- 
fection or indifferency upon popery, that the 
papists themselves favour them more than any 
other goverument, that by their slackness iu 
prosecuting them, they are the occasion of much 
evil to these lands; and that they give much life 
to all their mischievous plots, by the hope they 
find of yet ascending up on that step of their 
hierarchy remaining amongst us. Whereas, on. 
the other hand, it cannot but be acknowledged 
by all, that be presbytery else what it will, it is 
certainly the best remedy against popery in the 
world ; the total rooting out ■whereof amongst 
us, now after the discoveries we have, ought, on 
many accounts, to be esteemed the graiui inter- 
est, wherein the power, wit and endeavours of 
every good subject, every good countrj'man, and 
everj' good Christian should terminate. And, in 
fine, since to all this may be added, the fatal 
consequences of the former establishment of 
bishops amongst us, with the appearance of what 
is like to be the end of the present ; and that our 
nation hath drunk in such an inbred and indeli- 
ble prejudice against them, that though these 
fourteen men, were as many saints, neither 
can much good be expected from them, under 
that character, in this place, nor yet they ever 
long settled without blood and confusion. I 
wish only the presbyterians would give some 
pithy and incontrovertible testimony of their 
real affection to his majesty their lawful sove- 
reign, and to the true line, iu so far as by poperj- 



82 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



usurper. This is a consequence of 
' their o^vn framing-, from an expres- 
sion in the declaration, which to me appears 
to relate not to the king's right and claim 
to the government, but the exercise of an 
usurped power in setting- up anniversary 
days, and destroying- the interests of the 
church. But they wire-di*aw expressions to 
expose the people now in arms, whereas we 
shall see, that the bulk of those gathered at 
this time, Avere far from denying the king's 
authority. It is yet a greater mistake, when 
they say, that Mr John King and three 
others were seized by Claverhouse in 



it is not interrupted ; with such a proof of their 
abhorrence of episcopacy, as may make them 
take up an antipathy at their prelatical way of 
having no sooner power in their hands, but in- 
stantly, with oaths, declarations, and bonds, 
flying like as many wild cats, in the throat of 
our consciences ; and that they, presbyterians, 
would rather take a more gospel way of instruct- 
ing and persuading us in love and meekness, and 
in patience wait, till by the use of means, and 
their affectionate carriage towards us, we be 
won to the discerning and persuasion of those 
things, that are not fundamentals, wherein we 
differ, and may the king's majesty say. Amen. 
Then welcome pi-esbj'tery, unity, and peace ; 
and farewell to confusion, schism, prelacy and 
popery for ever. 

f CoimcWs letter to Lauderdale, June 3rd, 1679. 

May it please your grace. 
Upon Thursday last, the 29th of May, a com- 
pany of rebels came to Rutherglen, and there 
proclaimed the covenant, and burned the acts of 
parliament asserting his majesty's supremacy 
and prerogativ, the act rescissory, the act estab- 
lishing episcopacy, and appointing the 29th of 
May an anniversary thanksgiving for his ma- 
jesty's birth and return, affixing an infamous 
declaration to the market cross there, wherein 
they most traitorously assert our gracious and 
rightful sovereign to be an usui'per, as your 
grace will see more fully in the double of that 
treasonable paper herewith sent, and they in- 
tended to have done the same at Glasgow, had 
not Claverhouse his unexpected arrival there, 
w^ith his troop and company of dragoons, luckily 
prevented them. Saturday last, at night, Cla- 
verliouse went to Rutherglen to discover and 
apprehend those insolent rebels, and did seize 
three of them, together with an intercommuned 
preacher, named King, in or about Strathaven, 
and on Sunday's morning, went in quest of 
field conventicles, and was not long in descrying 
one which proved indeed a rendezvous of rebel- 
lion, as will appear by his letter herewith sent, 
directed to the major-general. Monday, the 
committee of the council met (before the receipt 
of the inclosed from Claverhouse) by two o'clock 
in the morning, and by the major-general's con- 
sent, resolved that all the forces should be imme- 
diately called, and ordered to join together for 
pursuing of those rebels ; which was immediate- 



S'trathaven, whereas they were taken at 
Hamilton. Besides, their numbers were 
very for from fifteen or sixteen hundred, as 
the council represents them. 1 much doubt 
if there were yet the third part of these in 
arras. One needs not be surprised at the 
gross blunders the English historians fall 
into, when narratives from the council con- 
tain so many misrepresentations. That same 
day they ordain the regiment of Edinburgh 
to rendezvous to-morrow, and order the ma- 
gistrates there to take and grant receipts for 
all the cannon they can meet with in cellars, 
or elsewhere in Leith, for the security of 



ly done, and the forces which were at Teviot- 
dale, ai-e, and will be here this night; these in 
Dumfries may be here to-morrow, and these in 
Fife will be this night at Stirling, and the ma- 
jor-general (who hath upon this occasion been 
very vigilant) will, by four o'clock to-morrow 
morning, with all the forces here, march to- 
wards Glasgow, to join those which are now 
there commanded by the lord Ross, and the 
rather, that the rebels having, by their numbers, 
overpowered Claverhouse and his party, and 
lodged that night in Hamilton, were so bold 
and daring, as, yesterday at eleven o'clock in the 
forenoon, to assault the lord Ross, and the party 
commanded by him, in the very town of Glas- 
gow, whence they were repulsed in manner 
mentioned in a letter from the lord Ross here- 
with sent. Their number is credibly informed 
to be fifteen or sixteen hundred, and that many 
flock in to them from several corners. Upon 
advertisement from the committee, we have this 
day met, not suffering our eyes to sleep till we 
came here to consult what was necessary to be 
done by us upon this occasion, and accordingly 
we have emitted the proclamation herewith sent, 
and called out the assistance of the militia in the 
shires of East and ^lid-Lothians, Fife, Peebles, 
'•-"tirling, Berwick, Perth, and Angus; and as 
the militia in Mid-Lothian will be ready in a day 
or two, so we hope the militia in all the other 
shires shall be in readiness by the middle of the 
next week to join his majesty's standing forces, 
if need be, for supjiressing of this insolent and 
inad rebellion. \Ve have ordered the town of 
Edinburgh to draw out their militia to-morrow, 
for the more effectual securing of this place, and 
nothing shall be omitted by us, which may con- 
tribute towards the quenching of this flame, and 
for reducing of the furious rebels; for this we 
shall not fail to stay together here, for consult- 
ing fit and proper methods for doing hereof, and 
for asserting his majesty's authority and govern- 
ment, against all attempts which may be made 
by any whatsoever against it, and we shall not 
fail, from time to time, to give your grace adver- 
tisements, to be communicated to his sacfed 
majesty, of what passeth here concerning those 
rebels, and our endeavours for suppressing their 
insolence, as becoraeth. 

May it please your grace, 

Your grace's most humble servants. 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



83 



the town and the king's service : and that 
some of the bailies attend at Leith, and exa- 
mine all persons passing the ferry at tide- 
times, and imprison such as cannot give 
account of themselves. Further, the laird 
of Lundin, governor of the castle, is ap- 
pointed to call for smiths, wrights, and 
others his majest3r's servants, to work in 
the castle as he sees necessary; and they 
grant him warrant to take all manner of 
provisions necessary for the castle, where 
he can find them, and give receipts, upon 
which the lords of the treasury are to pay 
the owners at the ordinary prices. 

June 4th, The council give orders, that 
after the muster is over this day, one com- 
pany of the militia keep guard in the Can- 
ongate tolbooth, and another in the Abbey, 
and that the whole regiment be ready to 
draw together upon the tuck of drum; 
and that the magistrates of Edinburgh 
make trial what powder is lately sent 
out of town, and to whom, and secure all 
the powder in town, and place it in the 
castle. 

To return to the proceedings of the army 
after the attempt upon Glasgow, my lord 
Ross, and the rest of the officers of the 
king's forces there, finding the gathering of 
the country people growing, and expecting 
every day considerable numbers to be added 
to them, and not reckoning themselves able 
to stand out a second attack, found it ad- 
visable to retire eastward. Accordingly, 
June 3rd, they marched bag and baggage to 
Kilsyth, carrying some of the wounded 
country men, who fell into their hands, w ith 
them in carts: next day, when near Fal- 
kirk, they received the council's orders to 
stop, till the earl of Linlithgow's regiment, 
and other forces from Stirling and other 
places, joined them, and then to march back 
all in a body to the west country. 

The motions of the forces will best ap- 
pear from the letters which I meet with in 
the council registers from and to the earl of 
Linlithgow. June 5th, the earl writes to 
the chancellor, " That he intended to have 
marched with the forces to Stirling that 
morning, but being informed, that the rebels 
are marched to Glasgow, upon my lord 
Ross his removal thence, he found it proper 
to order him with his whole party to join 



him at the bridge of Bonny to-morrow ^ i 

morning; upon this consideration,that ' ' 
if they had gone to Stirling, the rebels mioht 
have marched straight to Edinburgh before 
he could have reached them." He adds, 
" They are said to be very strong, and 
rogues flocking to them from all hands." 
The council in theirs to him, thank him for 
his care ; acquaint him the companies from \ 
Dumfries are come to Lintoun, and shall, as 
soon as they arrive, be sent up to him, w ith 
such of the militia as can be spared. They 
desire him to send them accounts every 
day. June Gth, the earl acquaints the chan- , 
cellor, " That he had joined my lord Ross ' 
and the forces with him at Larbert-muii', 
where they had information from Glasgow, 
that the rebels were about BothweU-bridge 
and Hamilton, where they did exercise 
yesterday all day ; that two troops of horse 
from Gallo\i'ay, Newmills, and Galston, and 
a company of foot with coloiirs and drums 
had joined them; that, when come to the 
Holly-bush, he received intelligence from 
the magistrates of Glasgow, that the rebels 
continued where they were, and were in 
niunber about seven thousand. Since he 
hears, they are to march to LoudonhiU ; and 
the country are still gathering to them. 
That he can come to no resolution till he j 
get further intelligence; and is just now 
sending two soldiers in disguise to go to 
them, and looking after some country people 
who may be trusted to send among them, 
to bring him intelligence." The council in \ 
their answer acquaint the earl, that they 
have sent up to him some more forces, that, 
instead of the militia, they have ordered the 
heritors to come out on horseback; and 
conclude with their assurance of his vigi- 
lance and care. 

That night about eight of the clock the j 
council meet upon another letter fi'om the 
major-general, dated Kirkintilloch one of 
the clock, bearing, " That yesterday they 
marched to Kilsyth, whence they came this 
day hither, where certain advice came of 
the rebels' strength, about 8000 foot and 
horse, if not more." He adds, " and being j 
apprehensive of the dangerous consequences 
which may follow to his majesty's service, 
if we should engage mad zealots, with such 
unequal numbers, the whole officers, upon 



84 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



LBOOK III. 



deliberation, are of opinion, that it is 
' not safe to advance nearer the enemy, 
and conceive it best to retire to Stirling-, to 
refresh our wearied men, and expect such as 
the council shall see needful to order up to us, 
that we may be able to make head ag^ainst 
the rebels." He gives this as the opinion 
of all the officers, and moves that his 
majesty be acquainted, and besought to 
send down forces from England; but sub- 
mits all to the council; and promises, if 
they order them, to march, either to Edin- 
burgh or against the rebels, be their num- 
bers what they will. The council in their 
return approve of their retiring, and recom- 
mend it to them to come in to Edinburgh, 
and send an express to Stirling, that the 
governor look well to the safety of that 
place. At the same time they send an ex- 
press to Lauderdale, with the letter from 
the earl of Linlithgow, and one from them- 
selves, bearing what is above ; and further, 
" That they had called together the foot 
militia in Koxburgh, Selkirk, Kincardine, 
Aberdeen, Bamff, Ross, Elgin, Forres, and 
Nairn ; and in place of the militia horse, by 
a proclamation (already noticed) they had 
ordered all the heritors in the several shires, 
with their servants and followers, whom 
they are able to bring out on horseback, to 
rendezvous." They add, " but after all, we 
dare not conclude his majesty may trust to 
this as a sufficient force to quench this vio- 
lent flame, and therefore desire forces from 
England and Ireland." 

June 7th, The earl of Linlithgow writes 
to the chancellor, " That, according to the 
council's orders, he is on his march to Lin- 
lithgow, desires directions where to quarter 
his men, and tells him Stirling is in a good 
condition." The council in their return, 
refer the quartering of the soldiers about 
Edinburgh to himself, and desire he may 
leave some parties of horse to the westward 
of Edinburgh, and be careful to get intelli- 
gence, and that he, and all the counsellors 
with him, may be present at the meeting of 
council to-morrow at six afternoon. Obedi- 
ence to this was given; the army continued 
about Edinburgh, till the 16th, when they 
began to march westward against the people 
at Bothwell, as we shall afterguards hear. 

I need not take up much more room with 



the procedure of the council at this junc- 
ture : we have seen their most material steps. 
1 shall only notice that June 5tli, after the 
publishing the proclamation about raising 
the militia, they order the militia regiment of 
Mid-Lothian, to quarter at Leith ; that the 
militia in the northern shires rendezvous on 
the 17th, and write to the earls Marshall, 
Errol and Kintore, to come to Edinburgh 
with all speed. Upon the 6th, they Avrite 
to the earl of Queensberry, to call together 
the haill gentlemen, heritors, and freeholders 
in the shire of Dumfries, with as many ser- 
vants and followers as they can bring out 
on horse with arms, and march straight to 
Edinburgh. The like appointment is given 
to the earl of Nithsdale, for Wigton and 
Kirkcudbright. And June 7th, they re- 
quire the earl of Argyle to come with his 
friends, and join the king's army. I have 
insert their letter.* And another of the 
same nature is writ to the earl of Caithness, 
desiring him to be at Stirling by the 14th 
instant. June 8th, all the militia regiments 
on the south of Forth are appointed to ren- 
dezvous at Leith as soon as possible, and 
those benorth it, at Stirling. That same 
day they appoint an oath to be administered 
to the militia by the following act. " The 
lords of council, considering how necessary 
it is to secure the tov,n of Edinburgh from 
all attempts of the rebels, do ordain the 



• Council's Letter to Argyle, June 9th 1679. 
My lord, 

The fanatics in the west and other places liav- 
iiig formed themselves into a dangerous rebel- 
lion, whose numbers and force do daily increase, 
we have thought fit to desire your lordship may, 
with the greatest expedition your circumstances 
can allow, disentangle yourself from your ex- 
pedition, for w^hich you are commissionated 
against the rebellious people in the Highlands, 
to the end your lordship may, with the greatest 
diligence you can, repair to the king's host, and 
to join the forces under the command of the earl 
of Linlithgow, with your friends, vassals, ser- 
vants and followers, -well appointed and armed 
for assisting to^vards the oppression of this trea- 
sonable insurrection. We doubt not of your 
lordship's readiness, upon all occasions, to give 
commendable proofs of your loyalty and duty to 
his sacred majesty, and you cannot give a more 
signal testimony thereof, and of your zeal lor the 
peace and happiness of this kingdom, than by a 
seasonable assistance against these rebels, and so 
we cannot but expect a cheerful and ready com- 
pliance from your lordship, with so just and 
necessary a desire. We are 

Your lordship's affectionate friends. 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



85 



inagistnites of Edinburgl), to draw out to- 
morrow the militia regiment, and ti"aiu- 
bands, and cause the haill officers enrol the 
soldiers under their command ; and ordain 
the provost, as colonel, to administer to 
the officers and soldiers the following oath, 
' That they shall he true and faithful to the 
king-, defend his authority, and maintain the 
same against this insurrection and rebel- 
lion, and all others, if any shall happen, 
with the hazard of their lives and fortunes.' 
And if any shall refiLse this oath, he be pre- 
sently disarmed, secui'ed, and notice given 
to the council." This is one of the plainest 
oaths imposed in this reign. 

.June 9th, The council require the earl of 
Blarr to secure the passages of the water of 
Forth, and seize all persons Avho pass the 
water ivith horses or arms, not having 
passes. That same diet they write to major 
Main, who with a troop of horse and live 
of dragoons, was at Alnwick, and ready to 
act against the rebels, desiring him to march 
to Kelso, and seize Frank Pringle of Kow- 
iston, bailie of Kelso, John Bro^\ii, aiid 
James Handiside ; and from thence to go to 
Jedburgh, and thence to Selkirk, where he 
should meet with a party of his majesty's 
forces with further orders. All boats are 
ordered to be secured at Queensferry and 
Blackness. And half a crown is appointed 
to be given to every foot soldier, besides his 
pay, for their present necessity. June lUth, 
upon information that some rebels infest 
the shire of Fife, the council send over a 
troop of horse, and some dragoons under 
the command of the laird of Meldrum ; the 
chancellor is likewise desired to repair 
thither. The paiishes about Edinbui'gh are 
ordered to bring ammunition for the king's 
army. Some hackney coach horses are to 
draw the artillery and sixty bolls of meal ; 
and forty horses, to carry the meal for the 
use of the army, are to be provided. The 
master of Ross acquaints the council, by a 
letter read June 1 1th, that yesterday, near 
Selkirk, he met with a party of rebels of 
about 150, and defeated them, killed near 
CO, and took 10 near Galla water. Next 
day, the lord Elphinstou acquaints the 
council, he had taken 33 rebels prisoners, 
\^•ho were coming from Fife, and the like 
number neai- Perth. This day they order 



the earl of M;u"r to gather as many 
Highland foot as may be, and bring 
them to Stirling-bridge. In the afternoon 
a flying packet comes to the council from 
the duke of Lauderdale with letters, where- 
in the king approves what they had done, 
and promises to send them assistance. I 
have insert the letter, dated June 9th.* 
June I3th, the council make a return to his 
grace, and give a short narrative of what 
had passed, which is added.f June 15th, 



* Lauderdale's lettet- to the Chancellor, June 9th, 
1679. 
May it please yoiu" lordship. 

His majesty having fully considered all the 
accounts sent to hiin by the two last flying 
pacliets, commands me to tell you, that he does 
heartily approve all tliat is already done by your 
lordships of his privy council, in issuing out that 
proclamation, in raising the militia, in com- 
manding all noblemen, gentlemen, and heritors 
with their servants and followers, to attend the 
king's host, and in advising the major-general to 
bring back the forces to Edinburgh, as also, to 
assure the major-general, that his majesty is 
very well satisfied with his great diligence, care 
and conduct, for which the king returns him his 
thanks, as he does likewise to the lord Ross and 
Claverhouse, and will be very mindful of it ujion 
all occasions. I cannot sufficiently express the 
obligations we have all to his majesty for his 
kindness to Scotland, which, as it has always 
been eminent, is signal upon this occasion, in 
which he is most careful of the peace of that 
kingdom, and of the honour of his council there: 
and since, in order to oui- further preservation, 
he resolves to assist you according to your de- 
sire, with forces both from England and Ire- 
land, he recommends it to you, to endeavour to 
keep the rebels as much as possibly you can, 
within their own western shires, in which case, 
that you shun to engage them without seen ad- 
vantage, till you get such supplies, as you will 
judge sufficient. It is also his majesty's plea- 
sure, that on this occasion, whereiu he is so 
much concerned, you take special notice of the 
fidelity and readiness of such as serve his majes- 
ty, and obey your orders in attending his host. 
His majesty recommends also to your special 
care, the supplying of the castle of Stirling with 
men and provisions, as a place which he knows 
to be of gi'eat importance, and may be supplied 
by water. It is expected that you send his 
majesty full and frequent accounts, by flying 
packets, or expresses, of what occurs from time 
to time, bearing particularly the motions and 
numbers of the rebels, with the names of their 
principal officers, the ]>rogress made in raising 
the militia, and journals of what passes amongst 
you, to be communicated to his majesty, at 
whose command this is signified by 
May it please your lordship. 

Your lordship's most humble. 
And most faithful servant, 

Laudehdale. 
f Council's letter to Lauderdale, June l'3th, 1G7J). 
May it please youi- grace. 

We are not able to express the joy with whicli 



86 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



1679. 



tliey receive another letter from the 
duke, dated June 1 1th, acquainting 
them of the supplies coming to them, and 



we received your last by the flying packet, sig- 
nifying the continuance of his majesty's care and 
coticern for the peace and interest of this his 
ancient kingdom, and his kind acceptance and 
royal approbation of our services and endeavours 
for preserving his authority and government 
therein against the attempts of such, who, shak- 
ing otf all fear of God, together with the grate- 
ful sense of their loyalty to his anointed, have 
here risen in rebellion. That his majesty may 
be acquainted witli our diligence and assiduous 
endeavours in securing the kingdom, and in 
providing of all proper ineans for the suppress- 
ing of this insurrection, we have herewith 
transmitted to your grace the journal of this 
board, that therein he may perceive our frequent 
meetings, and incessant application for this end. 
We have taken care to supply the castle of Stir- 
ling with men, and to provide it with victual, 
and other necessaries competent for the security 
and defence thereof, and suitable to the import- 
ance of that place, according as his majesty, in 
bis royal wis<lom, hath well ordered. Reside 
his majesty's standing forces, the number where- 
of is well known to your grace, we have alreadj' 
here the militia regiments of Edinburgh, of Mid 
and East Lothians, and Berwick shires, which 
make upward of two thousand and five hundred ; 
as also the gentlemen and heritors of the foresaid 
shires, amounting upwards of three hundred and 
twenty good horsemen, two militia regiments of 
Fife, one from Perth, and another from Angus, 
will be here to-morrow, besides the other militia 
regiment of Perth, with that of Stirlingshire, 
we have ordered to quarter at Stirling, which, 
together with three or four hundred raised by 
that town, we have judged sufficient for the 
security thereof. 'the heritors also of Fife, 
Perth and Angus will be presently ready to 
come and march with the host ; as also the 
militia, and heritors in the more remote and 
northern shires, are making all possible haste 
for that same end, so that shortly we shall have 
a very considei-able force to march against these 
rebels, which, by God's blessing, may give such 
an account of them, as may secure his majesty's 
government, our religion, and the peace of this 
kingdom, from the tragical effects of faction and 
schism, for many years to come. We are most 
sensible of his majesty's eminent kindness to 
Scotland, in declaring his royal resolutions to 
assist us with forces from England and Ireland 
upon this occasion, and crave leave by your lord- 
ship to offer our most humble acknowledgments 
for the signal expression of it. We have already 
invited the troop of horse, and the five compan- 
ies of dragoons, under the command of major 
Main, to our assistance, who will this night 
quarter at Dalkeith, (and for the incalling 
whereof, we most earnestly desire his majesty 
may renew his warrant, and to give orders to 
them to continue with the forces of this king- 
dom, till this rebellion be crushed. ) We have 
cause to hope well of the issue from so promising 
beginnings; for besides the loss the rebels sus- 
tained at Glasgow, whence they were shame- 
fully repulsed, a considerable company of them 
are beaten by a party con\raanded by the master 
of Ross, whereof sixty were killed, and ten 



tliat the duke of Momuouth was appointed 
general, which follows.* That same day 
they return an answer, wherein they pro- 



taken prisoners. As also a number of the 
rogues having gotten together in Fife, harassing 
and plundering that shire of horse and arms, 
were, at their going out of Fife towards the 
rebels, taken by a company of the earl of Mur- 
ray's men, under the command of his stewart- 
depute in Down, by whom they were dissipated, 
severals wounded, and most of them taken, forty 
whereof are now prisoners in Stirling : and also 
many are now come from Perth, who were 
seized by the gentlemen of Strathern, among 
whom it is presumed, some of the murderers of 
the archbishop may be found. The design of 
these rebels was to have hindered and disap- 
pointed the rendezvouses of the militia and heri- 
tors in the shire of Fife; for which cause we 
allowed the lord chancellor, upon his own desire, 
to go thither, and use his best means for securing 
that shire, and for bringing the militia and heri- 
tors safely together, by whose happy endeavours, 
both the regiments of the militia and gentlemen 
in that shire will be here to-morrow, in order to 
their joining his majesty's other forces, for ex- 
tinguishing this present flame. We shall also 
be careful to obey his majesty's commands, by 
taking special notice of the readiness and fidelity 
of such as obey orders in attending his host, and 
in sending frequent flying posts to acquaint him 
thereof, and of ^vhat occurs from time to time. 
The rebels continue still about Glasgow, Hamil- 
ton, Bothwell, Strathaven, &c. Their number 
is uncertain, increasing or decreasing by the 
coming or going of the rabble, so that we can 
give no certain or determinate account thereof; 
their officers are as uncertain as they are ob- 
scure, no commander of any note being heard 
of amongst them. The major-general will be 
careful to take such a course in pursuing of them, 
as may keep them up, as much as is possible, 
within their own western shires, which, with 
Teviotdale, are the principal seat and stock of 
this rebellion. As lume can be more sensible of 
his majesty's tender care of Scotland, and kind 
acceptance of our endeavours, so none shall be 
more careful punctually to obey his royal com- 
mands, nor more ready, in his service, to ven- 
ture their lives and fortunes, than your grace's 
most humble servants. 

Rothes Chancellor, Ross, 
Douglas, Belhaven, 

Montrose, Jajies Fowlis, 

Murray, Kinnaird, 

Linlithgow, Ramsay, 

Edinburgh, Dalziel. 

Postscript. We hope, by Sunday or Monday's 
morning at farthest, a very good army shall be 
ready to march from this, against the rebels, in 
very good heart and condition. 

* Lauderdale^ s letter to tlie chancellor, 

June Uth, 1679. 

May it please your lordship, 

I am commanded by his majesty to acquaint 

you, that, in pursuance of his resolutions, to 

send supplies from hence to you, for suppressing 

the rebellion now amongst the fanatics in the 

west of Scotland, he hath ordered one regiment 

of foot to be presently embarked, to go by sea to 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



87 



pose g'eneral Dalziel may be made lieuten- 
ant-g-eneral under the diike of Monmouth, 
and irive some account of the jjresent state 
of things. It is added below.* 

Thus, from the registers, I have given 
as short an account as 1 could of the great 
diUgence of the council at this juuctiu-e. 



Berwick, together with cannon and ammuni- 
tion sufficient ; and his majesty has ordered two 
regiments of foot more, to he presently levied, 
the one to he commanded by the lord Cavendish, 
and the other by the lord Gray of Wark. As 
also three regiments of horse under the command 
of the duke of JNIonmouth, the duke of Albe- 
marle, and the lord Gerard, together with eight 
hundred dragoons. There are likevs'ise three 
troops of grenadiers, and these last are to march 
towards Scotland to-morrow. The king has 
also thought fit to name the duke of Monmouth 
general, to command all his forces, so long as 
his grace shall remain in Scotland. His majesty, 
by this expedition, will be at the charge of up- 
wards of live hundred pounds sterling a day, 
which is more than one hundred and tifty thou- 
sand pounds sterling by year, if they continue 
so long. And seeing the king has so early pro- 
vided for the preservation of his royal govern- 
ment, and your common safety, he has just rea- 
son to expect, that in the meantime you will 
bestow your utmost care and diligence, as far as 
is possible, to suppress that wild rebellion. His 
majesty presseth much, that frequent flying 
packets may be sent, at least every other day, 
that he may know all things that pass, and that 
they may bear large and exact accounts. All 
which, by his majesty's command, is signified to 
your lordship by, 
My lord, 

Your lordship's most humble. 
And most faithful servant, 
Lauderdale. 
* Letter fiom the council to Lauderdale, 

June \bth, 1679. 
May it please your grace, 
As his majesty's care and concern for Scotland, 
so signally expressed in the supplies and assis- 
tance he intends for its relief, do exceedingly 
both surprise and encourage, so the unseasonable 
trouble and charge this rebellion occasioneth to 
him, creates a very just affliction to us; the 
humble and dutiful sense of both, we must be- 
seech your grace, in our name, to offer to his 
majesty. The journals transmitted from this 
board will give his majesty an account of our 
uninterrupted care and endeavours for suppress- 
ing this insurrection, to which we have little to 
add, save, that yesterday the forces were drawn 
out, that they might be in the better order and 
readiness for their march to-morrow towards 
the enemy. The militia regiments, beside the 
standing forces, are of Fife and Ber vviokshires, of 
East and Mid Lothians, and that of Edinburgh, 
together with the heritors of the foresaid shires. 
One of the militia regiments of Fife came over 
yesterday, the other this day, to join the army 
to-morrow : as also one of the militia regiments 
of Perth, the other being commanded to Stirling, 
where also is the militia regiment of Stirling- 
shire; with the heritors, tlere is also expected 



and of the motions of the army, and 
have been the larger here,that we have ' * 
yet no tolerable accounts of these matters. 
I do not enter upon the springs of the kino's 
sending doviTi his own natural sou the duke 
of Buccleugh to be general. The English 
historians, who may be better depended 



the militia regiment of Angus, which, with the 
heritors and gentlemen of Mfe, Perth, and An- 
gus, will, v/e trust, make a very considerable 
strength and force, by which, through God's 
help and blessing, this abominable rebellion may 
be broken and crushed. The forces march to- 
morrow towards the rebels, and as daily fresh 
supplies will be coming up to them, so we shall 
be vigilant and careful to seiul them suitable 
provisions, and we doubt not but the Almighty 
will give them such advantage against the enemy 
(without which they will be careful not to 
engage them) as may enable them to obtain the 
victory, and so to extinguish this present flame. 

Since it hath pleased his majesty to api)oint 
the duke of Monmouth to be general of the forces 
here, during the time of his grace's abode in 
Scotland, it was humbly proposed by the earl of 
Ijinlithgow, that his majesty may be pleased to 
establish general Dalziel lieutenant-general in 
this expedition, and that we might recommend 
him to the king for this effect, with which mo- 
tion (his experience and fitness for such service 
being so well known) we have complied, and 
therefore desire your gi-ace may be pleased to 
signify the same to his majesty, which -we do 
with the most humble and absolute submission 
to his majesty's pleasure and disposal, as he, in 
his royal wisdom, shall judge most convenient 
for his service. 

The rebels continue still about Glasgow, Both- 
well, and Hamilton, and we can say nothing 
further of the numbers than we did in our last. 
We hear of no person of interest, conduct or 
quality to be amongst them. Their best and 
greatest officers being, Robert Hamilton, Balfour 
of Kinloch, Hackston of Rathillet, Barscob, 
Weir, Paton, and such other inconsiderable per- 
sons, whose mad zeal, broken condition and 
bloody fury have prompted and advanced to be 
the leaders of this tumultuary insurrection, so 
that we cannot doubt, but that in a short time 
his majesty's forces, by the blessing of God as- 
sistirig their valour and conduct, will make them 
reach the just reward of their folly, in their utter 
overthrow and destruction. 

We shall not be \vanting in our assiduous and 
most vigilant care and endeavours for doing 
every thing in our power, which may contribute 
to the quashing and suppressing of this insurrec- 
tion, whereof accounts shall be frequently trans- 
mitted to your grace, to be by you communi- 
cated to his majesty, from 

May it please your grace, 

Your grace's most humble servants 



Rothes Chancellor, 

Douglas, 

Montrose, 

Marr, 

Murray, 

WiNTON, 

Linlithgow, 



Stratkjiore, 

John Edinburgh, 

Ross, 

Belhaven, 

Drummond 

Kinnaird. 



88 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



1 fi7Q "^P^" when giving what passed at Lon- 
don than in Scots affairs, tell us, that 
the marquis of Halifax, lord Essex, and Sun- 
derland, continued in close friendship, and, 
with Sir William Temple, had for some time 
the tirst digesting- of affairs in their hands. 
When Shaftshury had got the management of 
the house of commons in his hand, the lord 
Sunderland moved that he should be brought 
into the council and the direction of affairs : 
this Sir William Temple opposed ; but the 
other three prevailed, and he was some 
time before this brought in, kept close with 
the duke of Monmouth, in opposition to 
the duke of York; and when these two 
were like to engross the king to themselves, 
the other four kept the more unite, and got 
the parliament dissolved, and, to satisfy the 
clamour in England against the duke of 
Lauderdale, and smooth matters against a 
new parliament met, eudeavoui'ed the duke's 
removal, or at least the admission of some 
other Scots peers to their affairs. Thus 
matters stood, when it came to be considered 
what was proper to be done to bear down 
the rising in Scotland; and in this matter 
there was no small difference among them. 
The king was for suppressing it immediately, 
by forces from England joining Avith the 
Scots army, and the duke of Monmouth to 
command them; Shaftsbury was for sup- 
pressing it by his friends in Scotland, whom 
he would have brought into the manage- 
ment, in Lauderdale's room, jointly with 
Monmouth. Essex agreed with the king 
as to the suppression, but wished it might 
be done only by the Scots, and was against 
the duke of Monmouth's having the com- 
mand : hoAA'evcr, all at length came in to 
the duke's being sent down, and so he came, 
as we shall hear, Mith instructions not al- 
together unfavourable to the oppressed 
people of Scotland, and he seems not to 
have been very acceptable to many of our 
managers at Edinburgh. 

I shall end this section with observing, 
that, about this time, the lord Macdonald, a 
professed and violent papist, who, as we 
have seen, with his clan, friends, and fol- 
lowers, for some time had been up in arms, 
and making ravages upon the earl of Ar- 
gyle's lands, sent in to Edinburgh a petition 
to the council, my copy of which Mants a 



date, but I take it to have been toward the 
middle of June. It was much suspected 
that this army of professed papists, now up 
in a body, though they pretended self-de- 
fence against the earl of Argyle, and lived 
pretty much by the depredation of his 
lands, were in a close correspondence with, 
if not under pension to the duke of York, 
and in concert with those concerned in the 
popish plot in England, and Mere to have 
been employed, ^^ith too many others his 
friends in Scotland, as occasion served, to 
support the popish successor, in case some 
designs against the king had succeeded ; or, 
in the event of the bill of exclusion's talcing 
effect, they might have been of use to over- 
awe Scotland into an opposition to it. Al- 
though our laws very expressly provide 
against all papists in arms, and, by the pro- 
clamation abovenamed, they were really 
guilty of treason, yet the council are pleased 
to receive a petition from the commander 
of this popish party, which, being short, I 
insert here. 

The humble petition of the lord Macdonald, 
and the gentlemen of the name of Maclean, 
convened to defend themselves against the 
oppression and malice of the earl of 
Argyle. 

May it please your lordships, 
' Being necessitate, by the oppression of 
the earl of Argyle, to defend ourselves and 
kinsmen from being for ever ruined and 
enslaved to him ; and, for that end, being 
convened, and being informed of a rebellious 
crew in the ^est, in arms against his 
majesty's authority, whose addresses we 
have rejected ; we most humbly, according 
to our duty and loyalty, petition to be au- 
thorized by the commander-in-chief, to 
assist to avenge the king of his enemies, 
and that the earl of Argyle may in the 
mean time be commanded to desist; which 
he hath ever done, when his majesty had 
any thing to do : and your petitioners shaU 
give their wonted testimony of their loyalty 
and duty, and give a contrary proof to the 
false character the earl of Argyle hath 
given of us,' 

Who shall ever pray, &c. 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



89 



The insintiation in the petition, that the 
rebels, as tliey call them, in the Avest had 
made addresses to that popish army of bar- 
biu-ous Highland papists, is so gross a slan- 
der, that it needs no refutation. They Avere 
the firmest in their opposition to popery ; 
their opposition to prelacy was imder the 
views they had of its being a remain of 
popery, and contrary to our reformation 
rights. The first risers were so strict, as 
they made difficulties to join with the pres- 
byterians who had embraced the benefit of 
the indulgence, and all along they gave suf- 
ficient documents of their abhorring the 
least motion this way. Consequently we 
must necessarily look upon this clause of 
the petition, either as put in at Edinburgh 
by some body, to cast a slur upon the pres- 
byterians, or as an artifice of the papists to 
recommend themselves, who stick not to 
advance their cause by the grossest lies and 
dissimulation. When the council read this 
petition, there was a considerable number 
appeai-ed for indemnifying these popish 
clans, and employing them against the m est 
country army : Init this was so flatly in the 
face of their own laws, and so open a siding 
A^ith popery, that it was got crushed, though 
A^•ith some difficulty. How low a pass was 
the reformation interest in Scotland at, when 
such a proposal was made, and almost car- 
ried at the coimcil board ! I return now to 
the west country army. 



Of the state, declarations, and divisions of 
the west country army, from their leaving 
Glasgoiv till the march of the army under 
the duke of Buccleugh. 

We left the ^^est country people at Hamil- 
ton, after they found their design upon 
Glasgow impracticable. All the account I 
can give of their motions, till they came to 
Hamilton-muir, before the engagement, is 
in the following memorandum, which I find 
among some other papers relating to this 
period, which, for ought I know, is matter 
of fact. ' It is informed the rebels were at 
Drumclog, the first of June being Sunday, 
upon Monday at the infal upon Glasgow, 
and at night they came to Hamilton, from 



thence thev went to Strathaven, and , „ 

. . 1679 

from that came to Kilbride parish, 

where they stayed until Sunday, when they 
came to lUitliorglen, ^ hence upon Monday 
they came into Glasgow, upon Tuesday to 
Tollcross Park,Wednesday to Hamilton, Fri- 
day to Bradisholm Park, Saturday, Sunday, 
Monday, Tuesday, they were at Monkland 
Kirk and Shawhead-muir, then to Hamilton 
till the defeat.' 

The reports of this body of men, their 
continuing together in arms after their suc- 
cess at Drumclog, joined with the accounts 
of the soldiers retiring from Glasgow cast- 
ward, being spread up and do^vn the coun- 
try, a good many came and joined them 
from all quarters. Their discouragement, 
for their repulse at Glasgow, was alleviated 
by John Paton in Meadowhead, called cap- 
tain Paton, his joining them at Hamilton or 
Strathaven, with a body of horse from Fen- 
wick, Newmills, and Galston ; and consider- 
able numbers joined them that week. It 
A^as a w'onder to see the arms a good many 
of the country men had in so good case 
after the west countiy had been so often 
plundered of arms. A good many came to 
Mr Hamilton, and the people with him (of 
whom, without the ceremony of a choice, 
he took the command) from Galloway and 
Nithsdale ; and indeed some of the best pro- 
vided men at Bothwell wei-e fi-om the south^ 
from CaiTick, Kyle, Cunningham, Ilenfre«', 
Lanark, the Lothians, and Stirlingshire, 
and among them some very good gentlemen. 
Noue of the nobility did join in this rising. 

These gentlemen, and the commoner sort 
knew nothing of Mr Hamilton and Mr 
Douglas's declaration at Rutherglen ; nei- 
ther were they at all privy to any thing of 
their scheme if they had any. They reck- 
oned them a body of people appearing for 
the presbyterian interest, and in hazardous 
circumstances at present, whom the king's 
army Mould swallow up unless assistance 
were given them ; and therefore resolved 
to hazard themselves in their defence, not 
knowing what Providence had to bring 
forth from these small beginnings. Indeed, 
abundance of men came in to the camp, 
when about Glasgow and Hamilton, during 
the time they stayed in the fields ; but then 
many of them had but very sorry arms, and 



M 



90 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



1679. 



tliey were yet more straitened for am- 
munition, and had no way to supply 
themselves in this, except with a very small 
quantity they found at Glasgow ; and it was a 
ir;:reat loss to them that they almost altog-ether 
wanted ofiicers any way trained to Avar. 
But the greatest loss Mas, their want of 
order and harmony among themselves; 
neither had they any person in whom they 
heartily centred, nor could they agree either 
upon the grounds of their appearance, or 
the time and other circumstances of it : 
they split upon subjects that seemed much 
out of their road, when their all was at 
stake ; the heats and breaches upon these 
heads will presently come in. Their camp, 
when in commissary Fleming's park, in 
Kilbride p;u-ish, and about Glasgow, ShaAA'- 
head, and Hamilton, was but ill regulated ; 
and no wonder, when there were but a 
few among them who had ever been almost 
in any camp; and any officers they had, 
wanted authority over the soldiers; but 
people came, and went off from the camp 
just as they pleased, and as the carriage of 
the leading men pleased or displeased them; 
and the captains and other officers Avhom 
they chose, had nothing of that poAvcr 
which is absolutely necessary to the mo- 
delling an array. No exact account can be 
given of their munbers, for they were very 
far from being any way stated; a good 
many would have been with them to-day, 
and gone away to-mon-ow. When most 
numerous, they are by some papers said to 
be five thousand; but I question if ever 
they exceeded four thousand; and even 
these decreased exceedingly before the en- 
gagement, if 1 may term it so, at Bothwell, 
as we shall afternards hear. 

When the soldiers were retired from 
Glasgow, Mr John Welsh, and a consider- 
able number of country men from Carrick 
with him, came to that city, where they 
met with no opposition, but much kindness 
and friendship from many good people there, 
and in the country about it. Nothing con- 
siderable was undertaken by them, only 
they caused the heads and hands of those 
who were executed in that place, for beinn- 
at Pentland, to be taken down and buried ; 
the same office they did to those who were 
killed in the attempt upon Glasgow, June j 



2d, With one or tAAO who died of their 
woimds since. A party was also sent west- 
ward to Kilmarnock, Irvine, and Ayr, who 
took down the heads and hands set up in 
those places, and interred them. No doubt 
these little detachments used their interest 
Avhither they went, to get people to join 
their main army ; and considerable numbers 
came every day. 

In order to increase their numbers, and 
to state the grounds upon which they took 
up arms and continued in them, the most 
considerable pei'sons among them, gentle- 
men, and others, as well as some ministers 
who preached to them, had many meetings ; 
the principal thing they had before them, 
Mas the drawing up a declaration to be 
published to the Avorld. It Avas upon this 
head they first began to divide and break 
among themselves. Their first rising Avas 
Avhat they were forced unto, and involun- 
tary, as hath been observed ; and the decla- 
ration at Rutlierglen, Avhen considered, Avas 
unsatisfying to a great many noAV come up, 
Avho nevertheless Avere Avilling to join AAith 
these who drew it, and venture their lives 
and fortunes to get grieA'ances redressed, 
and matters in church and state set right, 
in the most regular and orderly AAay cir- 
cumstances Avould permit. Mi- Hamilton, 
Mr Thomas Douglas, ]Mr Donald Cargil, 
and some others, upon the one side, Avould 
have the indulgence Avitnessed against, and 
some other things done : upon the other 
hand, the laird of Kaitloch, Mr John Welsh, 
Mr David Hume, and some others, AAcre i 
not for going those lengths ; but inclined to 
set up upon as large a bottom as they could 
Avith a safe conscience, and Avere of opinion 
nothing should be taken into their declara- 
tion Avhicli might exclude any presbyterians 
from joining in the common cause. I find 
Mr Hamilton and those of that side blamed 
in some papers writ at this time, as main- 
taining some jjrinciples in their nature an- 
timonarchical, as to the state, and tending 
to separation in the church, with Avhat 
truth I cannot positively say. It is my 
province to set doAvn matters of fact as I 
find them; and therefore I shall essay to 
give as short a deduction of the debates 
and differences betvA'ixt those tAvo i)arties, 
IS I can, from the papers come to my hands, 



CHAP. II. 1 



Ol^' THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



91 



and I leave tlie reader to judge on the 
Avhole. 

At the beginning- of the gathering-, that 
week in ivhleh the attempt \vas made upon 
(ihxsgow, when they came to deliberate 
npon a declaration to be emitted, most part 
by far, in the meeting- for consultation, 
were of Mr Hamilton and INIr Douglas's 
sentiments, Mr Welsh and a few others 
excepted; so that it was carried almost 
Avitliout a struggle, that the indulgence 
should be testified against in the declaration 
agreed to. All that Mr Welsh and those 
of his sentiments could do, was to get the 
passage relative thereunto kept in general 
terms. The paper at this time before 
them is but short, and follows. "We 
mIio are here providentially convened in 
our own defence, for preventing and re- 
moving the mistakes and misapprehensions 
of all, especially of those whom we wish 
to be, and hope are friends, do declare 
our present purposes and endeavours to be 
only in vindication and defence of the true 
reformed religion in its profession and doc- 
trine, as we stand obliged thereunto by our 
national and solemn league and covenants, 
and that solemn acknowledgment of sins, 
and engagement to duties, made and taken 
in the year 1G48, declaring against popery, 
prelacy, Erastianism, and all things depend- 
ing thereupon." 

This declaration was concerted and agreed 
to, and, as some papers say, published in the 
ai'my. Perhaps it might have been agree- 
able to the interest of both sides now toge- 
ther in arms, to have for a while satisfied 
themselves with this general tU-aught, until 
some way had been fallen on to bring them 
nearer other in their sentiments upon the 
controverted heads ; but this would not do. 
I imagine some broken story about this de- 
claration, or some commentary some body 
hath made on the Mords of it, hath given 
occasion to the idle story the author of the 
" Caveat for the Whigs," hath Part I. p. Gl. 
" The rebels, when they had possessed 
themselves of Glasgow, issued forth their 
proclamation, commanding the magistrates 
to txu-n out all the archbishops, bishops, and 
curates, their bairns and servants, and all 
families and persons concerned in the 
king's army, within forty-eight hours, un- 



1679. 



der the highest pains." This procla- 
mation is so iU made for the vvhigs, I 
am of opinion it will not do them any hurt, 
and no reasonable person will believe it. 

After some few days, Avlien some more 
gentlemen and intercommuned ministers 
joined themselves to the gathering, they 
being of moderate principles, and for the 
softest methods of procedure, began to in- 
quire a little into tlie declaration, and found 
fault with the last clause of it, as unseason- 
able and inexpedient. The persons, whom 
I shall afterwards term the moderate party, 
did every day increase, and had no small 
debates in the meetings now kept Avith Mr 
Hamilton and his party, whom I shall call 
the first party Some who came in after- 
wards joined them; but they were mostly 
made up of such who had been in the first 
rising. This first party had clioson the 
strictest and seemingly most zealous side, 
aud continued a good many of them for a 
while i-n these sentiments because they con- 
versed only upon the one side. When they 
had a more extensive conversation, several 
came to have other views of matters; and 
upon the other hand, others who came up 
joined them for some time, and they con- 
tinued pretty numerous. Heavy and long 
oppression had imbittered their spirits, and 
the positive and unguarded expressions of 
some ministers upon this side, contributed 
not a little unto this. The moderate party 
desired the clause, " all things depending 
thereupon," might be taken out, as plainly 
enough pointing at the indulgence, at a 
season when it was most unfit that presby- 
terians should bite and devour one another. 
They urged, the indulgence was a point in 
its nature disputable, and not yet declared 
sinful by any general assembly, or other 
competent judge ; adding, that a declaration 
in this matter would certainly break them 
who were gathered, among themselves, and 
hinder a considerable body of people, who 
had clearness about the indulgence, or at 
least coidd not make it a ground of separa- 
tion, from joining them. The other side 
urged, that the point controverted was only 
declared against in a general clause, and 
that it was their opinion it was a defection ; 
that Erastianism was as directly abj ured by 
this church as prelacy, and the indulgence 



92 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK 111. 



1679. 



Avas a fruit of Erastianism. Thus their 



debates landed upon the merits of the 
clause, and tui'ned both long-, Marm, and 
endless, and a sensible coldness fell in among 
them, and the alteration of the first decla- 
ration was dropped for some days, until it 
came in another shape in a little time. 

At another meeting- the first party moved, 
that, considering' they might have the ene- 
my shortly to grapple with, a day for fast- 
ing, prayer and supplication might be kept, 
for mourning over public sins and defec- 
tions, deprecating God's wrath upon that 
account, and wrestling for the divine pro- 
tection and blessing upon their present en- 
deavours ; and pressed a particular conde- 
scension might be drawn up in writ of public 
defections. I shall not say this was a 
fasting for strife, and not a loosing of the 
bands of wickedness ; but in fact it did 
turn in the event to foster and heighten 
their dissention and difterences. The mo- 
derate party expressed their fears of the 
tendency of such a proposal in their present 
circumstances, and reasoned for some time 
against the condescending upon any sins in 
public causes, but what they could all agree 
in. They were over-ruled and four minis- 
ters and four gentlemen were appointed to 
bring in a draught, which Avill best disco- 
ver the view of the proposers, and I insert it 
here. 



Enumeration of public 
1G79. 



defections, June, 



' As to those before the restoration, we re- 
fer to the " Causes of God's Wrath." Since 
the year 1 6G0 we reckon, 

' 1. The universal rejoicings, bonfires, and 
riotings that were almost everywhere 
throughout the land, at the king's return, 
and yearly since ; the many public abuses 
then committed, and frequent profaning of 
the Lord's name. 

' 2. The establishing of, and complying 
with abjured prelacy. 

* 3. The neglecting of public testimonies 
and protestations against the erecting of that 
tyrannical abjured hierarchy, and against the 
defacing of the Lord's glorious work, and 
overturning the right government of his 
house 



' 4. The great and public sin of many, in 
taking unlawful bonds, called bonds of 
peace, &c. which are contrary to our so- 
lemn oaths and covenants. 

* 5. The paying of unlawful cess and tax- 
ations, imposed and levied for keeping up 
the sacrilegious supremacy, and for main- 
taining soldiers to suppress the gospel. 

'6. The complying with abjured Erais- 
tianism ; ministers appearing at the court of 
usurping rulers, and their accepting from 
them warrants and instructions (founded 
upon that sacrilegious supremacy) to admit 
them to, and regulate them in the exercise 
of their ministry ; their leading blindfold 
alongst with them many of the godly in 
that abjured course ; their indulgence be- 
coming a public siu and snare, both to 
themselves and many others.' 

However well this enumeration is drawn 
to answer the views of the one side, it is 
evident that such as were upon the other 
side could never go into it. I am told, Mr 
Welsh was not w\Xh. them when the draught 
was appointed ; but he and Mr Hume very 
much opposed it, and posed the urgers of it, 
how they would take it, if he and those of 
his sentiments should urge a fast, because 
some ministers and preachers separated 
from presbyterians, and divided them, and 
2)reached against the indulgence, before its 
iinlaAifulness was determined by any judi- 
catory. In short, he pressed the forenamed 
arguments against this, and gave his opinion 
that it would make great numbers desert 
them, and hinder many gentlemen and 
others from joining wdth them. All the re- 
ply given, was positive assertions that these 
things were sinful, and ought to be public- 
ly mourned for. Those who M'ere against 
this enumeration and the fast, because they 
perceived it would not be kept as such a 
solemn Avork ought to be, could not yield 
in this matter, and so there Avas no fiist kept. 
Thus their divisions increased, and the ne- 
cessary work which might and should have 
been gone into, Avas by their debates first 
delayed and then entirely marred. And 
enemies had it to observe and remark, that 
ministers preached and prayed against one 
another. And Mr Cargil, they say, publicly 
protested, that they behoved to jiart one 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



93 



from another, because a good m.iuy of them 
would not go into a day of humiliation. 

When this project failed, 1 am told, jNIr 
Hamilton took upon him to send orders to 
Mr Welsh, Mr Hume, Mr Rae, aud others 
of the more moderate party, to preach 
against the indulgence, otherwise he and a 
good many of tlie officers would not hear 
them. It is said, Mr Rae sent a very home 
and close answer to him, and desired the 
messenger to tell Mr Hamilton and the rest, 
that he had been wrestling against Erastian- 
ism in the magistrate for many years ; and 
he would never truckle to the worst kind 
of Erastianism in the common people ; that 
. he would receive no instructions from hiai 
nor any of them as to the subject aud mat- 
ter of his sermons ; aud Avished he might 
mind what belonged to him, aud not go be- 
yond his sphere and station. Another, and 
I may say, the principal point upon which 
they divided, was concerning the stating 
the cause thereupon they took up and con- 
tinued in arms. The clearing of this Avill 
take up a little room ; but I give it the more 
largely, as what Avill be upon the matter, a 
vindication of the body of presbyterians in 
Scotland, from many aspersions cast upon 
them A\ ith relation to this rising I am giv- 
ing the history of. It will likewise furthei 
let us into the difference betwixt the two 
parties at this time, in the west country ai*- 
my. When a declaration, or the state of the 
cause upon which they now appeared in 
arms, came to be considered in their meet- 
ing of officers, now called the council of 
war, the first party would hear of no othei 
state of their quarrel, but upon the foot of 
the declaration at Ilutherglen, and the other 
a little after that before mentioned. They 
were not unwilling to have them amplified 
and enlarged, but remained peremptory to 
have the same materials continued. The 
moderate party proposed anotlier draught, 
Avhich contained an acknowledgment of the 
kind's authority, in the terms of the third 
article of the Solemn League aud Covenant, 
as we shall find just now in the draught it- 
self, and desired their rising in arms might 
be stated upon that foot. This was most 
vehemently opposed by the first party ; who 
urged, that as they Lad not mentioned the 
kin )^ aud his interest, and had Maved any po- 



sitive declaration against him, so they 
might be excused, and not urged to de- 
clare positively for him. They pressed, that 
all mention of the king might be left out of 
any paper that should be agreed upon, 
since they could not in conscience positive- 
ly own him, because he was now in a stated 
opposition to the interests of Christ, aud 
had, upon the matter, declared war against 
his people ; and all the present oppression, 
cruelty, and persecution in Scotland, for 
the redress Avhereof they were now appear- 
ing, was carried on in his name. And in 
short, such a state Avas inconsistent with 
the declarations they had already published ; 
and that the covenants bound them and the 
Avhole laud, first to God, then to one ano- 
ther ; and then to the king in the defence 
of the true religion : but noAv they alleged 
the king had actually overturned the true 
religion, set up prelacy and Erastianism, 
ruined the covenanted Avork of reformation, 
and the liberties of the nation, persecuted 
to the death the oAA-ners of both, and plain- 
ly broke the conditions of gOA^ernment 
sAvorn at his coronation, AA'hereupon his 
right and their allegiance Avere bottomed : 
that upon the Avhole it foUoAA'ed, that sub- 
jects' ties to him Avere loosed, and that the 
words of that article of the covenant ought 
not now to be used. This Avas matter of 
long debate : it was almost fruitless for the 
moderate party to urge, that in the year 
1638 the general assembly, and the cove- 
nanters oAAued the king's authority in the 
plainest and most forcible manner, though 
he had declared Avar against them : that 
though the breach of many of the artiqles 
the king had engaged to, AAas too evident, 
yet no habile and competent judges had de- 
clared so much ; and they questioned much 
hoAV far this could be found competent for 
them : that this method of throAving off the 
king's authority, AAOuld directly preclude 
all redress of grievances, and getting things 
that are Avrong, righted ; and evil counsel- 
lors removed, Avho had been the authors 
and springs of all these baHs, and advised 
the king to them : that their not owning 
plainly the king's authority, Avould un- 
doubtedly break the design of their gather- 
ing together, and effectually hinder multi- 
tudes, who Avere willing to join them, from 



\ ^^ 



91< 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK in. 



1679. 



coming- to them. In short, though 
in reasoning- they endeavoured to 
answer every pai-ticular advanced by the 
other side, yet it was to little purpose. 
They wei-e very fixed to their sentiments. 
1 find by the papers vihence I draw tliis ac- 
*;ouut, that it ' was urged by the first par- 
ty ; that since the other side would have in 
the third article of the covenant, that the 
fourth might likewise be inserted: that 
was soon found to be a mere shift, and not 
much insisted upon, and so dropped. 

After many debates in several meetings, 
the draught of a declaration, which I shall 
presently point to, Avas agreed to in one of 
their meetings. I find indeed complaints 
in the papers of such who favoured the first 
party, that by reason of the absence of many 
of the officers from the council of war, and 
a sudden alarm given to the army, the meet- 
ing, whei-e this paper was voted, was thin, 
the thing concluded in a hiu-ry, and some 
promises given by such as urged it, that 
some Avords should be amended before it 
was published, M'hich were not fulfillod : 
and from this, some papers, particularly one 
written by Kathillet, says, that upon June 
1.3th Mr Welsh and Mr Hume pubhshed 
the declaration at Glasgow, against faith 
and promise. What truth is in these asser- 
tions of the one side, I do not know, having 
seen nothing A^•ritten by the moderate party 
taking any notice of them. 1 am apt to be- 
lieve many gentlemen Mere come up by 
this time, who brought the two parties to a 
greater balance than they had been in be- 
fore : and it may be, upon the occasional 
al)sence of one or two of the first party, the 
other became supernumerary. HoMever 
this be, upon its being voted, Mi- Welsh and 
Mr David Hume did carry in the copy to 
Glasgow, and caused publish it at the cross ; 
and afterward printed it, and spread it up 
and down the country. I have inserted the 
printed copy of it below.* It is very pro- 



* Declaration, June I3lh, 1679. 
As it is not unknown to a great part of the 
world liow happy tliis churcli of >cotland was 
while she enioyeii the ordinances of Jesus Christ 
in purity and power, of the which we have been 
deplorably deprived by the establishment of pre- 
lacy j so it is evident, not only to impartial per- 
sons, but to professed enemies, with what un- 
paralleled patience and constajicy the people of 



bable, had not new divisions and the en- 
gagement itself prevented, this declaration 
would have brought in great numbers to 
the west country army. Perhaps the dif- 



God have endured all the cruelty, injustice, and 
oppression, that the wit and malice of prelates 
and malignants could invent and exercise, and 
being most unwilling to act any thing which 
might import opposition to lawful authority, or 
engage the kingdom in war, although we have 
been all along groaning under the overturning 
the work of reformation, corruptions in doctrine, 
slighting of worship, despising of ordinances^ 
changing of the ancient chui-ch discipline and 
government, thrusting out of so many of our 
faithful ministers from their charges, confining, 
straitly imprisoning, exiling, yea, and putting to 
death many of them, and intruding upon their 
flocks a company of insufficient and scandalous 
persons, and fining, confining, impi-isoning, tor- 
turing, tormenting, scourging, and stigmatizing 
poor people, plundering their goods, quartering 
u{)on them by rude soldiers, selling of their per- 
sons to foreign plantations, horning and inter- 
communing many of both ; whereby great num- 
bers in every corner of the land were forced to 
leave their dwellings, wives, children, and rela- 
tions, and made to wander as pilgrims, still in 
hazard of their life, none daring to reset, har- 
bour, supplj', (though starving) or so much as 
to speak to them, even on death-bed, without 
making themselves obnoxious to the same pun- 
ishments; and these things acted under colour 
of law, in effect tending to banish, not only all 
sense of religion, but also to extinguish natural 
affection, even amongst persons of nearest rela- 
tions, and likewise groaning under the intoler- 
able yoke of oppression, in our civil interests, 
oin- bodies, liberties, and estates, so that all man- 
ner of outrages have been most arbitrarily exer- 
cised upon lis, through a tract of several years 
bypast, particularly in the year 167S, by send- 
ing against us an armed host of barltarous sava- 
ges, contrary to all law and humanity, and by 
laying on us several impositions and taxes, as 
formerly, so of late by a meeting of j>relimited 
and overawed members, in the convention of 
estates in July lti7S, for keeping up of an armed 
force, intrusted as to a great part of it, into the 
hands of avowed papists, or favoui-ers of them, 
whereby sundry invasions have been made upon 
us, and most exorbitant abuses and incredible 
insolencies committed against us, and we being 
continually sought after, while meeting in 
houses for divine worship, ministers and people 
frequently apprehended, and most rigorously 
used ; and so being necessitate to attend the 
Lord's ordinances in fields, in the most desert 
places, and there also often hunted out, assaulted 
to the effusion of our blood, and killing of some, 
we were inevitably constrained, either to defend 
ourselves by arms, at these meetings, or be alto- 
gether deprived of the gospel preached by his 
faithful ministers, and made absolute slaves ; at 
one of which meetings, upon the first day of 
June instant, (being the Lord's day) captain 
Graham of Claverhouse being warranted, by a 
late proclamation, to kill whomsoever he found 
in arms at field conventicles making resistance, 
did furiously assault the people assembled ; and 
further to provoke, did cruelly bind, like beasts, 



CHAP. Il.l 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLANEK 



95 



foreaces among' tliom aneiit the fast mig'ht 
fall in after this in order of time, thongh I 
have given them before it : for the papers 
I have before me have very few of them 
any dates ; and the great heats anent the 
choice of their officers certainly fell in after 
this. 

I shall make few reflections on this de- 
claration. This was a time when things 
could not be got done as many wished to 
have had them. We have seen with what 
a strug'gie this paper ^vas got through ; and 
when it was voted and published, Mr Ham- 
ilton and some othei's complained of it, and 
would scarce own it as the deed of the 
meeting ; and we shall find some who died 
afterwards, put upon bearing testimony 
against this as a defection. However, as 
yet it was not directly disowned, but highly 
complained of, by such who were for other 
methods. Upon the whole, it appears to 
me to have been fully satisfying to neither 
side and their sentiments, far less the opinion 



1679. 



of the body of presbyteriaus through 
the land. It Mas what the moderate 
party with difficulty got through. Some 
things Avere put into it, if possible, to cement 
both parties: l)ut tliat would not do, the 
breach rather run higher. 

But leaving this, I come to lay before the 
reader another draught of a declaration, 
which, I can say, was the general senti- 
ments of presbyterians throughout the na- 
tion, \\as approven by the moderate party 
at Bothwell, and Avould have been heartily 
gone into by them, had they not been 
cramped, and brought to quit it by the impor- 
tunity of the other side, and a willingness, 
if possible, to agree A\ith them in some 
draught. I have ground to think, however, 
that they took in as much of it as they had 
any prospect the other side would come in 
to. That the reader may understand the 
genuineness and conveyance of this paper, 
which, for what I know, hath been hitherto 
in the hands of but very few, it may be 



a minister, with some other people, whom he had 
that very same morning found in their houses, 
and severals being Ivilled on both sides, and they 
knowing certainly, tliat by law they behoved to 
die, (if apprehended) they did stand to their 
own defence, and continued together, and there- 
after many of our friends and countrymen being 
under the same oppression, and expecting the 
same measures, did freely offer their assistance. 
We therefore thus inevitably, and of absolute 
necessity, forced to take this last remedy (tile- 
magistrate having shut the door by a law against 
any application, that whatever our grievances 
be, eitlier in things civil or sacred, we have not 
the privilege of a supplicant) do judge ourselves 
bound to declare, that these, with many otlier 
horrid grievances in church and state, (which 
Ave ])urpose to manifest more fully liereafter) 
are the true causes of this our lawful and inno- 
cent self-defence. And we do most solemnly, 
in the presence of the almighty God the search- 
er of hearts, declare, that the true reasons of our 
continuing in arms, are candidly and sincerely 
these. 1st. The defending and securing of the 
true protestant religion, and presbyterian go- 
vernment founded on the word of God, and 
summarily couiprehended in our confessions of 
faith and catechisms, and established by the 
laws of this land, to vchich king, nobles and 
people are solemnly sworn, and engaged in our 
national and solemn league and covenants, and 
more particularly the defending and maintain- 
ing of the kingly authority of oin* Lord Jesus 
Ciirist over his church against all sinful supre- 
macy, derogatory thereto, and encroaching there- 
upon. 2ndly. The preserving and defending the 
king's majesty's person an<l authority in the 
preservation and defence of the true religion and 
liberties of the kingdom, that the world may 



bear witness, with our consciences, of our loyal- 
ty, and that we have no thoughts nor intentions 
to diminish his just power and greatness. Sdly. 
The obtaining of a free and unlimited parlia- 
ment, and of a free general assembly, in order 
to the redressing of our foresaid grievances, for 
pi-eventing the danger of popery, and extirpation, 
of prelacy. This thei-efore being the cause we 
appear for, and resolved, in God's great name, 
to own (hereby homologating all the testimonies 
of our faithful sutferers for trutli in Scotland, 
these eighteen years) together with acknoAvledg- 
ment of sins, and engagement of duties, we 
humbly request the king's majesty woukl re- 
store all things as he found them, when God 
brought him home to his crown and kingdoms; 
and if that cannot be obtained, then we heartily 
and humbly invite, intreat, beseech, and obtest, 
in the bowels of Jesus Christ, all who are under 
the same bonds with us, to concur in the de- 
fence of this common cause and interest, and 
that they would not stand still, and see, not 
only us oppressed, but this foresaid cause ruin- 
ed, adversaries highly a»d proudly insult against 
God and all good men, friends of the truth dis- 
couraged, yea, the protestant cause in Britnin 
aTul Ireland, and even yourselves, Avithin a little 
time, made a prey of, or else forced, Avhen AA'e 
are broken, (Avhich the good Lord prevent) 
dreadfully to wrong your consciences. Firially. 
Because Ave desire no man's hurt nor blood, we 
request our countrymen, now the standing 
forcesof this kingdom, some of them being our 
friends and kinsmen, not to light against 
us, lest in so doing they be found fighting 
against the Lord, whose cause and quarrel we 
are sure he will own and signally countenance, 
seeing we fight under his banner Avho is the 
Lord of hosts. 



96 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



proper I give the history of its coming 
' to my hands. The reverend Mr Ro- 
bert Wylie, minister of the gospel at Hamilton 
since the revolution, lately entered into the 
joy of his Lord, was pleased to give me the 
original copy, which continued in his hands, 
being clerk to the meeting from which it 
came. The shining piety, tine taste, excel- 
lent sense, and singular accomjilishments of 
this truly great and good man, in every 
branch of valuable knowledge and learning, 
forbid me to enter upon his character, as 
what I am not able to give ; and he is so 
well, and so long known in this church, 
that it were needless for me to offer at it. 
I only take this opportunity to own pub- 
licly the encouragement and helps I had 
from himself while alive, and from his 
papers, by the obliging favour of his relict, 
since his death, in compiling this history. 
Within a few Meeks of his death, %i'hen not 
able to write himself, February 1715, he 
sent me this account of this paper, which I 
give here. As soon as the reports of the 
rising in the west came to Edinburgh, a 
good many presbyterians, gentlemen and 
others, used to meet there every night al- 
most. Those persons wanted not their fears 
that Mr Hamilton and others might expose 
that honest and sincere appearance of the 
country people, by running to extremities ; 
and therefore offered their advice to some 
among them, as knowing the posture of 
public affairs, and circumstances of things ; 
and frequent messages and informations 
were sent to the west, several of which 
were not very kindly entertained. How- 
ever, the paper I am just now to insert was 
read in one of these meetings, and, after 
consideration, was agreed unto. All the 
ministers in town, and particularly Mr Ro- 
bert Fleming, afterward minister at Rotter- 
dam, at this time prisoner in the tolbooth, 
applauded it much. The view they had in 
it, was to state the west country appearance, 
upon such reasons and grounds as Avould 
bear some weight; and upon such a foot as 
the party in England, ^^•ho were appearing 
for civil liberty, might countenance them, 
and if grievances there could in no other 
manner be redressed, might in due time side 
with them. In short, the view they had 
was to enlarge the bottom upon which they 



went, so as their quarrel might appear just 
and fair to all the reformed churches, as 
well as agreeable to the real principles of 
our reformation from popery, our presby- 
terian establishment, and, above all, to scrip- 
ture and truth. The difficulty was, how to 
get it conveyed to the west country army. 
At length Mr William Dunlop, then in my 
lord Cochran's family, was pitched upon, 
and he undertook it. By the naming him, 
many of my readers will know, that after- 
wards he was the reverend and worthy 
principal of the coUege of Glasgow, since 
the revolution, whose singular piety, great 
prudence, public spirit, universal know- 
ledge, general usefulness, and excellent tem- 
pei-, were so weU known, that his death, 
now a good many years ago, was as much 
lamented as perhaps any one man's in this 
church. With some difficulty Mr Wylie 
conveyed a copy of the paper, at one of the 
rounds of the south side of the town-wall, 
to Mr Dunlop ; and I have some reason to 
think these two fonned the first draught of 
this paper. Mr Dunlop took the occasion 
of my lord Cochran's hoi'ses and livery-men 
then' going west, and came with the paper 
unobserved to the camp. He Aias very ac- 
ceptable to Mr Welsh, who was much 
pleased M'ith the paper, and showed it to 
Mr Hamilton, who \^'as a little sour u2)oq 
it. Ho^iever a council of war was called, 
Mr Dunlop was not admitted to speak with 
them, but the paper was rejected very posi- 
tively, yet Mr Welsh made use of it in the 
draught abovementioned. The copy of 
this paper sent from Edinburgh, I set down 
here from the original now in my hands. 

The declaration of the oppressed protestants 
now in arjus in Scotland. 

' Since it hath pleased the Lord in his 
holy and Avise providence, to call together 
us the oppressed people of the western, 
southern, and other shires of Scotland; we 
judge it a duty incumbent upon us, to give 
the world, a short but faithful account of 
the causes and motives of this our appear- 
ance ; which, though it hath been, as to its 
immediately antecedent occasion, altogether 
accidental, and, upon our part, merely de- 
fensive, and involuntary, yet we now findinoc 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



97 



ourselves providentially stated in another 
capacity, do, with reference thereto, declare, 
That whereas we have long' and patiently 
.groaned under the intolerable yoke of op- 
pression and persecution upon our bodies, 
consciences, liberties, and estates, by the 
violence, rapine, robberies, finings, confin- 
ings, imprisonments, banishments, denun- 
ciations, intercommunings, torturings, put- 
ting to death, and all manner of outrages 
that have been exercised upon us, through 
a tract of several years bypast, particularly 
in the yeai* 1678, by sending against us an 
armed host of barbarous savages upon free 
quarter, contrary to all law and humanity, 
for inforcing of a most unnatural bond, 
wholly illegal in itself, and imprestable by 
us ; all which are too many and grievous to 
be enumerated, and too recent to be forgot- 
ten by any. For maintaining and carrying 
on of ^vhich unjust and horrid designs, there 
have been several taxes and impositions 
laid upon this land, as formerly, so of late, 
by a meeting of packed, prelimited, and 
overawed members in the convention of 
estates, July 1G78, intrusted, as to a great 
part of it, in the hands of avowed papists, 
or favourers of them, by whom sundry in- 
vasions have been made upon us, and the 
most exorbitant abuses, and incredible in- 
solencies committed against us. Whilst 
we, meanwhile, have demeaned oui'selves 
most peaceably, dutifully and loyally, even 
to the conviction of our adversaries them- 
selves, who were never able to chai'ge us 
with any other crime than that of serving 
God according to his word and our con- 
sciences, nick-named by them, sedition and 
rebellion. All which, as Ave have more 
than sufficient reason to believe, hath pro- 
ceeded from the pernicious iniluence of 
some prime ministers of state for Scotland, 
from the implacable cruelty and malice of 
the prelates in Scotland, and from the agency 
of theii' subordinate and ungodly instru- 
ments; by whom his majesty's favours to 
his distressed subjects, the results of his own 
royal bounty and native clemency, have 
been either totally withheld or miserably 
curtailed, and maimed ; and all administra- 
tions in church and state, contrary to equity 
and our known laws, have been dispensed 
for many years bygone in a most arbitrary 
III. 



and tyrannical manner. And where- 
as we have long, but without effect, 
expected a redress of these our sad and 
unsufferable grievances, all applications for 
remedy being by act of parliament declared 
unlawful; and those worthy patriots, who 
have undertaken to make a representation 
of the lamentable state of this kingdom, 
having, through the sinistrous policies of 
their adversaries, been baffled and disap- 
pointed in their attempts for relief. And it 
being now more than ever apparent to us, 
that there is a formed and universal plot 
carried on, for subversion of the protestant 
religion, and for subjecting these lands un- 
der the antichristian bondage of popery, as 
by secret undermining and murderous prac- 
tices in England, so by the open introduc- 
tion of slavery and tyrannical government 
in Scotland. It being likewise fiu-ther evi- 
dent to every one who doth not wilfully 
shut his eyes, that many of the present 
Scottish privy council do signally contri- 
bute to the promoting of the same, as in 
manifold instances might be made appear, 
so particularly in this, that not only hither- 
to have they countenanced and tolerated 
known masses, and massing-priests and 
Jesuits to be kept, and to converse in and 
about Edinburgh, and through the nation ; 
but also, that the lord Macdonald, a pro- 
fessed papist, Avith a modelled army, mostly, 
if not altogether, consisting of papists, hath 
remained in arms within the kingdom for a 
considerable time, without any effectual 
control from them : but on the contrary, so 
far are they from a vigorous suppressing of 
popery, that it doth still receive remarkable 
encouragement from them, in that not only 
by their late proclamation of the 7th in- 
stant, the conduct of the gentry in several 
shires is committed to declared papists, and 
persons popishly affected ; but also it hath 
been lately proposed and agitated at the 
council-board, and narroAvly missed of pass- 
ing there, that the said lord Macdonald, 
with his popish army, should be indemni- 
fied for all that is passed, and invited down 
upon the western shires; whereby it is 
unquestionably clear, that they are more 
inclinable to reconcile with, embrace and 
cherish the most bloody and obstinate pa- 
pists, than to listen to cries of oppressed 



98 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



protestants. All which abovemen- 
* tioned pai-ticulars, here huddled up 
for brevity in transient hints, with many 
other our sharp and cutting' g-rievances, we 
intend speedily, God willing, in a more 
ample narrative to exhibit to the world. 

' And now all our hopes of redress, and 
prevention by cahn and gentle methods, and 
the ordinary course of justice, not only from 
our riders at home, but from our neighbours 
abroad, being utterly cut off through the 
prorogation of the English parliament, from 
which, under Oo d, we expected that a speedy 
and effectual check should be given to 
these growing evils and imminent dangers, 
whereby the contrivers, assisters, and abet- 
tors of the foresaid hellish plot, are protect- 
ed from that punishment which their crimes 
deserve, the imperial crown, if the king 
should decease, or be violently made away 
by his treacherous enemies, which God 
avert, to be devolved upon a professed po- 
pish successor, an eminent promoter of the 
said plot, and the deplorable calamities and 
miseries of this land, so far from being ter- 
minated, that they are daily increasing to a 
more prodigious and insupportable height, 
through the constant working of that dia- 
bolical popish plot, as well in this as the 
neighbouring nation, as is now beyond aU 
rational contradiction manifest. Therefore 
we, finding ourselves under an unavoidable 
necessity of having recourse to arms, do, in 
presence of almighty God the searcher of 
hearts, declare, that as nothing short of the 
utmost extremity hath driven us to it, so 
the reasons of our continuing in arms are 
candidly and sincerely none other than 
these. 1st. The defending and securing the 
true protestant religion and presbyterian 
government, the great buhi^ark against po- 
pery, founded upon the word of God, and 
established by the laws of this land, to both 
which the king, nobles, and people are 
solemnly sworn and engaged. 2dly. The 
preservation of his majesty's royal person 
from the insidious projects of his popish 
adversaries. 3dly. The deliverance of his 
said majesty from the malicious influence 
of the foresaid wicked counsellors, and of 
this kingdom from the ruining effects of 
their Avicked counsels. 4thly. The divert- 
ing of the succession from tailing in the 



person of a notorious popish plotter, which 
we mean and intend, with all due respect to 
authority, and deference to the royal line. 
In the prosecution of which commendable 

and Christian ends, as we hope for the i 

countenance and help of almighty God, the v 

patron and protector of the oppressed, and j 

vindicator of his own truth, so we do ex- 'i 

pect the aid and concurrence of all honest ' 

and true protestants, to assist the justice of j 

our righteous cause. Protesting always, \ 

that, upon the obtaining of our foresaid just ' 

and reasonable desires, we are most ready • 

to lay down arms, and behave ourselves i 

with all submissive obedience towards law- ' 

fill authority.' •; 

This paper speaks for itself, and I need ' 
say nothing upon it. Had the west coun- ■ 
try appearance been stated upon this foot, \ 
it is probable their numbers and success had | 
been greater. This declaration contains a , 
succinct account of the present circum- , 
stances of this church and nation, and the 
real sentiments of the most judicious, ;., 
knowing, and the greatest part of the suf- | 
fering presbyterians Upon this bottom i 
this rising at Bothwell may be defended in \ 
the same manner, and almost from the 't 
same reasonings advanced in the former ] 
book with relation to that at Pentland : yea, 
if circumstances, and the present state of j 
things at this juncture, be narronly viewed, I 
with the hazard Britain and the whole re- ] 
formed churches Mere in from popery, we ' 
shall find this rising to be much upon the j 
same reasons and foot with the revolution ' 
1688, and the abdication of the popish plot- 1 
ter, in the paper complained of; and all \ 
the unanswerable arguments, so well ad- ■ 
vanced for vindicating of that happy turn ; 
of affairs, will support this rising at Both- 
well. Indeed the west country people 

wanted the concurrence of persons of rank 
and quality, and had none of the nobiIitj__ 

openly joining with them ; and therefore j 

allowances must be made as to some cir- j 

cumstances, and the manner of their appear- ) 

ing : and probably, if persons of interest in ! 
the country, and better management, had 

directly joined with them, the balance ' 
would have entirely been cast upon the 

moderate side, and the iiuha])py and ill- ] 



CHAP. 11.1 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



99 



timed heats among them would certainly 
have been prevented, and a stop put to 
several other misraanag-ements «hich at- 
tended this attempt for national and religious 
liberty. However, even those steps most 
liable to exception cannot be charged upon 
presbyterians through the nation, neither 
altogether upon the generality of those who 
were in the army, as is plain from what is 
above narrated. The moderate party did 
things the best way the circumstances they 
were in at present allowed, and it was a 
great deal easier censuring them, than act- 
ing in their circumstances at this time. 
Other difterences and heats fell in among 
the west country army, some little time be- 
fore the engagement, concerning the choice 
of their officers, and the otfering an address 
to the duke of Buccleugh and Monmouth 
when he came west : but I shall leave the 
accounts of these to the following section, 
where I am to consider what immediately 
went before the engagement, and the de- 
feat itself at Bothwell-bridge. 



Of the arrival of the duke of Monmouth, 
and march of his army, the continuing 
divisions, and supplication of the west 
country army, with an account of their 
engagement and defeat at Bothwell- 
bridge. 

We have already heard, that, upon the ac- 
counts from Scotland of the rising in the 
west country, the king, by the advice of 
his English council, named his natural son, 
James, duke of Buccleugh and Monmouth,* 
to command his army in Scotland, and gave 
him instructions not altogether unfavour- 
able to presbyterians, of which I have not 
seen a copy. The duke made all despatch, 
and parted from London the 13th of June, 
and ^vas in Edinburgh the 18th, where I 
find him that day admitted privy counsel- 
lor. His instructions are read in council. 



* " He was brave, generous, affable, and ex- 
tremel)' handsome; constant in his friendships, 
just to his word, and an utter enemy to all 
cruelty. He was easy in his nature, and fond 
of popular applause, which led him insensibly 
into ail his misfortunes."— Welwood, p. 17^. 



and he intimates his resolution to ffo 



1679. 



to the army to-morrow early. When 
at Edinburgh, it was soon known he was 
willing to hear grievances, if presented to 
him : it seems care had been taken at Lon- 
don to give him favourable impressions of 
presbyterian ministers, and we shall after- 
wards find them applying to him. Notice 
was immediately sent to the west country 
army of the general's good inclinations, that 
they might accordingly concert matters -, 
but Mr Hamilton and his party showed a 
great aversion to any applications to the 
duke ; and some papers insinuate, that the 
people who had been accessory to the mur- 
der of the archbishop, did what in them Lay 
to mar any motions this way. The moder- 
ate party were entirely for presenting their 
grievances, and accommodating upon good 
terms, and with great difficulty, as we shall 
hear, carried it, when, I may say, it was 
too late. 

We left the earl of Linlithgow and his 
army about Edinburgh, and June 17th I 
find the earl in his liggerf at Kirkhill-park, 
belonging to the lord Car dross, whose losses 
were very great at this time by the soldiers. 
From thence he writes two letters to the 
council, June 17th and 18th, which contain 
the best account of his army I have seen, 
and they are insert. % The council make 



f Or lair, i. e. place of retirement, or rest. 
Ligger seems to be derived from the German 
Lager, a camp. — Ed. 

^ Two letters from Linlithgow to the Chancellor, 
June nth and I6th 1679. 

Kirkhill-park, June 17th, 1679. 
My lord, 

I am come to the place of our liggering this 
night in the park of Kirkhill. Most of the re- 
giments and troops with the artillery and ammu- 
nition are not yet come up. Since my coming 
here, I did send out a small party of horse and 
dragoons towards Monkland, who has discovered 
a party of the rebels near West-Calder, they are 
about an hundred hoi'se. So soon as all our 
horse and dragoons are come up, I intend to 
send a stronger party out to engage them. The 
gross of their body is lying about the Haggs, 
from whence, as I am informed, they send par- 
ties over all the country. Most of the heritois 
of the several shires are at Linlithgow, with 
whom I have sent a company of dragoons to 
keep guard with them. My lord, it is very sad 
to have so many militia regiments here, and 
hardly one bit of bread to eat, which, if not re- 
medied by your lordship, 1 leave you to judge 
of the event. I hope all of us here will do our 

duty incur stations, but men must cat. Vi'lmt 



100 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



•■^^^ a return to them, si<mifvinf!f that 
1679. . . ° ^ " , . 

provisions were come up to hini, 

and the duke of Buccleugh was to be Avith 
them that da)% and desire him to take up 
fit quarters for his army at Blackburn, and 
there to wait the duke's orders. That 
same day they send a letter to Lauderdale, 
acquainting- him M'ith the general's arrival, 
and thank the king for sending him (which 
they do in very soft terms) and conclude 
with giving the substance of the major- 
general's letters just now insert. And 
June 20th the council receive a letter from 
the king, approving what they had done, 
and requiring them to go on against the 

rout is to be taken to-morrow must be accord- 
ing to our intelligence this night. But lor the 
present I can say no more, but that I am. 

My lord, j 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 
Linlithgow. 
Kirkhill-park, June 18th, 1679. 
My lord, | 

I received your lordship's ot yesterday's date: 
and for to give your lordship an account of the 
state of our affairs, and numbers of the militia 
regiments ; we have here the regiments of East- 
Lothian, the Merse, that Perthshire regiment 
commanded by the marquis of Athole, theother 
■was at Linlitligow last night, and will join us 
this morning; the two Fife regiments, the regi- 
ment of Angus, I believe, will join us in our ] 
march this daj^, and the militia regiment of the 
town of Edinburgh ; these of them that are 
here having joined us late the last night, and the 
others not being yet come up, makes me inca- 
pable of giving your lordship an exact account of I 
their numbers, but as near as I can conjecture, I 
the eight militia regiments that we have, will 
make up about live thousand men. The heri- 
tors of the several shires are not yet come up, 
except those that came from the east with us, 
■who are lying in the little towns most adjacent 
to this place. These that came from Stirling 
are lying at Linlithgow and P'alkirk. So soon 
as we are all joined, I shall not fail to give your 
lordship a more exact account of our numbers, 
both horse and foot. We are to join at Black- j 
burn, and from thence we •will take our mea- ! 
sures according to our intelligence. It is im- \ 
possible to know the number of the rebels, until 
■we force them to draw together, they being now j 
dispersed over the countrj'. All the account we ' 
have of them is, that their body is lying about [ 
the Haggs. I am just now despatching some 
intelligent persons to go in to the places where ! 
they are, for intelligence. Yesterday I gave ' 
your lordship an account of a party of the re- 
bels of about an hundred horse, that we saw, | 
upon the left hand, in our march. I command- [ 
ed out a party of horse and dragoons to go to ' 
thenn, but before they came within any distance 
of them, they run for it. This is all the account 
I can give for the present. I am, 

My lord, I 

Your lordship's most humble servant, j 

Linlithgow. ! 



rebels, dated June 1 6th, which stands be- 
low.* To this they return an answer, 
which, because it contains some further 
hints of the state of things, I have added 
below, f Let me only remark, that in the 



• Alng's letter to the council, Ju7ie }6lh, 1679. 
Charles R. 

Right trusty and well beloved, &c. We greet 
you well. We are very well pleased, that our 
two last despatches, signed by the duke of Lau- 
derdale at our command, have given you that 
satisfaction which we intended; and we do as- 
sure you, that you shall always find us ready to 
give you all the assistance and encouragement 
which are fit upon such emergents. We are 
also very well satisfied with your prudent and 
exact care in all the particulars mentioned in 
j^our last letter, dated the 13th instant, by which 
you advertise us „hat you have supplied Stirling, 
provided for our fon-es, called in major iMain, 
with some of our English troops of horse and 
dragoons under his command, and that you are 
speedily, in our name, to cause all our forces to 
march ; with which, it is our will and pleasure, 
that you prosecute those rebels with fire and 
sword, and all other extremities of war, that 
others m.ay be terrified by this just and deserved 
severity, and we and our good subjects freed 
from these frequent rebellions, which would ne- 
cessarily follow their being spared at this time: 
and to prevent their securing themselves by 
v/ithdrawing to their skulking holes, after they 
have committed all manner of mischief, we re- 
quire you to use your utmost endeavours in get- 
ting the best intelligence of all such as have been 
engaged in this rebellion; being fully resolved 
to bring the ringleaders, even amongst these, to 
condign punishment, suitable to this notorious 
and insolent rebellion. We must likewise put 
you in mind, that all care and diligence be used 
for discovering the murderers of the late arch- 
bishop of St Andrews, by all the severity that 
law will allow, and that you punish, with all 
rigour, the actors in, and accessories to that hor- 
rid murder, by assistance, resetting, or othei'- 
wise ; all which shall for ever be debarred from 
our pardon. So expecting to hear frequently 
from you, v/e bid you heartily farewell. 

Given at our court at Whitehall, the sixteenth 
day of June 1679, and of our reign the thirty- 
first year. 

Lauderdale. 
•f- CoKncil's aiisiver to the king's letter, 1679. 
May it i)lease your grace. 

His majesty's gracious letter, of the date June 
16th, did create an universal joy amongst us, 
wherein his royal wisdom hath given such just 
measures and directions for suppressing of this 
rebellion, as may secure his government, toge- 
ther with our religion, lives and properties, 
from being endangered by frequent insurrections 
of this nature, which would infallibly have fol- 
lowed, if the insolent rebels, who now disturb 
this kingdom, should have been spared at this 
time, and not prosecuted with the utmost sevei'- 
ities. A double of his majesty's letter we trans- 
mitted this morning betimes to his grace the 
duke of Buccleugh, general of all his majesty's 
forces of this kingdom. We sent yesternight 
the laird of Lundin to wait upon and compli- 
ment him, and to know his grace's pleasure. 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



101 



midst of other affairs, June 19th, after the 
general had been in council, they remit it 
to the lord Abbotshall, and 8ir Georg-e Kiu- 
naird, to call for a list of the prisoners in 
the Canongate and other prisons, and ex- 
amine their case, and liberate such as are 
not concerned in the rebellion, as they find 
cause. 

That day the duke g-oes to the army, and 
marches slowly west^yard toward Hamilton; 
next day he complains, in a letter to the 
council, of want of provision in the camp at 
Muirhead, which hinders them to march. 
Upon which the laird of Luudin is, June 
21st, sent express from the council, to re- 
present their diligence in this matter. Be- 
fore Lundin comes up, tlie council have 
another express from the general, ac,|uaint- 
ing- them, ' That the bread is come up, but 
so much short, that it will not serve them 
one day ; and therefore (with some shai-p- 
ness) he urgeth them to send what they 
promised, and give orders that their stores 
be daily sent up to them, as they would not 
infinitely prejudge his majesty's service.' 
This produceth another letter to his grace 
from the council, Avith uiaeteen cart-load of 
provisions, promising to send the meal to- 
morroAV, and laying the blame upon the 
bakers. But some v.'ere of opinion, the 
general was not very acceptable to a good 
many at Edinburgh, and this slackness in 
the coming up of provisions was not wholly 
chargeable on the bakers. 1 shall only 
further notice from the registers, that, June 
22d, Dalziel's commission comes down by a 
flying packet, which the council immedi- 
ately forward with a letter to the duke, 
leaving it to his grace's consideration, if it 



who is now returned, bringing us a most just 
and encouraging account. He tells us, that a 
party being yesternight sent out to discover the 
numbers and strength of the rebels, they did 
attack a party of theirs, beating them in to their 
body, and killing one of their officers upon the 
place, and that the best information relates their 
number not to amount above six thousand ; that 
their horse are now quartered in the new park 
of Hamilton, and their foot in the town thereof. 
As for our army, he tells us it lies within two 
miles of the Kirk of Shots, and consists of about 
ten thousand, being in good heart and condition 
to engage the rebels. Just now we have advice 
from my lord general, that, being supplied with 
necessary provisions, he intends once to-morrow 
to be within a mile of the enemy, so that com- 
paring their forces with ours, we cannot doubt, 



be not fit to send out a party of ,„^„ 

1671/ 
horse to meet hun, at his coming 

that day, in quality of the king's lieutenant- 
general. 

This want of provisions, and, as some 
say, the general his waiting for some appli- 
cation from the west country army, made 
the duke's motions westward but slow. 
Meanwhile friends at Edinbm-gh endea- 
voured to dispose the people at Bothwell 
this way, and likewise directed them as to 
tiie manner of their management in aU 
events. The double of a paper of advice 
sent them, is before me, and it may not be 
improper to give an abstract of it here. The 
person who writes gives it as his opinion, 
that all imaginable affection would be testi- 
fied to the duke ; and he tells them this 
may have good effects, and there is ground 
for it. " The extremity," adds he, " of op- 
pression and cruelty so long, and by so 
many various methods, exercised upon you, 
only for adhering to a matter of conscience, 
which the love of God and his word obliged 
you not to dispense with, for which you 
have been traduced to the king as haters of 
his person and laws, would be noticed ; and 
you would vindicate yourselves with ex- 
pressions of zeal for your lawful sovereign 
and native country, and show what you 
have suffered, and how long before you 
would any wr.y appear in any method that 
would seem opposite to his authority, which 
you are persuaded hath been abused by evil 
counsellors. You would cheerfully, and 
with protestations of fidelity, offer your 
lives to his majesty's service, with a reser- 
vation of your rehgion and liberty: and 
you may justly challenge your enemies 

by God's blessing and assistance attending our 
army and endeavours, in a very short time, by 
your grace, to give his majesty a good and satis- 
fying account of a happy victory over them. 
We have no journals to transmit at this time, 
vrorthy of your trouble, or his majesty's perusal, 
we having, for these two days, been constantly 
employed in preparing and sending supplies and 
provisions towards the army, and in ordering 
some other necessary matters of lesser concern- 
ment. That nothing may be wanting which 
may encourage his majesty's forces in this expe- 
dition, which so much imports the security and 
establishment of his government, and the honour 
of the kingdom, shall be the zealous and assidu- 
ous study and care of 

Your grace's most humble servants. 



102 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



ir'-Q ^^** **^ ^^ much of their loyalty, 
' that none of them dare do more, or go 
further in obedience to lawful commands, and 
for the honour and safety of your sovereign, 
than you are ready to do. You may truly 
assert, that there are multitudes through 
the nation, who from many different rea- 
sons do not appear as yet with you, who 
are under the same burdens, and equally 
ready with you, upon the securing of reli- 
gion and liberty, to answer his commands 
at home or abroad, and make his majesty a 
terror to his enemies, especially the papists. 
Those and such like expressions of your 
affection and zeal will stop the mouths of 
your enemies, therefore it will be your wis- 
dom and interest to study to frame j'our 
hearts to such sincerity and zeal in this as 
may evidently discover itself. It may be 
added, you rejoice that you have one, and 
such an one, as above all others you desired 
to lay your case before, being hitherto 
dreadfully misrepresented to his majesty, 
and, by acts of non-addressing and inter- 
communing, rendered hopeless of all help, 
or mitigation of your oppression ; all access 
by petition or otherwise being obstructed 
by law, and it being a crime to you or yoiu* 
friends to essay it. Further, he assures 
them, your enemies are disheartened many 
of them, both by scarcity of provision, and 
with the views of the unreasonableness of 
their quarrel, which at first they thought 
not upon. And it is reasonably supposed 
these discoveries will grow among them, 
and especially the gentry, among whom are 
divisions and dissatisfaction ; and the mili- 
tia v^'ill probably soon weary either in wait- 
ing or following : so that it is their design 
and great interest to fight suddenly, if con- 
ditions be not agreed upon ; and their num- 
ber is formidable, and many of them reso- 
lute, and they must not.be despised. There- 
fore," adds he, " it will be most reasonable 
for you, damping to your enemies, and what 
will prevent blood, upon your not coming 
to an agreement, to keep at distance, and 
shun fighting for a time, unless you can do 
it Avith seen advantage, by a surprisal, am- 
buscade, or the like. In the mean time, 
you would not lie too sparse and open, but 
keep your body as close as you can ; and let 
your scouts be many, strong, and at a good 



distance; in all which it is reported you 
are defective. Have a care you be not se- 
cure upon the Sabbath day : your enemies 
are waiting an advantage against you hercj 
and endeavoiu" to catch you unprepared to 
meet them. It is generally said and ex- 
pected, that the duke is to demand the 
miu-derers of the bishop, therefore, if any 
such be amongst you, cause them shift for 
themselves; that the giving of them up, 
which it is like some of you will not incline 
to be active in, may be evited, and you freed 
of reproach upon this score. If you come 
to a treaty, you may represent, that there 
are a good many of your friends, wise and 
sober persons, who, though they have not 
Joined, yet own your quarrel, and are alike 
therein concerned with you, whom you 
must consult, and have their judgment in 
what you do : and upon this score, urge a 
cessation of arms, and a liberty to them 
and you to meet together, to advise what 
length you may come in obedience to the 
duke's commands. And if their number be 
startled at, as supposing this a shift, you 
ma)- name a few of these who may be most 
useful, and generally acceptable. An ex- 
press came yesternight to the duke, they 
say, M'ith orders for fighting : what his re- 
solutions are thereupon is not yet known. 
His commission is very ample, and instruc- 
tions large ; and he will do therein as he 
finds meet. K he enter upon a treaty, it is 
likely he pui-pcseth not to fight suddenly, 
though you M^ould not be secure. If he 
enter not upon a treaty, be upon your 
guard. This is in great haste j the only 
wise God direct and assist you. 

P. S. " It will be convenient the cessa- 
tion of arms be only during the treaty, and 
the treaty as short as may be, because they 
expect great force from England and Ire- 
land." 

I have given the larger account of this 
paper, because it contains some hints at 
matters of fact I have not elsewhere met 
with. The advice was kindly given, and 
well received by a good many in the army, 
but their growing differences hindered 
their hearkening to any thing of this nature. 
Their former discord anent the state of 
their appearance, and their declaration, did 
a vast deal of hurt to the common cause, 



CHAP. IJ.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



103 



and to both sides. When the reports of it 
came abroad, multitudes ^^ ho were coming- 
to the army were discouraged, and great 
numbers, when they came to the camp, and 
saw how matters went, very soon left them. 
And I find both sides, in their papers, com- 
plaining- of this ; Mr Hamilton's party espe- 
cially, towards the close of this rising, and 
when the moderate party overbalanced 
them, complained that many came to the 
camp, and finding that the cause was not 
clearly stated, and the indulgence not plainly 
opposed, they left the army : the other side 
complain, I imagine, with as much reason, 
that many quit the camp, and more who 
wished them well, came not up, by reason 
of the heights and extremities run into by 
many. 

As the time of the engagement approach- 
ed, these differences run higher. The pub- 
lishing the abovenamed declaration, June 
13th, did very much ruffle those who op- 
posed it ; and they were not only broken 
in their affections, but the common soldiers 
were under no kind of discipline : their con- 
fusions increased, and numbers lessened 
much, before the king's army came up; and, 
as hath been hinted, they wanted skilled 
officers ; their arms were out of case ; they 
had very little ammunition, their rising 
being without any prior concert ; and were 
in very melancholy circumstances. 

It is unpleasant to me, and, I think, would 
be tedious to the reader, to run tlirough all 
the differences Avhich fell in among them. 
Upon their receiving the news of the duke's 
being come doAvn, it was moved, that their 
army should be modelled, and officers chosen 
who had most knowledge of military busi- 
ness, and would be most acceptable to the 
men ; and it was hoped this would help to 
introduce some order and discipline, and 
prevent men's coming and going as they 
pleased. 

Before this proposal, some jealousies had 
been taken up, that some among them who 
inclined to heights, were of principles, and 
upon designs which could not be approven. 
This jealousy was strengthened by an inci- 
dent which fell in : a person unknown to 
them, came into one of theii* meetings, with 
a paper, as he said, from some ministers and 
others, which they earnestly desired all might 



1679. 



sign, for the removal of jealousies and 
siu-mises. The tenor of it was, " We 
the officers of the presbyterian armj% do 
hereby declare, that we have no intention 
or design to overturn the government civil 
or ecclesiastic whereunto we are solemnly 
sworn by our national and solemn league 
and covenants; and that it is our judgment 
and opinion that all matters now in contro- 
versy be forborne, and referred to be deter- 
mined by their proper judicatories, viz. a 
free and unlimited parliament, and a lawful 
general assembly." Whether this was a 
contrivance of the moderate party, to try 
the other side, or a paper sent by some pres- 
byterians, who had not as yet joined the 
army, I cannot determine; neither do I 
know what part of this declaration was 
scrupled at, fm-ther than the answer given 
by Mr Hamilton and that side bears, which 
seems to fix upon the last part, and it was, 
' That before signing that paper offered to 
them, they behoved to be informed more 
particularly ^^hat these things were, which 
were to be forborne till determined in a 
lawful parliament and assembly.' There 
was no more of this for a little space ; and 
Mr Hamilton's party in their papers com- 
plain, that their enemies branded them with 
anarchical and antiraonarchical principles, 
because they declined the signing of this 
paper. Be this as it will, the former mo- 
tion was made by the moderate party, that 
officers should be chosen by common con- 
sent ; and that all of them give it imder 
their hands, that they had no design to 
overturn the government of the nation. 
The first party alleged, that such a sub- 
scription imported a groundless mnuoido, 
as if some of them were engaged in such a 
plot. As to the officers, Mr Hamilton said, 
they had pitched upon the best they could 
think upon ; and declared for himself and 
the rest who joined with him, that if the 
cause were right stated, and a day of hu- 
miliation gone into for their own sins, and 
the sins of such who joined with them, so 
that they could satisfy themselves as to the 
righteousness of the quarrel, they would 
most willingly demit, and would cheerfully 
ride as volunteers. Both of the proposals 
were dropped for a time. 

But when the moderate party were ac- 



104, 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



,^^ qualnted with the duke's willingness 
* ^ ' '^' to receive application from them, they 
urged upon the Tlmrsday, or Friday before 
the engagement, the drawing an address to his 
grace, and the presenting of their grievan- 
ces. The first party staved this oft' as long 
as they could, some of them heing, as we 
have heard, against declaring themselves at 
present for or against the king's authority, 
and some from other reasons; yet it was not 
long this matter could be delayed now, for 
the king's army was marching up to them, 
and upon Saturday came towards Bothwell- 
muir. 

I shall not remark any thing here of the 
severities and oppression of the country 
through Avhich the king's army came, though 
I have in my view, considerable losses of mo- 
ney and goods, which the parishes of Liv- 
ingstone, Shots, and Bothwell, sustained. 
Great confusion and outrages are ordinaiy 
in those cases : neither shall I notice what 
I find ohserved as to the uncautious, if not 
unskilful march of the regular troops west- 
ward, in a line, if it may he so called, for 
two miles of way. It is weM for them they 
had as unskilful people to deal Avith, for if 
any body had been among the country 
people, knowing the art of war, the regu- 
lar troops might have been attacked and 
scattered with a very small number. But 
I return to the state of the army now in 
Hamilton-muir. 

The officers met upon Saturday, June 
21st, where the moderate party were su- 
pernmnerary, by the accession of a good 
many gentlemen of some note, who joined 
them, and could not v/cU be excluded the 
meeting, which they named the council of 
war. At this meeting then- debates run 
hio-her than ever, even when the enemy 
was within their view. Much of what had 
been fonnerly upon the field was now tabled, 
especially the matter of addressing and mo- 
delling the army. To begin with the last, 
it was urged, that all places in the army be 
declared vacant, and officers now harmon- 
iously chosen, that they might be entirely 
one when the engagement came. The first 
party answered, They were most willing 
upon the conditions I just now narrated: 
the other side expressed their surprise that 
they must be forced to moiu'n for the sins 



of others, upon the supposition they were 
sins, and that their cause must be stated 
upon that; and thus the debates fell in 
again upon the indulgence, to that height, 
that some of the first party rose up and 
protested, that seeing there were severals 
come into the council of war, who were 
strangers, and they knew not their princi- 
ples, and had never been in any of their 
meetings before, that none might be admit- 
ted to vote, but such whose honesty was 
known, and the stanchness of their prin- 
ciples. This was interpreted to be, that 
none should be admitted but these who de- 
clared themselves against the indulgence; 
and Mr Hamilton, who, as one of his own 
side acknowledges upon this occasion, 
" was often too forward, pretending to ex- 
ercise a power which he had not, and that 
his carriage at this time gave just occasion 
of offence to both sides," opposed much 
the consulting with the ministers there, be- 
cause, he said, none of the faithful ministers 
! were present, but only such who owned the 
I indulgence ; adcUng, that since the sword 
Avas th-awn, he thought it duty to appear 
, against all sin. It was reported he laid his 
hand upon his sword when he spoke what 
i follows ; but Ml- Hackston of Rathillet, in 
his relation of the divisions at Bothwell, 
denies this, but owns he added, " I have 
i (h'awn my sword, and am equally ready 
I against the indulged men and ciu'ates." So 
high did the flame rise at a time when har- 
' mony was absolutely necessary. The mo- 
derate side continued to urge to have 
j leaders chosen who were most capable of 
I that trust, whether for or against the indid- 
i gence, whereupon Mi" Hamilton, and a 
I good many with him, left the meeting, 
teUing them as they Avent away, " That 
hitherto they had carried on this Avork, and 
now since they Avere setting up upon the 
foot of the indulgence, they had no freedom 
to venture their lives in that cause." The 
persons who Avent out Avith Mi* Hamilton, 
as far as RathiUet, from Avhence I take this 
account, remembers, Avere, John Paton, 
William Carmichael, James Hendrie, Heniy 
Hall, Andrew Turnbidl, John IIaddoA\-ay, 
William Cleland, Walter Smith, Alexander 
Ross, James Fowlis, David Caldwell, John 
LoAvdon, BcAvlie, TAveedie, John Hamilton, 



CHAP. II.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, 



105 



James Johnston, and John Balfour. We 
are not to think that all these persons were 
of the same character, although at present, 
as people who had reasoned upon one side, 
and pai-ty men use to do, they \\ithch-e\A'. 
Some of them were very far from inclining 
to ]VIi" Hamilton's measm-es, and several of 
them, some say, Mr Hamilton hunself, suh- 
scribed the supplication to the duke. Those 
who remained choosed a new preses and a 
clerk, and fell upon their business. They 
were unwilling to nominate officers, when 
so many were absent, and only talked a 
little upon it ; and the persons they spoke 
of were Major Learmond, John Paton, 
William Carmichael, William Cleland, Ro- 
bert Fleming, and others. Nothing was 
concluded ; but they came closely to con- 
sider of an application to the duke of Buc- 
cleugh, that being an affair could not allow 
of a delay; and I find they drew, and un- 
animously voted a supplication to his grace. 
A copy of a supplication to the duke, is 
just now in mine eye, but whether it was 
what was agreed to by this meeting, I 
cannot say, or only a draught proposed to 
them. K this be not their very draught, 
there is little question but it would nm in 
this strain; and it appears to have been 
calculate to introduce a second application. 
The reader probably will be desirous to see 
it, and it runs, 

" To the right noble and potent prince, James 
Duke of Buccleugh and Monmouth, 
general of his majesty's forces now in 
Scotland, the humble supphcation of the 
Nonconformists in the west, and other 
places of this kingdom, now in arms, in 
their own name, and in the name of all 
the rest of those who adhere to us in the 
church and kingdom of Scotland, 

" Humbly showeth, 

" That whereas we the presbyterlans of the 
church and kingdom of Scotland being, by 
a long continued tract of violence and op- 
pression upon us, in om* lives, liberty, for- 
tune, and conscience, and without aU hope 
of remedy, cut off" from all access of peti- 
tioning, and that by an act of parliament, 
and discharged to pour out our just grie- 
vances and complaints ; and our lives being 
III. 



made so bitter by cruel bondage, as 
dcatli seemed more eligible than 
life, the causes whereof we have partly 
mentioned in our declaration; and being, 
by an unavoidable necessity, driven unto 
the lields in arms, in om- owti innocent self- 
defence. And now looking on it as a most 
favoiu-able providence, that your grace is 
come amongst us at such a time, of whose 
princely clemency, and natural goodness, 
and aversion from shedding of christian 
blood, we have had so savoury a report: 
we accept, with all thankfulness to God, of 
this opportunity to lay before your grace 
our sad grievances and humble requests; 
all which, we know, will be misrepresented 
to your grace, by such who have studiously, 
yet without any just ground, except in the 
matters of our God, been the principal 
actors of our sad and deplorable sufferings. 
May it therefore please your grace to grant 
liberty, under safe conduct, to some of our 
number, to address themselves to your 
grace, and to lay open our heart in this 
matter, and that some speedy and effectual 
redress may be, by yoiu* grace's favour and 
authority, made, to the estabhshing of the 
nation's peace. In doing whereof, your 
grace shall do that which is most accept- 
able to the Lord, commend yourself to the 
generality of the people, as a reUever of 
the oppressed, and a seasonable preventer 
of all the miseries and ruins that threaten 
this poor land, yea, and we doubt not shall 
bring upon you the blessings of many thou- 
sands, men, women, and children, though 
not with us, yet sincere lovers of us, and 
favom'crs of our righteous cause. That the 
good Lord may incline your grace's heart 
to this, is the humble desire and earnest re- 
quest of, 

" May it please your grace, 

" Your, &c." 

After the meeting had resolved upon a 
supplication, pains was taken to get in the 
officers, who had M'ithdrawn, to sign it. 
This, and some other things, cost them so 
much time, that the supplication was not 
sent that night; and a good many were 
content to put their hands to it ere next 
day. To-morrow, Sabbath, June 22d, the 
duke and his army were come to Bothwell 
o 



106 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



rauir, and their advanced guards to 
Both well town, within a quarter of 
a mile of the bridue. The country men lay 
encami^ed on the south side of the river of 
Clyde, in Hamilton rauir, and had an ad- 
vanced party ready to dispute the passage 
at the bridge over the river, called Both- 
well bridge, if the king's army should ven- 
ture to essay it. 

Mr David Hume, and the laird of Kait- 
loch, and, some say, Mr John Welsh, had 
been named to go to the duke with the 
supplication ; and, upon the Sabbath morn- 
ing early, they went in disguise : yet 
Claverhouse, having some jealousy of them, 
watched them npon their return, and hav- 
ing got some hint of them, saluted them by 
their names. They had very ready and 
easy access to his grace, and, beside the 
supplication, it seems, were instructed to 
make the following demands. ' That they 
might be allowed the free exercise of reli- 
gion, and to attend gospel ordinances dis- 
pensed by their o^vn faithful presbyterian 
ministers, Avithout molestation : that a free 
parliament, and a free general assembly, 
without the clogs of oaths and declarations, 
should be allowed to meet, for settling af- 
fairs both in church and state ; and that all 
those who now are, or have been in arms, 
should be indemnified.' The duke heard 
their demands very patiently, and told them, 
' that the king had given him no express 
instructions concerning these matters, but 
assured them, upon his honour, he would 
interpose, and use his interest to the utmost 
Avith his majesty for granting their desires; 
and he was very confident he would be able 
to procure from his majesty satisfaction to 
them, for he reckoned their desires reason- 
able and just : but, in the mean time, he 
acquainted them, that he would engage to 
do nothing, nor so much as come in terms 
with them, till they laid down their arms, 
and betook themselves to his mercy ; and 
despatched them back to their friends, and 
ordered them to bring him information, in 
half an hour at farthest, whether they 
would accept of quarters upon these terms, 
and at the same time he gave orders to his 
army to advance toward Bothwell-bridge.' 

ISow the fatal nature of their divisions 
began to appear. When the commissioners 



came back, the officers fell a debating, and 
would come to no resolution. Mr Hamil- 
ton, who assumed the general command, 
AA'as against all accommodation, and others 
did not relish the proposal of laying down 
their arms ; in short, they Avere quite dis- 
jointed and broken, and nothing Avas agreed 
upon, nor any ansAver returned to the 
general. So the lord Livingstone, upon the 
head of the foot-guards, came up with the 
cannon to force the bridge. A guard of 
two or three hundred coimtry men Avere 
set to keep the bridge, consisting of Kippen 
and GalloAvay men. Hackston of Rathillet 
was one of the commanders of this guard, 
and shoAved abundance of bravery, and the 
men defended the bridge Avith a great deal 
of gallantry. Several of the soldiers were 
killed, the country men stood their ground 
near an hour, making a brisk resistance, till 
their ammunition failed them. When they 
found their poAvder and ball falling short, 
they despatched up to their general, either 
to send them doAvn ammunition, or a fresh 
body of troops Avell provided. Instead of 
this he sent back orders to them, fortliAvith 
to quit the bridge, and retire to the body of 
the army, Avhich at length Avith very sore 
hearts they did, their main strength lying- 
in keeping that pass. Thus it AAas most 
shamefully parted with by brave men, for 
AA'ant of necessary supply : had they main- 
tained that pass, Avhich might easily have 
been done, all had been well ; but when it 
Avas lost, there Avas no more resistance 
made to the king's forces. 

The duke, upon this, ordered the Avhole 
army to pass the bridge, \a ith cannon be- 
fore them, which they planted against the 
Avest country army, and played a little 
upon them. MeauAA'hiie the king's forces 
drcAv up very leisurely behind their cannon ; 
nor did Mr Hamilton, as far as I can learn, 
ever once aim to attack them, or give any 
orders for it, Avhen they Avere coming over, 
or forming tiiemselves on the south side of 
the bridge. 

All my accounts agree, that the duke's 
cannon playing upon the horse on the left 
of the country men, either disordered them, 
or made them think themselves in hazard, 
and essay to shift their ground. But after 
this, the papers giving account of this 



CHAP. II. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



107 



business diifer, so that I can make nothinnf 
of them, llathillet, in his narrative, says, 
" When he came up from the bridge, and the 
army \\ as formed and seemed very hearty, 
upon a sudden the cry rose from the troops 
and the companies on all hands, that their 
leaders were gone, which, adds he, were the 
men who were inclined to the indulgence, 
either Hying or seeking a parley with the 
enemy, though all favom* had been refused, 
unless we \\ould lay down our arms, and 
come in their will." The papers on the 
other side blame IVIr Hamilton and his 
party as discouraging the men, and doing 
nothing but clamouring against those ^;■ho 
were sent to the dulce, and such as were 
for an accommodation; they allege, IVli- 
Hamilton, and these who were warmest, 
M'ere soonest out of the field. 

I have seen many and various narratives 
of this action ; the plainest and most pro- 
bable account I can give from them, is, 
that the duke's cannon did reach the horse 
on the left of the country army ; ^^ here- 
upon they wheeled to take up another 
ground a little higher, but were never able 
to make their horses face the cannon ; and, 
in the wheeling, or taking up their ground, 
they fell foul upon some of their own men 
formed near them, and put them in some 
disorder: and those nearest them, seeing 
this, took it to be a flight, and the whole 
army fell into confusion, and fled ; and one 
who was present there writes to me, Mr 
Hamilton v\'as among the foremost, "leav- 
ing the world to debate whether he acted 
most like a traitor, coward, or fool." I 
would not set down so severe a remark upon 
this gentleman, were it not that I find al- 
most every body blame his conduct at this 
time. The bringing up the party from the 
bridge was certainly a mad step, and they 
ought to have been supported to the ut- 
most, and not called off. I have this fol- 
loM'ing passage also well vouched. Captain 
Thomas Weir of Greenridge, whom, I find, 
Rathillet represents as an occasion of dis- 
ordering some of the foot, when he saw a 
body of the king's forces get over the 
bridge, and but a forming, wheeled about 
his troop, and the Galloway troop, com- 
manded by captain MaccuUoch, joined with 
him, and was riding down to attack them. Mr 



Hamilton came off to him, and said, 
" What mean you. Captain ? will you ' ' 
murder those men ?" Mr Weir answered, he 
hoped there was no hazard, and that he might 
give a good account of all the horse yet 
come along the bridge, especially when but 
forming. When ]\L- Hamilton found the 
captain's troop resolute, he dealt with the 
Galloway troop, and represented and mag- 
nified the difficulties, so as they shrunk, and 
so the captain was obliged to retire back 
tt'ith them. My informer is of entire cre- 
dit, and had it from Greenridge a few days 
after the engagement, whom he represents 
as a pious sensible gentleman. In short, the 
horse and Mr Hamilton rode off, and left 
the foot entirely to the mercy of the king's 
army. The regular troops perceiving the 
country men in this pickle, advanced with 
all speed upon the foot, now perfectly 
naked ; they fled all of them, except a body 
of about twelve hundred, who surrendered 
prisoners of wai-, \iithout stroke of sv^'ord. 
The horse got mostly off, and many of the 
foot took the banks and floods there- 
about. * 

Never was a good cause and gallant 
army, generally speaking, hearty and bold, 
worse managed ; and never will a cause, 
though never so good, be better managed, 
when divisions, disjointings, and self creep 
in amon g the managers. And indeed, had 
there been any skill to manage, I am told. 



* The editor of Kirkton is greatly offended 
with our historian, because he has taken no 
notice of the " gallows" which stood near the 
scene of the skirmish, and Tvhich captain Creich- 
ton says was erected by the covenanters for the 
execution of the soldiers whom they expected to 
take prisoners in battle. That such writers as 
Hugo Arnot and C. K. Sharpe should reiterate 
the tale with full credit, is not surprising; but 
if such a story had existence in the days of 
Wodrow, he probably held it in such contempt 
as to be unworthy of notice. The report is ab- 
solutely without foundation ; and nothing save 
the violent spirit of party could have given rise 
and currency to it. That a gallows stood in the 
field near I5othwell there can be no doubt, as it 
is attested by both sides; but the history of its 
erection on that particular spot, we are certainly 
not bound to ascertain. Dr M'Crie'sidea is pro- 
bably the best ; that it had been erected as the 
ordinary place of execution by tlie sheriff and 
justiciary court of the middle ward of Lanark- 
shire, wliich he proves from unquestionable evi- 
dence to have been held at that time at f^amil- 
ton. See Dr M.'s Notes on Ure's Narrative. — 
Ed. 



108 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK II. 



that the resailar troops were ex- 
1679 . • 

tremely open, both ia their march, 

and especially in their attack ; and nothing 
but the views of these divisions, and unskil- 
fulness, can justify the duke, and other 
officers with him, in attacking an enemy 
at such a narrow bridge, where the water 
was not fordable near it, far less in march- 
ing his army through so narrow a pass, 
under the shot of troops, who were reputed 
as resolute as his own. But he knew 
whom he had to deal with. 

There cannot be any fvdl account given 
of the slain, because they were just mur- 
dered up and down the fields, wherever the 
soldiers met them, without mercy. It was 
reckoned there were about four hundred 
killed, and twelve hundred who surrendered 
prisoners in the muir. The soldiers brought 
in few or no prisoners, but cut off all they 
met with. Some papers bear, that there 
were but two or three killed at the bridge, 
and in the muir, bushes, and woods near 
by, upwards of three hundred. There were 
not many of note killed, that I hear of. 
Whether it was this day, or the following, 
I know not ; but, at this time, that excel- 
lent person, William Gordon of Earlston^ 
who was coming up to the western forces, 
was killed by the English dragoons, who 
behaved but very cowardly at the bridge. 
I am informed, that the predecessors of 
this ancient fjimily entertained the disciples 
of WicklifF, and had a New Testament in 
the vulgar tongue, which they used to read 
in meetings in the woods about Earlston 
house. And, as if the death of so good a 
man had not been expiation enough for 
this crime, his lady had her jointure seized, 
her house spoiled, and many horses and 
cattle taken from her.* I hear also, that 
good man, Mr James Smith, brother to Mi- 
Hugh Smith, of «hom before, was barbar- 
ously killed near the Nethertown of Ham- 



* His son Alexander ^vas in the action, and 
narrowly escaped in the fliirlit, by means of one 
of his tenants, who recognizing him as he rode 
throughllamilton, advised him to dismount and 
hide his horse furniture in adunghill, and get in- 
to a house and put on women's clothes and rock 
the cradle, by which means he passed unnoticed. 
Crookshanks, vol. ii. p. 15. This family is now 
represented by Sir John Gordon of Earlston. 



ilton. Neither were there many of note 
taken prisoners at the action. 

It is said, the English dragoons, the High- 
landers, and some volunteers from Perth 
and Angus-shire, were very bloody, and 
gave no quarter. And had it not been the 
merciful temper of the general, and the in- 
fluence and interest used by a considerable 
number of noblemen and gentlemen this 
day waiting upon the duke, certainly there 
had been a much greater slaughter of tlie 
foot. Notwithstanding of the general's 
care, no small severities were committed 
by the soldiers : I shall only give a few in- 
stances. When the body of foot in Ham- 
ilton muir surrendered themselves, they 
were all of them not only disarmed, but 
stript almost to their skin, and made to lie 
down flat upon the groimd in the muir, 
with strict orders not to stir out of the 
postiu*e, and a strong guard set upon them. 
One of them turning himself to a more easy 
posture, set up his head a little ; and Avhen 
one of the soldiers perceived this, he shot 
him dead in an instant. Several persons 
were that same day killed upon the road 
near Hamilton, who were unarmed, and 
coming down to hear sermon at the camp, 
or upon some other occasion, and knew 
nothing of the engagement, or that the 
king's forces were come over the river. 
Thus two serious persons in Glasford 
parish, James Scouler and Gavin Semple, 
though they had no arms, were barbarously 
murdered upon the highway, and six be- 
longing to Evandale parish, John Browning 
in Kype, Robert Stobo in Strathaven, 
William Hamilton in Threestanos, Robert 
Steel in Adstonhead, William Pate there, 
and Archibald Dick ; these were severally 
met by the soldiers. Upon their declaring 
ingenuously that they were coming down 
to hear sermon, the soldiers shot them as 
they found them. This cruelty will make 
the reader less wonder at their severity to 
Robert Finlay in the parish of Stonehouse, 
whom they catched on the road, and he ac- 
knowledging that he was indeed coming to 
the army, though he wanted arms, they 
straightway despatched him. 

I shall end this melancholy subject with 
a well vouched account I have of Arthur 
Inglis, a pious, sober, honest man, in the 



CHAP. II.l 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



109 



Nethertown of Cambusuethan. He had 
not been at Botlnvell, but, upon Monday, 
June 23d, he was looking- after his own 
cattle feeding upon a ley, and had sit down 
in a fur among- his own corn, and was 
reading upon the Bible; the place was two 
or three miles fi'om Bothwell, and the high 
road came near it. Some of the soldiers 
were coming that way, and perceiving- him 
reading, concluded he was a whig; and, 
when at a little distance, one of them dis- 
charged his piece at him, but missed him. 
The good man, conscious of no guilt, and 
probably not knowing the shot was directed 
at him, only looked about to the soldiers, 
and did not oft'er to move; they came 
straight up to him, and, without asking any 
questions, clave him in the head with their 
swords, and killed him on the spot. By 
these hints we may guess what was done 
by the soldiers up and down near the place 
of action ; and indeed they spared nobody 
almost they met with. 

The loss of the king's army needs not to 
be computed : it was perfectly inconsider- 
able; a few were killed at the bridge; 
after that there was no resistance made, 
except in the woods, where I hear two or 
three of the soldiers were killed. 

Perhaps I have spent too much paper 
ah-eady in animadverting upon the author 
of the Caveat for the Wliigs. I shall take 
my leave of him, with observing his gross 
blunders and lies in his representation of 
this action at Bothwell. That scandalous 
paper is not indeed worth noticing, Avere it 
not to expose his masters who employed so 
worthless a tool. He libels the duke of 
Monmouth, because he was not in the in- 
terest of the duke of York, and the Popish 
faction, alleging it was his mercy and for- 
bearance made the west country army in- 
sist upon terms ; and among other things, 
that the covenants should be renewed. 
The duke was civil, and not for shedding 
of blood, if it could be prevented ; but still 
he pushed his point, and would not treat 
till they laid down their arms ; but the 
rencAving the covenants was none of the 
terms they sought. This \^riter talks in 
his following sentence like one stupidly 
ignorant of Scotland, and says, " The rebels 
thought to have marched off to Carrick 



and Galloway, in order to furnish 
themselves with arms and ammuni- 
tion, which was landed at Borrovvstonness, 
besides what was fiu-ther expected from 
Holland." That is, they went west and 
south to get that which ivas in the east. 
And it is perfectly a fiction of his o^vn, to 
get in the republican Dutch to the story, 
that arms were landed at Borrowstonness, 
and more expected from Holland. I may 
venture to assure this dabbler in politics, 
that this plot, as he thinks it, was not so 
deeply laid, and their correspondence did 
not reach so far. He falsely asserts, " Old 
Dalziel honestly resolved to end the mat- 
ter." He may depend on it, that old and 
bloody man had none of the honour of that 
day. Any thing of this belonged to the 
dulvo of Monmouth, and Dalziel was at 
Edinhurgh. Indeed, upon his receiving 
a commission, as we have heard, he came 
west after the defeat. To complete the 
glory of this day, he doubles the number 
of the slain, and makes them eight hun- 
dred. The more were slain in the circum- 
stances above narrated, the less honourable 
it was for the miu-derers. And he alleges, 
the rebels' 1600 horse might have been cut 
off, had not the dul<e given orders not to 
pursue them, Avhich is just as true as the 
number of the slain. Upon these false- 
hoods, and some others, such as the in- 
siuTection's being within two weeks after 
the bisliop's murder, he raises his scheme, 
I that there was a correspondence with Eng- 
land, and that Shaftsbiu-y and other patriots 
there, were to have rene^ved the covenants 
in Scotland. The insisting so long upon 
these roveries deserves an apology. 

The observes I have made upon the Ca- 
veat for the Wliigs, will shorten my re- 
marks upon the account given by Mr Arch- 
deacon Eachard, of our Scots affairs this 
year. There is so great an agreement In 
the narratives given by both, that it looks 
as if the last had copied from the first, both 
in this account of the bishop's murder, and 
this affair of Bothwell. Mr Eachard's 
story of so many copies of Shaftsbiuy's 
speech coming by post to Edinburgh, and 
the pretended correspondence betwixt pres- 
byterians and the country party in England, 
have been already considered. Ho ought 



110 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



to have broiio^ht some pi'oof for A^bat 
■ he adds, " That the malecontents in 
Scotland, thus animated from England, began 
at their conventicles to display the banners 
of Jesus Christ, as they caUed their colours." 
But indeed it can never be proven, and I can 
assm'e him, there was never a paii- of col- 
om's at a field-conventicle in Scotland. And 
a writer of IVIr Archdeacon's reputation, 
ought not to advance such glaring untruths 
as we meet with here. Of this sort are the 
scrapes Avhich follow from the sermons at 
conventicles; and the lists, dropt Avith the 
primate in the head of them, of men to 
fall by heroical hands. The only founda- 
tion for this was the paper posted up in 
Cowpar, which was not a list of this na- 
ture. His account of the archbishop's mur- 
der is mostly taken from the narrative be- 
fore insert : but his fixing it upon Shafts- 
bury's speech, because this happened to be 
before it some weeks, with his making the 
commons address against Lauderdale, a kind 
of consequent of it, are stretches the arch- 
deacon will be ashamed of when he reflects 
upon them, and considers the true state of 
things above. His account of the skirmish 
at Drumclog, June 1st, seems copied from 
the Caveat or his authors ; and the blun- 
ders of proclaiming the covenant at Ragland, 
and their numbers and commanders, have 
been considered, with the foolish account 
that follows of the proclamation at Glasgow 
against the " bishops and their bairns." In 
Scotland the untruth of these is well enough 
known ; and it is pity Mr Eachard should 
lessen his own character, by publishing 
such things again. In the short hint he 
gives of the defeat at Bothwell, he has the 
misfortune not to have one true article al- 
most. He says, the duke at Bothwell- 
bridge fought the rebels with great fiu-y, 
whereas there was on the matter no proper 
engagement. The soldiers indeed miu-dered 
the poor, fleeing and unarmed country men 
Avith fury enough, and, adds he, " Though 
seventeen thousand inniunber, entirely rout- 
ed them." From what authority he makes 
them near six times more than really they 
were, he can best infonn us ; even the Ca- 
veat falls not in this blunder, whom he fol- 
lows in the numbers of the kiUed. And I 
am glad, for the archdeacon's sake, that he 



has not copied him in the account of the 
whigs going to Carrick and Gallowfiy to 
meet with the arms come to Borrowston- 
ness. However, in time to come, I hope 
Mr Eachard will look better to his vouchers 
in our Scots affairs. 

Thus I have given as distinct an account 
as I could of this rising, Avhich ended at 
Bothwell.* I have essayed impartially to 



* Those who wish to compare different ac- 
counts of the battle of Bothwell bridge, may- 
look into Russel's account in Kiikton's His- 
tory, edited by Sharp, p. 470, &c. — Ure of 
Shargarton's, in M'Crie's Lives of Veitch, &c. — 
and Wilson's Narrative — Blackadder's Life by 
Crichton, p. 220 — 223. We shall insert Law's 
account, as given by him in his Memorials, as 
it may not be so easy of access to a number of 
our readers'. 

" May 1679. The field-meetings in the west 
turning so tumultuous, as that many of the 
people were in arms, the estates ordered some 
troups of horse to notice them ; betwixt whom 
there were some skirmisses and blood on both 
sides. Att length they draw to some number, 
having over them Robert Hamilton, brother to 
Preston Hamilton, and come down to Roug- 
land, and there put out the bonfyres on the 29th 
of May, keept for the king's birth and restora- 
tion day, and publish their declaration and causes 
of rysing, disclaiming the king and his interests, 
and that they did rise to bring down the bishops. 
Some few days after, they fall in upon Glasgow, 
where my Lord Ross with 800 men were bar- 
ricaded at the cross, and were repulsed by him, 
a^id some killed. This done, they cross the 
water at Bothwell bridge, and severalls gather to 
them, even from Fife, Kippen, and other parts 
about on the north syd, as well as from the west, 
south, and east, and there they eticampe: the 
country about sent them victualls. Att length 
Mr Welch comes to them with supplyes of men 
and horse from Galloway and Carrick. He 
emmittes a declaration, wherein he recites the 
great injuries done to the church in introducing 
of prelats, the casting out of the ministrie, and 
imposing on folk's consciences, the great op- 
pressions of the land, &c. as the cause of their 
rysing; but yet withall includes the king's in- 
terest, as did the league and covenant, for he 
keeps by the same words ; and forces the printer 
of Glasgow to print it, and then they published 
it. This raised a great heat among themselves, 
for Mr Welch and some ministers with him 
were for declaring for the king's interest accord- 
ing to the covenant ; Robert Hamilton, their 
governor, with Mr Kid, Mr Douglass, two pro- 
bationers, and others that followed their way, 
w-ere for disclaiming the king and his interest. 
Some of their preachers were confident of vic- 
tory, and prophesied so far to their hearers, par- 
ticularly i\Ir Cargill. This poor multitude, so 
led with divided and dividing pastors, at lenth 
come to battell on the 8th * of June, 1679, viz. 
or the Sabbath day. The states having raised 
the militia in the north, and gathered together 
all the trained bands, with four cannons, the 

♦This is clearly a mistake— It should be the 22d.— Ed. 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



Ill 



state their differences as far the papers upon 
both sides, come to my hand, ^^ould carry 
me, and narrated matter of fact; and the 
more largely, that these were the begin- 
nings of the sore divisions which fell in 
afterwards among the suffering party : and 
because the misgiving- of this effort and 
struggle under church and national griev- 
ances, may be landed upon them, I wish 
these accounts of them may be of use to 
^varn and guard the church of Scotland in 
all after times against extremities. I come 
now to the consequents of this defeat, 
which I put in a new chapter, and with it 
shall end this year. 

CHAP. III. 

OF THE CONSEQUENTS OF THIS RISING AND 
DEFEAT AT BOTHWELL, AND OTHER THINGS 
TIUS YEAR, 1G79. 

Much of the persecution and harassings of 
thousands, for nine years following, may 
be reckoned consequents, and some way 
the fruits of this defeat I have been describ- 
ing : what I have in view upon this chap- 
ter, is the severities which followed during 
this year, and more immediately those ex- 
ercised upon the prisoners. I know well 
the managers defend their cruelties, by 
alleging the rebellious nature of this rising. 
The reader, after what is set down above. 



kiiijj also having sent down the duke of Mon- 
mouth, his son, with some Inglishes, he com- 
manded in chief the king's forces ; and having 
a great tenderness towards the poor misled mul- 
titude, and offered them peace on condition of 
layirig down their armes and going home, and to 
deall with the king for satisfaction to their de- 
mands, in what he could ; but all could not 
availl with Mr Cargill, Kid, Douglass, and 
other witless men amongst them, to hearken to 
any proposals of peace. Among others, that 
Douglass, sitting on his horse and preaching to 
the confused multitude, told them that they 
would come to terms with them, and like a 
dron-bee, always droning on these terms, with 
them;, — they would give us a half Christ, but we 
will have a whole Christ, and such like imper- 
tinent speeches as these, good enough to feed 
those that are fed with wind, and not with the 
sincere milk of the Word of God. 

Monmouth, finding that they had refused 
termes of peace, gives orders to fall on. Robert 
Hamilton, who was their generall before, now 
declynes to govern them, so that every one of 
them are left to themselves. There were about 
three hundred of them that keept the pass of 



must j udge for himself. We have seen 
this appearance was not reckoned re- 
bellion when the nation came to their senses 
after the revolution. Quarters were offered 
by the duke of Monmouth, and even interces- 
sion to have their desires answered; and, I 
question not, pacific measures had been 
gone into, if the dulve of York and papists 
had not prevailed at court, but they turned 
matters soon upon the severe side, with 
respect to presbyterians. All I have fur- 
ther upon this year shall be brought in 
upon this chapter, where the harassings of 
the country, and actings of the government 
and army immediately after the defeat at 
Bothweli, the treatment of the prisoners, 
the trial and execution of severals who had 
been in that rising, the circuit courts this 
year, and forfeitures which followed, to- 
gether with the state of presbyterian minis- 
ters, and others who had not been in the 
rising, the third indulgence, and the turn 
of affairs in the close of the year, by the 
coming down of the duke of York, will be 
subjects for the following' sections. 



Of the immediate consequents of the defeat 
at Sothioell, the harassinr/ of the cotintry, 
and the actings of the govei-nment and 
soldiers. 

One of the first consequents I notice of the 



the bridge of Bothweli, for there was the fight, 
and did it very stoutly ; but when they cry'd 
for help, Hamilton declyned to send any ; and 
when the king's forces were coming over the 
bridge, there goes off five or 600 men to meet 
them. But Hamilton calls them back, telling 
them we will give them fair play, and so suf- 
fered them to advance, which when they had 
done with their cannon, the king's forces fyres; 
and on the first fyre of the cannon, Robert Ham- 
milton turnes his back, and all the horsemen 
fled with him, leaving the foot to be cutt down, 
which, when the duke of Monmouth perceives, 
he gives orders to spare the poor countrymen, 
and yet, notwithstanding, there was cutt down 
that day 800 of them, and 300 taken prisoners. 
Among them that were taken was Mr Kid, and 
after him iMr King, two of the preachers, and 
were afterwards execute at Edinburgh. Many 
of them that were taken were sent abroad and 
perished by sea. These people, whiles they were 
a gathering, ranged through all the country and 
citys they could come at, and took all the arms, 
gunns, and swords they could, and best liorse, 
without recompense." Law's memorialls, p. 
1^9, 150, U\.—Ed. 



112 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



defeat at Bothwell, is the hazard the 
city of Glasgow, the town of Hamil- 
ton, and the country round the place of action 
were in, had not the good natui-e of the duke 
of Buccleugh and Monmouth prevented it. 
The officers of the army -who had been at 
(rlasg'ow, major White, Claverhouse, and 
others of their cruel temper, solicited the 
general to ruin the west country, and burn 
Glasgow, Hamilton, and Strathaven, to kill 
the prisoners, at least considerable numbers 
of them, and to permit the army to plunder 
the western shires, who, they alleged, had 
countenanced the rebels. The general ab- 
horred so unnatural a proposal, and rejected 
it with detestation. However, from it we 
may remark the sad pass this poor kingdom 
was at, when the army made such propo- 
sals : and the reader will easily foresee what 
their carriage will be the succeeding years, 
when the power is in their hands. I find, 
when they were balked in this, they pro- 
posed, that at least the soldiers should be 
allowed three or four hours to spoil the 
disaffected houses in the city of GlasgoAv, 
because of the favour shown there by many 
to the west country army : but this was 
likewise peremptorily refused. Yet it is 
said, that the town of Glasgow was obliged 
to quit to the toT\Ti of Edinburgh, for the 
behoof of some particular persons who were 
to be gratified, a debt of thirty thousand 
merks they had upon the Canon-mills, that 
they might be saved from plunder at this 
time. 

It would be endless almost to enter upon 
the ravages and spulies committed by the 
king's forces, upon the adjacent places, im- 
mediately after the engagement at Both- 
well. Many persons in Hamilton were 
spoiled of their household plenishing, and 
cited before the council and circuit courts 
for converse with the rebels, and some of 
them imprisoned and fined in very great 
sums, although they were not in arms : 
and it was perfectly impossible to evite 
converse with the west country army, they 
lying in and about that town for several 
weeks. Some gentlemen who got council 
grants of fines, and the sheriff-depute made 
money by their vexatious processes upon 
these pretexts for several years after this. 

Arthur Tacket, a boy of eighteen years 



of age in the town of Hamilton, had gone 
out with his gun the day of the defeat, but 
soon got into his mother's house in that 
place. This coming afterwards to be 
known, he was in a little time seized by 
the laird of Raploch, who carried him in 
prisoner to Edinburgh ; where some years 
after, as we shall hear, he was, notwith- 
standing of the indemnity, executed for his 
being at Bothwell. 

The king's forces, when pursuing the 
scattered country people in the places near 
by, took all the horses of any value which 
they found in the possession of such who 
were no ^^ays concerned in Bothwell : and 
it was their way, either to carry them with 
them, or to make the owners pay very near 
their value for them ; and when they had 
done so, they were in hazard to be plun- 
dered by the next soldiers who came that 
way. Thus in the parish of Cambuslang 
the soldiers took away, in horses and mo- 
ney, to the value of 500 merks from four 
farmers, M'ithout the least reason or provo- 
cation. A large list of oppressions this way 
from the parishioners of Blantyre, Kilbride, 
Cambuslang, Monklands, Bothwell, and 
Hamilton might be given. I have just in 
mine eye an account of the losses sustain- 
ed by the east end of the parish of the 
Shots, at the retiring of the soldiers and 
militia after Bothwell, and it runs above 
i£500 sterling. From which M'e may in- 
fer what a swinging sum the total would 
have been, which was exacted from the 
parishes round about, had the accounts of 
them been preserved. The reader will 
further observe, that in all the parishes 
through the kingdom, where the managers 
or soldiers got notice of any who had been 
at Bothwell, there was a continued tract of 
plundering, quartering, and spulie for 
seven or eight years, and that not only 
upon the families of such who had been, 
or Mere said to have been there ; but their 
relations, friends, and neighbours, and all 
who had any dealing with them ; yea, those 
cruelties were exercised upon all Avho did 
not comply with prelacy, and abet and 
assist the soldiers in their rapine and out- 
rages ; so that some of the most exact con- 
I formists themselves did not escape, when 
I they were either so generous, as not to 



CHAP. HI. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



11.^ 



turn informers, or merciful, as not to fall 
in M'ith every severe method now pro- 
posed. 

The fining's and forfeiting-s of persons of 
sxihstance and estates were innumerahle, 
some of the last may come to he noticed in 
this chapter, and in the progress of this 
M'ork. It is very true the king emitted an 
indemnity, hut we shall just now hear how 
clogged it was ; and the circuits, justiciary 
courts, and multitudes of executions which 
followed for some years, are sensihle proofs 
that our managers in Scotland, who were 
much influenced by the clergy, had suffi- 
cient interest to put a stop to any of the 
king's favours this way. And, as we shall 
hear in a little time, most part of the gentry 
of the western shires, of any piety and ten- 
derness, or who would not go into the mea- 
sures of the time entirely, though no way 
accessory to this rising, were brought to 
inexpressible trouble. They were harassed 
before circuits, tossed by frequent appear- 
ances before the council, imprisoned and 
exorbitantly fined for alleged harbour, reset, 
and converse with such who had been at 
Both well, or were informed against, as hav- 
ing been there ; and there was no way of 
escaping, but by taking the self-contradict- 
ing oath of the test, and the bond of regu- 
larity, whereby they were tied down to 
hear the curates, and delate presbyterian 
ministers Avho exercised any part of their 
office ; all which will appear evidently in 
the following history. 

One instance at present shall suffice to 
vouch those generals. A worthy gentle- 
man in Lanarkshire, Sir Thomas Stuart of 
Cultness, son to Sir James Stuart late pro- 
vost of Edinburgh, of whom in the preced- I 
ingf books, a person of an eminently holy 
life, shining conversation, and many other 
excellent endowments, was obliged, after 
Bothwell, first to abscond for some time, 
and then to retire to Holland, and take 
upon him a voluntary banishment till the 
happy revolution, orders being issued out 
to apprehend him upon a suspicion, without 
any legal proof, that he had supplied some 
of the country men going to Bothwell, with 
meat and drink. It was not so much as 
pretended that Sir Thomas, or any of his 
family and servants were there : he had in- 

ui. 



deed refused or declined to put poor ^ 
people his tenants out of their pos- 
sessions, for hearing the gospel in the fields, 
or in houses; and would not be active in per- 
secuting others, who suffered for conscience 
sake. Upon these grounds he was forced to 
flee his native country, and lurk among 
strangers, to the great prejudice of his family 
and estate ; and, in absence, vihen they knew 
he could not answer their citation, he was 
forfeited upon most unjust grounds, and 
defrauded of the incomes of his estate luitil 
King William's happy accession to the 
throne. 

After these general hints, let me notice 
the procedure of the government, the bond, 
proclamations, and indemnity issued out af- 
ter the defeat at Bothwell. Other inciden- 
tal matters which fell in June and July this 
year, I leave to the last section, that the 
reader may have the treatment of such as 
were concerned in this rising all together. 

From the books of council, I shall here 
give some narrative of the managers' pro- 
cedure immediately after their defeat, and 
bring in here the actings of council, during 
the remainder of this year, except what 
relates to the prisoners, circuits, and other 
heads, which will fall in under the follow- 
ing sections. 

The laird of Lundin brought the council 
the first account of the defeat of the west 
country army, June 22d, and that night 
they send off a flying pacquet to Lauderdale, 
with an account of the action, which I have 
insert below,* At the same time they 



* CounciVs letter to LauderdrJe, June 22d 1679. 
May it please your Grace, 
We send this flying pacquet with great joy, 
that your grace may give his majesty the good 
and happy news of a total and ahsdliite victory, 
obtained thisday over the rebels, by his majesty's 
forces in this kingdom, under tlie conduct of his 
grace the duke of Buccleiigh, which happened in 
this manner. This morning, by seven a clock, 
our army was drawn up at Both well-bridge, 
which the enemy (I ving on the other side thereof) 
had barricadoed. Here a supplication is brought 
to the lord general by one of the rebels, giving 
him notice, that they would lay down their aims 
upon no other tei'ms than tliese expressed in 
their large declaration. His grace told the bear- 
er, these were destructive to the king's authoi ity, 
and fundainental constitution of this kingdom, 
and that they were to expect no other articles 
from him, but to lay down arms, and render 
themselves to his mercy. This they refused to 
do, and immediately the guns began to [day upon 



114 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



fBOOK III. 



1679. 



MTite to colonel Struthers in North- 



umberland that he secnre the borders, 
and stop and imprison the rebels who shall 
endeavoiu" to escape to England, and order all 
the boats of Queensferry, and the south-side 
tlie Frith, to lie on that side, that none get 
over to Fife. June 24th, they despatch an- 
other letter to Lauderdale, A\herein they 
acquaint him, " that they have not yet full 
accounts of the victory, but they hear 800 
rebels are slain, and more than 1100 prison- 
ers. They assure him of their care to get 
aU information possible fi-om the prisoners, 
and discover such as skulk and hide them- 
selves. They take notice, that his majesty 
hath, by this victory, an opportunity to se- 
cm"e the monarchy, chiu-ch, protestant re- 
ligion, and liberty of liis subjects, against 
all after attempts. They promise, for their 
part, so to execute the laws against rebel- 
lion, faction, and schism, as the king shall 
direct them, without gratifying the humours 
of such as are apt to grow more insolent by 
his majesty's gi-ace and goodness, and have 
been encouraged and hardened in an ob- 
stinate opposition to the church, by his 
condescensions and indulgencies. They 
add, that the general, w ith the army, are 
within two miles of Strathaven ; that the 
prisoners are come to Edinburgh, and ask 



them, which did somewhat disorder them. 
'] hen a party attacked the bridge, and after 
some short dispute, carried it. The rebels being 
beaten from it, retreated a little, and stayed at 
some distance till most of bis majesty's forces 
■were got over that pass. Soon after, by some 
more play with the guns, and another assault, 
their horse began to run, and scatter upon all 
corners, leaving their flying foot to the mercy of 
our army, who pursued them with all diligence 
and zeal, and have killed some hundredsof them, 
and taken many hundreds prisoners. Many of 
the foot fled into the wood of Hamilton, which 
is surrounded by a party of his majesty's forces; 
and a detached party under lieutenant colonel 
Douglas, is sent in after them, which will give 
a good account of them. Our army is still in 
pursuit of the rebels, when Lundin came away 
about ten a clock, who, having been sent from 
us to wait on the general, had the good fortune 
to be an actor, as well as a witness in this en- 
gagement, so that his majesty may be assured, 
that this is a total rout and discomfiture of these 
insolent rebels. The lord general hath behaved 
himself with exceeding great conduct and mag- 
nanimity, and all the officers, gentlemen and 
soldiers have carried themselves with great 
cheerfulness and resolution against the enemies 
of our religion, king and country; and above 
all, the mercy of God hath been most signal and 



directions how to dispose of thera ; and 
piO])ose, that after the ringleaders are ])un- 
ished capitally, the rabble may be transport- 
ed to the plantations, never to return ; for 
which end they desire one of his majesty's 
frigates to be sent down to Leith." That 
same day they ^vrite letters to Queensberry 
and Nithsdale, that they guard the passes, 
and endeavoiu' to secure the rebels, and 
prevent their going over to Ireland. 

Upon the 2.jth of June, the council re- 
ceive a letter from the general, wherein he 
acquaints them, " That he had sent parties 
beyond Newmills and Douglas, who had in- 
formed him the rebels had passed by those 
places in great haste, and small parties ; 
that he reckons them now dispersed, and 
has ordered home the militia regiments, and 
desires them to stop those that are coming 
up." That day they order Henry Ker of 
Graden, to search for TurnbuU of Bewly, 
Tiu-nbidl of Standyhill, Henry Hall and Mr 
Aj-chibald Riddel ^ho were at the rebellion, 
or abettors of it. Next day, June 2(Jth, in 
their forenoon's sederiuit, before the duke 
of Buccleugh and Monmouth comes up to 
them, they publish their proclamation of 
this day's date, against the reset of rebels, 
&c. which I have insert below. * Therein 
the reader will see the names of the per- 



wonderftd to us, even to a miracle, in so much, 
that though the rebels were near seven thou- 
sand, yet are they totally routed without any 
loss to his majesty's forces, save of two or three 
common soldiers. We doubt not but by God's 
mercy and blessing, and our gracious sovereign 
his royal wisdom, this glorious victory shall be 
so pursued, as that the rebellion and schism 
shall be plucked up by the roots in Scotland. A 
more full and particular narration shall be sent 
to your grace so soon as we I'eceive it. Mean- 
while, upon receipt of the flying pacquet, we 
met at twelve a clock, where the lord chancel- 
lor delivered the commission sent from his ma- 
jesty to general Dalziel, who is immediately to 
repair to the army, and to enter upon his charge. 
Nothing shall be omitted by us for securing 
of all ports and passages, for seizing and ap- 
prehending such of the rebels as may endeavour 
their escape, or any thing else which may con- 
tribute to the utter extinguishing of this violent 
flame, which may be expected from 

Your grace's humble servants. 
* Proclamation against rebels, June 26th, IG79. 
Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the 
faith : to all and sundry our lieges and subjects, 
whom these presents do or may concern, greet- 
ing. Forasmuch as, upon the first notice given 
to our privy council of the rising and gathering 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



115 



sons of most considerable note, who were 
in the west country army, and many of 
them I take to have been officers, as Robert 
Hamilton, John Paton, major Learniond, 
William, afterward lieutenant colonel Cle- 
land, John Balfour, the lairds of Balquhan, 
Barscobe, John Wilson, afterward executed, 
major Ross, captain Weir, the laii-ds of 
Rathillet, Kaitloch, Shirj^artoun, Bankhead, 
Montgrenan, Bedlan, Earlston, Freugh, 
Craichlaw, Bewlie, Standyhill, Greddin, 
Vrats, and Mm-doch, the lord Cathcart's 
two sons, Henry Hall and others, and all 
the ministers and preachers they could hear 
of, with the persons alleged to be concerned 
in the attempt on the archbishop. I find the 



of these disloyal and seditious persons in the 
west, who have of late appeared in arms in a 
desperate and avowed rebellion against us, our 
government and laws, ^ve did declare them to 
be traitors, and discharged all our subjects to 
assist, reset, supply, or correspond with any 
of them, under the pain of treason : and tiie 
said rebels and traitors, being now (by the bless- 
ing of God upon our forces) subdued, dissipated, 
and soattered ; and such of them as were not 
either killed or taken in the field, being either 
retired secretly to their own homes and houses, 
expecting shelter and protection from the respec- 
tive heritors, in whose lands they dwell, or 
lurking in the country ; and we, being unwill- 
ing any of our good subjects should be ensnared, 
or brought into trouble by them, have therefore, 
with advice of our privy council, thought fit, 
again to discharge and prohibit all our subjects, 
men or women, that none of them offer or pre- 
sume to harbour, reset, supply, correspond 
with, hide or conceal the persons of Robert 
Hamilton brother german to the laird of Preston, 
John Paton in Meadow-head, alias captain 
Paton, Joseph Learmond, alias major Lear- 
mond, William Cleland John Balfour of 

Kinloch, Whiteford of Balquhan younger, 

M'Clellan of Barscob, John Wilson 
son to Alexander Wilson town-clerk of Lanark, 

Ross pretended major, Thomas Weir 
brother to Kirktield, Hackston of Ra- 

thillet, Carmichael son to the earl of Wig- 

ton's chamberlain. Cannon of Mardrogat, 

Mr William Fergusson of Kaitloch, James 
Russell in Kingskettle, George Balfour in 
Gilston, Andrew and Alexander Hendersons 
sons to John Henderson in Kilbraichmont, 
Andrew Guilan weaver in Balmerino, George 
Fleming younger of Balbuthy, Robert Dingwal 
jon to Dingwal in Calilhame, Mr Samuel 

Arnot, jMr Gabriel Semple, Mr John Welsh, 
Mr John King, Mr Donald Cargill, I\Ir George 
Barclay, Mr John Rae, Mr Thomas Douglas, 
Mr Forrester, Mr Robert Muir, Mr 

Lamb, Mr Richard Cameron, Mr David 
Hume, Ure of Shargarton, Forres- 

ter of Bankhead, John Haddow^ay merchant in 
Douglas, James White w^riter there, 
Cunningham of JMontgrenan, and Mr John 
Cunningham sometime of Bedland, James and 



council owning mistakes in this pro- 
clamation : They declare, July 18th, ^^'^^^ 
that Robert Stuart of Revenston, and William 
Stuarton Castlestuart, brothers to the earl of 
Galloway, have made it evident before them, 
they were not in the rebellion; and upon the 
last of June, they declare that Brice Blair of 
Fenwick is wrongously insert in this pro- 
clamation. But these are not all the mis- 
takes the reader will find upon the perusal 
of this proclamation. I do not much enter 
upon them, since frequently the misrepre- 
sentations of the peimers of public papers 
at this time have been noticed. All who 
had been at Bothwell, are made traitors, 
and the rising a desperate and avowed re- 



William Clelands brethren-in-law to John Had- 
doway merchant in Douglas, Thomas Bogle of 
Boglehole, alias Nether- Carmile, Gor- 

dons of Earlston elder and younger, 
M'Dougal of Freugh, the laird of Ravenston 
brother to the earl of Galloway, the laird of 
Castle-Stewart brother to the said earl, 
Gordon of Crai<;h!ey, TurnbuU of Bewley, 

Thomas TurnbuU of Standhil, Henry H;iil, 
George Hume of Greddin, Mackay of 

Glenaard, Mr John Kae, Somerwel of 

Wrats, Mr Archibald Riddel brother to the laird 
of Riddel, Cathcarts, two sous of the lord 

Cathcart, Blair of Fenwick, Mur- 

doch, alias laird Blurdoch, Roland Ritchison 
feuar in Gilmerton, and his three sons, or any 
others who concurred or joined in the late re- 
bellion, or who, upon the account thereof, have 
appeared in arms, in any part of this our king- 
dom. But that they pursue them as the worst 
of traitors, and present and deliver such of them 
as they shall have within their power, to the 
lords of our privy council, the sheriff of the 
county, or the magistrates of the next ad- 
jacent burgh-royal, to be by them made forth- 
coming to law : certifying all persons, either 
heritors, tenants, or other men or women, as 
shall be found to fail in their duty herein, 
they shall be esteemed and punished as favour- 
ers of the said rebellion, and as persons acces- 
sory to, and guilty of the same. And to the 
end all our good subjects may have timeous no- 
tice hereof. We do ordain these presents to be 
forthwith printed, and published at the market- 
crosses of Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Stirling, 
Lanark, Ayr, Rutherglen, Glasgow, Irvine, 
Wigton, Kirkcudbright, Dumfries, Cowpar in 
Fife, Jedburgh, Perth, and remanent market- 
crosses of the head burghs of the several shires 
of the kingdom, by macers or messengers at 
arms. And we do recommend to the right 
reverend our archbishop and bishops, to give 
order that this our proclamation be, with all 
diligence, read on the Lord's day, in all the 
churches within their several dioceses, that none 
pretend ignorance. Given under our signet at 
Edinburgh, the twenty sixth day of June lti79, 
aud of our reign the thirty first year. 

Alex. Gibson, CI. Seer. Concilii, 
GOD SAVE THE KING. 



116 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



])ellion. This will appear hard after 
1679 

' what hath been narrated, and, we 

have seen, their declaration vindicates them 
from such hai'd epithets. Their proposals 
had been some way reckoned reasonable; 
and, had it not been their own divisions, it is 
probable a treaty liad been entered to. Now 
when they are broke, I can see no use of such 
liard v^ordSjbut to irritate the remains of them, 
and put them upon a new rising. The pre- 
tended reason for publishing this declaration, 
is, to keep subjects from being insnared and 
brought to trouble by them. This may 
hold as to such whose names are insert ; 
but this was neither a fuU list, nor a true 
list, as we have heard; and the general 
clause, or any others who concurred or 
joined in the late rebellion, makes subjects 
as liable to trouble, as to those not named, 
as with relation to such as are named. AU 
such ^^■ho fail in their duty in the premisses, 
are to be punished as guilty of rebellion. 
Here is a broad foundation laid for pur- 
suing and harassing multitudes, who after- 
wards, by people whose interest it was to 
have them guilty, were pretended to be ac- 
cessary to this rising; and the following 
years arc a sad commentary upon this gen- 
eral. The proclamation ends with a re- 
commendation to the archbishops and bish- 
ops, to see that it be published in all parish 
churches. This method of publishing the 
council's acts of this nature, is new. The 
conformable clergy gave ready obedience, 
and they had been ungrate had they done 
otherwise; but in reading it, one would 
think they might have had many challenges, 
as having been the occasion of all this se- 
verity, blood, and confusion ; however the 
church and Sabbath seem not altogether so 
very proper for such pubhcations. 

In the afternoon's sederunt, .June 26th, 
1 find the general present, when the council 
give his grace their thanks for his great 
pains in suppressing the late rebellion. 
Orders are given to the magistrates of Ed- 
inburgh to provide chirurgeons that may 
attend the sick and wounded prisoners, and 
to appoint persons to receive meat and 
drink, and see it distributed among them. 
The like orders are sent to Linlithgow and 
Hamilton. Next day the militia troops be- 
yond Forth are ordered home, and the 



militia regiment of Edinburgh ordered to 
guard the prisoners by turns. 

July 4th. The council receive a letter 
from the king, dated June 29th, wherein 
he directs them as to the disposal of the 
prisoners, which I have added below.* 



* A'hig^s letter to Council^ June 29th, 1679. 
Right trusty and well beloved, &c. We greet 
you well. After full consideration of what is 
past since the first news of this rebellion, we 
cannot but be highly satisfied with the great 
care you have shown, and the great affection 
and forwardness of our subjects in that our an- 
cient kingdom, in suppressing those rebels who 
endeavoured to strike at the very root of our 
government. And therefore, as we return you 
our hearty thanks, so we do earnestly recom- 
mend unto you, that you may assure the no- 
bility, gentry, and others who have so cheerfully, 
at this time, attended our host, or were upon 
their march to it, that we will never forget this 
signal testimony of their loyalty and kindness to 
us, and that you will, in our name, return unto 
them our hearty thanks. And we being parti- 
cularly informed of the great vigilance and care 
of the magistrates and council of our good town 
of Edinburgh, and the great expenses they have 
been at upon this occasion, we do desire you to 
call them to our council board, and give them 
our solemn and hearty thanks. To the end that 
all our subjects may see the great aversion we 
have for those rebels and their principles, and 
that we will not encourage others for the future, 
to disturb our government and good subjects, by 
such extravagant insolencies and cruelties, we 
do require you to try out for such among all the 
prisoners, as can most probably discover the rise 
and occasion of this rebellion, the means by 
w^hich it was carried on, and the correspondence 
which they had or entertained any where for 
that purpose, but particularly in this our king- 
dom of England. For discovering of all which, 
we do ordain you to offer them our royal pardon, 
if they discover and make out their information, 
and that you put them to the torture if they re- 
fuse to inform in what you have pregnant pre- 
sumptions to believe they know. When this is 
done, we do in the next place approve the mo- 
tion made by you, of sending three or four hun- 
dred of these prisoners to the plantations, for 
which we authorize you to grant a warrant in 
order to their transportation, and we will there- 
after send another warrant from hence for re- 
ceiving them in that plantation for winch they 
are to go, you giving information to our secre- 
tary of the place to which they are to be sent. 
It is likewise our pleasure, that you cause pro- 
secute as traitors immediately, the heritors, min- 
isters, and ringleaders of this rebellion, these 
only excepted who shall discover in manner 
above related. And as to the rest of those who 
are taken prisoners, we desire that they may be 
set at liberty, upon their enacting themselves 
not to take arms against us, nor our authority. 
But to prevent their doing mischief for the 
future, we desire that there may be an act of 
council made and intimated unto them, that if 
ever they, or any of them shall be hereafter in 
arms, or at field-cnnventicles, the persons so 
taken shall forfeit the benefit of this our pardon 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



117 



Therein he refers them to the duke for his 
further pleasure iu a proclamation, which 
contained a suspension of the laws against 
conventicles, as we shall see upon the 5th 
section. We shall find this letter oheyed 
as to the prisoners in the next section. 
Whether it was by virtue of the powers 
planted the duke at this time, that he pub- 
lished a pardon and indemnity to all tenants 
and subtenants, who had been at Both well, 
providing they submitted themselves against 
such a day ; or if the general, by virtue of 
his former powers, emitted this before he 
came into Edinburgh, I know not, not 
having seen the date of this proclamation. 
Eut that he did publish it, appears from the 
bond offered at this time, to the heritors 
in the west country, the tenor whereof 
was : " Whereas the duke of Buccleugh, 
general of his majesty's forces, has thought 
fit to issue forth a proclamation of pardon 
and indemnity to aU tenants and subtenants 
that were actually concerned iu the re- 
bellion, and present at the late fight at 
Hamilton, and shall render themselves, 
their horse and arms, to his grace, at the 
king's standard, or the magistrate in chief 
of the head burgh of the shire, where they 
shall happen to be, within days after 

the publication of the said proclamation. 

" These are testifying, that I ' do 

by these presents, bind and oblige myself, 
that in case any of my tenants or subtenants 
that were concerned in the rebellion, and 
present at the late fight, shall refuse or 
delay to accept of this act of grace, within 
the time limited, I shall use my utmost en- 
deavour forthwith to apprehend and deliver 
lip to justice all such persons ; and in case 
it shall be made to appear that any of the 
said persons shall be found to have resided 
on my land, at the end of thirty days after 
the date of the said proclamation, I shall 
forfeit and be liable to his majesty in the 



.ind inHpmnity. You will receive from the duke 
of Buccleugh and Monmouth our further plea- 
sure in a proclamation, which ^ve have sent 
unto him, to be presented unto you, to the end 
it may he published in our name. And so we 
bid vou heartily farewell. Given at our court 
at Whitehall, the 29th day of June, 1679, and of 
our reigu the thirty-first year. 

By his majesty's command, 

Lauderd.\le. 



sum of iioOU Scots, for every such 
person as shall be found iu my land. ^"'^* 
Those only excepted to whom the king and 
council siiall think fit to grant a pardon. 
In witness whereof, &c." 

For any thing I can learn, there were 
but few tenants came in upon this procla- 
mation. A good many of the common sort 
were made prisoners, and came not under 
it ; and those who escaped, hid themselves 
for some time, and probably had but uncer- 
tain accoimts of this offer, and many were 
unwilling to venture themselves so soon to 
the hands of the army or magistrates. 
Neither do I find the heritors most con- 
cerned, were willing to come into this 
bond. It did involve them in owning the 
rising to be rebellion, and engaged them to 
turn out all their tenants who came not In 
within the time limited, and brought them 
under a fine in case they were after foimd 
upon their lands, and I find no penalty en- 
forcing this bond upon them ; and therefore, 
as far as I know, it came to very little. 
This proclamation, however, was of a quite 
different strain from that we have seen 
emitted by the council, June 2Gth, before 
the duke came up to them. ' 

At this diet the council ^vTite to the dif- 
ferent sheriffs in the shires, on the south 
side of Tay, to send up exact lists of the 
heritors who did not attend upon the king's 
host, or left it without allowance, that they 
may be prosecute according to law. It 
took some time before this matter was 
brought to a bearing; and, therefore, I 
shall refer it to the next year, when multi- 
tudes were brought to trouble upon this 
account. At the same time the council, 
being informed that Alexander and James 
Balfours, tenants in Gilstoun, Mho Mere 
taken in arms going to rebellion, have 
fraudulently disposed their estates and 
means, order the sheriff of Fyfe to seques- 
trate all they have for the king's use. His 
grace the duke of Buccleugh and Mon- 
mouth takes his leave of the coimcil, July 
6th, and they write a letter of compliment 
to Lauderdale, thanking the king for send- 
ing him, and acknowledging the great ser- 
vice he hath done. 

The proclamation of the 26th of June 
stood in full force, till it was, if I may say so. 



118 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK Til. 



a little softened by the indemnity the 
■ king Avas pleased to grant some time 
after this. It bears date at Windsor, July 
27th. What was the reason of the delaying 
the publishing of it to August 14th, I shall 
not determine That, as we shall hear, was 
the day of the public execution of Me.ssrs 
King and Kid. It may be reckoned invidi- 
ous to su]>pose that methods were taken to 
delay it at London for some Aveeks, and its 
publication, when agreed to thei-e, ^^'as de- 
ferred so long, that the soldiers might have 
the lon<;er time to harass and spoil the coun- 
trjr. Indeed the indemnity was so clogged, 
that it put no gi'eat stop to that when it 
came. It is inserted below,* and Avas pub- 



* Indeiyinity after Botlmxll, »hdy '21lh, \G19,pub- 
lished August Ht/i. 
Charles R. 
Charles II. by the grace of God, king of Scot- 
land, Etiglarid, Fi'aricc, and Ireland, defender 
of the faith, &c. To all and sundry our good 
subjects whom these presents do or may concern, 
greeting. The just resentments we have of the 
rebellious courses taken by some in that our an- 
cient kingdom of Scotland, by poisoning our 
people Avith principles inconsistent with true 
piety, and all human society, as well as with 
our royal g()V(*rnment, and of the humorous 
factions of others, who (under pretext of repre- 
senting grievances to us) have most unjustly, 
both in Scotland and England, defamed our 
judicatures of Scotland, and thereby weakened 
our authority therein represented ; all which 
did not hinder us from endeavouring to quiet 
the one by our late proclamation, and the other 
by a public hearing and debate ; and being most 
desirous to cover all the imperfections of our 
subjects, and to remove the fears and jealousies 
whence they proceed ; we have, therefore, by our 
royal authority, and the undoubted prerogative 
of our crown, thought fit (with the advice of our 
privv council) to indemnify, remit, and pardon, 
(wi^h the exceptions after specified) all such as 
have been at field or house-conventicles, all such 
as are guilty of irregular administration of the 
sacraments, and other schismatic disorders, all 
such as have been engaged in the rebellion, l(i66, 
or the late rebellion this present year of God, 
167!), all such as have spoken, written, printed^ 
published, or dispersed any traitorous speeches,in- 
famous libels, or pasquils, all such as have misre- 
presented atiy of our judicatures, servants, or 
subjects, or have advised any thing contrary to 
our laws, all such as havemalversed in any public 
station or trust ; and generally, all such as are 
liable to any pursuit, for any cause, or occasion, 
relating to any public administration, by con- 
trivances, actings, oppositions, or otherAvays, 
preceding the date hereof. Declaring the gen- 
erality of these presents to be as effectual to all 
intents and purposes, as if every circumstance 
of every the foresaid delinquencies, or misde- 
meanors, were particularly and specially here 
inserted ; and as if every of the persons that 



Ushedwith a great deal of solemnity at Edin- 
burgh, August 14th. A scaffold was erected 
at the cross, and the magistrates came to it 
in the forejioon in their robes, and were Avit- 
nesses to the proclamation. In the after- 
noon, Messrs King and Kid were hanged, 
and their heads cut off upon another scaf- 
fold. And when that was over, there Avere 
public rejoicings : the bells were tolled, and 
bonfires put on through the city. That this 
Avas timed so, as it might be an insult upon 
these two good men Avho Avere put to death, 
I shall not say; this Avas but a poor re- 
venge. Be this as it will, the public re- 
joicings Avere a little dashed by a fire 
breaking out in the city that night, Avhich 



might be challenged and pursued for the same, 
had a remission luider oiu' great seal, or an act of 
indemnity passed in his favours ; discharging any 
of our officers, or subjects, to pursue any person 
or persons upon any such accounts, either ad 
vindictam piiblkam ivl privatam, or to upbraid 
them therewith. And commanding all our 
judges to interpret this our remission and in- 
deturiity, with all possible latitude and favour, 
as they will be ansvA'erable to us upon their 
highest perils ; excepting such as are already 
forfeited bj' our parliaments, or our criminal 
court, fined by oiu' privy council, and such, who 
being fined by inferior judicatures, have paid, or 
transacted for their fines, in so far as concerns 
their respective fines, so imposed ; excepting 
also, all such heritors and ministers, who have 
been in the late rebellion, or were contrivers 
thereof, and such heritors as have contributed 
thereto, by levies of men or money : and except- 
ing likeAvise such as obeyed net our, and our 
council's proclamation, in assisting in our host, to 
be pursued for that their delinquency, according 
to law ; ami such persons as have threatened or 
abused any of the orthodox clergy, or any of our 
good subjects for assisting us in suppressing the 
late rebellion ; and that, since our proclamation, 
dated the 2Uth day of June last past. Which 
indemnity Ave do grant to those who were en- 
gaged in the late rebellion, provided that they 
shall ajtpear before such as our privy council 
shall nominate, betwixt and the diets folloAving, 
?'i~. these that are within this king(iom, betwixt 
and the eighteenth day of September, and these 
that are forth thereof, betwixt and the thirteenth 
of November next tot^ome, and enact themselves, 
never to carry arms against us, or our autho- 
rity, and with express condition, that if ever 
they shall be at any field-couA'enticle, or shall do 
any violence to atiy of our orthodox clergy, this 
our indemnity shall not be useful to such trans- 
gressors any manner of way, as it shall not be 
to any for private crimes, such as murders, as- 
sassinations, thefts, adulteries, the fines and de- 
tuuiciations thereof, and such like as never use 
to be comprehended under general acts of in- 
demnity, and particularly the execrable murder 
of the late archbislioj) of St Andrews, nor to 
such as wex"e appointed to be carried to the plan- 



CMAP. in. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



119 



destroyed a lodging-, and was happily stop- 
jted. 

Wlien this indemnity was published, it 
was no great matter of rejoicing to the 
people concerned in Bothwell. The draught 
of it appears abundantly cunning and cau- 
tious, and Lauderdale fails not in it to 
notice his own victory over duke Hamilton. 
The field-preachers, termed here those who 
poisoned the subjects with principles in- 
consistent with piety, society, and goverr.- 
ment, are for once put in good company, 
and coupled ^^■ith these worthy patriots, of 
whom more hereafter, who were struggling 
for civil liberty, and ease from oppression 
and bm-dens, under the name of a numerous 
faction. After this fling at all who appear 
for liberty, civil or ecclesiastic, the king, 
by virtue of his prerogative, " pardons all 
Avho have been at house or field-conven- 
ticles, T^ho are guilty of irregular adminis- 
tration of the sacraments, and other schis- 
matic disorders, those who have been at 
Pentland and Bothwell," under the excep- 
tions contained in the proclamation. What 
follows points at duke Hamilton, and the 
rest of the complainers against the arbitrary 
and oppressive administrations of Lauder- 
dale and his brother. " All authors of in- 
famous libels or pasquils, all such who have 
misrepresented any of our judicatories, ser- 
vants, or subjects." Wliat a fine pass are 
matters come to in Scotland, when a good 
many of the greatest and best of our no- 
bility, and others, must have an indemnity 
given them, and be ranked among the rebels 
and traitors, as the people at Bothwell 
were esteemed to be, merely for represent- 
ing matter of fact to the king! And if 
Lauderdale, or others his creatiu-es, needed 
an indemnity for any thing complained of. 



tations, by our letter, dated the twenty-ninth 
day of June last, though their lives be, by this 
our royal pro<-lamation also, secured unto them, 
in manner, and upon the conditions above men- 
tioned. But lest the hope of impunity should 
embolden the malicious to future disorders, ^ve 
do hereby command our privy council, and all 
our other judicntuT'es, to pursue and punish 
with all the severity that law can allow, all 
such as shall hereafter threaten or abuse the 
orthodox clergy, murmur against our judica- 
tures, or officers, or shall make, publish, print, 
or disperse libels, or pasquils, these being the 
forerunners of all rebellions, and which, by de- 



thev are cast in under the extent of 

• . 1679 

the king's grace, as folloA^s : — Or ad- 
vised any thing contrary to law, or malversed 
in any public station. The exceptions are 
many and large, and very much darken this 
act of grace. With one dash, heritors and 
ministers, who were in the rebellion, or 
contributed thereto, are scored off. Tenants 
and the meaner sort were pardoned before 
and, it seems, the king goes no further 
than the general; yea, such are excepted 
as came not out to assist the king's host, 
that is, who would not actively coucm- to 
shed the blood of these people who were 
essaying to retrieve their religion and li- 
berty. We shall find a great many harassed 
upon this score. Further, the condition 
upon which the pardon is suspended, ren- 
dered it almost of no value to such who are 
not directly excepted. That they enact 
themselves, before such whom the council 
shall nominate, never to carry arms against 
the king or his authority, and never to be 
at any field-conventicle. Very few con- 
cerned disowned the king's authority, and 
the most part by tar had not the least view 
of resisting the king; yet so general an ex- 
pression, excluding resistance in all cases 
to any authorized by the king, was choking 
to most of them ; neither would they bind 
up themselves from hearing the gospel in 
the open fields. This goodly indemnity is 
closed up Avith a command to the council, 
and other judicatories, to punish, with all 
the severity law will allow, not the keepers 
of conventicles, which may be wondered at, 
but such as murmur against judicatories, 
that is, the actings of Lauderdale and' his 
brother in council, or our officers, or make 
or disperse libels or pasquils, that is, repre- 
sentations of grievances, complaints against 



faming authority, do disappoint all its just and 
necessary methods. And to the end all our 
good subjects may have notice of this our royal 
will and pleasure, we do hereby command our 
lyon king at arms, and his brethren, heralds, 
macers, pursuivants, and messengers at arms, 
to make timeoiis intimation hereof, at the mar- 
ket-cross of Edinburgh, and other places need- 
ful. Given at our court at Windsor-castle, the 
27th day of July, 1679, and of our reigii the 
thirty-first yeai-. 

By his majesty's command, 

Lal'derdalb. 
God s.vve the king. 



120 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK in. 



maladininistratiou, ;ukI tlielike.tboHC 
1G79 • 

■ bein<r the forerunners of all rebellions. 

Thus they endeavour to crush all after at- 
tempts for informing the king, or relieving 
the country from tyranny and oppression ; 
and the blame of BothvveU is tacitly, though 
plainly enough, chai'ged upon duke Ham- 
ilton and his party. It is scarce worth 
while to observe, that the bishops and 
clergy are not required to intimate this in- 
demnity from their pulpits, as they were to 
intimate the fonner proclamation. One 
would think there was as much reason for 
the one as for the other, and certainly this 
seems as agreeable to their function. But, 
it may be, this scrimp and scanty proclama- 
tion of pardon was not so pleasing to them 
as the former, and their friends spare them. 
Any thing fiu'ther remarkable in the 
council's procedure, this year, will fall in 
upon the following sections. 

When we have thus seen the procediu-e 
of the council and government, we need be 
the less surprised at the military execution, 
ravagings of the soldiers, and procedure of 
the army up and down the country after 
Bothwell. The door was cast open to 
them by the proclamation, June 26th, and 
I can scarce say it was shut by the indem- 
nity, and they faU frankly to work, in 
which they frequently exceed the severe 
laws of this period. Particularly, we shall 
find Claverhouse raging in the west and 
south, this and several following years, and 
committing many grievous oppressions. 
He could never forgive the baffle he met 
with at Drumclog, and resolved to be 
avenged for it ; and yet we shall meet with 
some others more bloody and barbarous 
than he. Every body must see, that it is 
now almost impossible to give any tolerable 
view to the reader, of the spulies, depreda- 
tions, and violences, committed by the sol- 
diers, under such officers as at this time 
they had. Multitudes of instances, once 
flagrant, are now at this distance lost ; not 
a few of them were never distinctly known, 
being committed in such circiunstances as 
upon the matter buried them. And it 
Avould swell this section too much, should 
I even insert all the instances I have met 
M'ith, therefore I shall only narrate a few I 
find well vouched and certain. 



A groat many parties of soldiers were 
dispersed through all quarters of the west 
and south ; but I shall almost confine my- 
self here to the severities committed by 
Claverhouse, and the forces under his com- 
mand, in the circuit, shall I call it, which 
he made a very little after the engagement 
at Bothwell. In a few days after this de- 
feat, I find him, and the soldiers under his 
command, harassing the shire of Ayr; 
from that he goes to Galloway, and from 
thence to Nithsdale and Dumfries. As 
they perambulate those places, it was their 
care to inform themselves in every parish 
who had been at Bothwell, in which the 
episcopal incumbents were very useful to 
them. And, considering that the spoil 
went to their own pockets, and was never 
accounted foi', we may safely suppose, they 
were well enough disposed to receive in- 
fonnations, diligent to have them, and not 
over nice in taking of them. Thus multi- 
tudes of persons, A^ho Avere noways con- 
cerned in Botl.weU, now and afterwards 
came to much loss and trouble. So raiser- 
able a thing it is, to lay a poor countiy 
open to the covetous and cruel lusts of a 
profligate array ! Upon those informations, 
such as they were, without any probation, 
and when there was nobody to oppose 
them, they attacked the houses of such 
who, they pretended, had been in the rising. 
Few or none of the persons themselves 
found it convenient to wait for their coming, 
but made the best shifts they could. Their 
families, in their absence, were fallen upon, 
and suffered very much; their relations, 
yea, every family near by, where the sol- 
diers were pleased to allege the rebels 
might be ; and every thing they inclined to 
have, was taken a^^ay, and great sums ex- 
torted for such things as they carried not 
with them. All this was the harder upon 
the west country, especially the shire of 
Ayr and adjacent places, that they had been 
but last year sufficiently pillaged by the 
barbarous Highland host. The reader will 
easily perceive, this will make the depreda- 
tions this year doubly heavy to the country, 
and like the ripping up of a wound, when 
but lately, and indeed scarce skinned over. 
It deserve our notice further, before I come 
to particulars, that, for t^o years after 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



121 



Bothwell, the soldiers never paid any thing 
for their quarters, but lived at discretion 
upon the west and south. This, if calculate, 
would come to a vast sum levied from the 
country, especially considering- the manner 
of their living upon the substance of others : 
they were sure to take the best things that 
were to be had in the place, and, generally 
speaking, they destroyed as much to the 
people upon whom they quartered, as they 
did eat up, if not more. Yea, till the re- 
volution, they never paid any thing for 
transient quarters, that is, when upon their 
road, and when not directly allotted for so 
many days upon such and such houses. 
This fell very sore upon many places in 
the west country. I could instance in the 
town of Kilmarnock, where, for some years 
after Bothwell, there scarce ever ^ passed a 
week, but there were some companies or 
troops lay there, for a night or two, in 
their coming or going, and that as much 
upon free quarter, as they had been in an 
enemy's country. And the little village of 
Dalmellington, which is the key into Gal- 
loway and the south from the west country, 
suiFered this way a great deal more than 
can be computed. 

To come to some particular instances ; 
when Claverhouse came to the shire of 
Ayr, in his road southward, there were very 
few paiishes which lay near his rout that 
escaped him and the parties he sent about. 
I have two instances from the parish of Bar, 
well vouched, which shall serve in room of 
many might be named. William M'Lewey- 
aiid, inMerkland, in that parish, had been at 
Bothwell, and was a prisoner at present in 
the Gray-friars church-yai'd in Edinburgh. 
His wife, who yet lives, having notice of her 
husband's circumstances, went in to Edin- 
burgh, and by a gentleman's interest with 
some of the managers, got him liberate by 
the council. While they were coming home, 
Claverhouse and his troop came to this 
man's house, upon information he had been 
at Bothwell, and perfectly rifled it: they 
took all the clothes away, and two horses 
worth sis pounds sterling. These gentle- 
men never regarded whether the people, 
about whom they had informations, were 
dead, or prisoners : that which they looked 
after Avas their goods and cattle, and any 
III. 



1G79. 



thing that made best for them. After 
William was come home to his emp- 
ty house, and had plenished it, in a little 
time Edmonston of Broick, having ])rociu-ed 
a gift of the moveables of the people in 
that parish who had been at Bothwell, 
came and spoiled his house, though he had 
been liberate by the council, and took away 
any thing which remained, with all the corn 
and crop he had. Not long after, when 
the test came about, the said W illiam re- 
fusing it, his master the laird of Girvan- 
mains, took from him nine cows, and oxen, 
a horse, and twenty five sheep, with all 
the crop and growing of that year, and any 
thing that was portable of household-plen- 
ishing. Yea, so cruel were they, that he 
himself being tied from his house, and his 
wife hearing of their coming, having re- 
moved some small matter of her clothes, 
and other things in the house, to a little 
house in a glen, at some distance from the 
house, the party employed getting notice 
of it, after they had plundered the house, 
came back and took it all away. I purposely 
cast together things done in several years to 
this good man, that the reader may have 
some small view of the chain of the trou- 
bles and spulies serious and religious per- 
sons sustained about this time, though in- 
deed they be inexpressible. 

The other person in the same parish is 
James Macj arrow. I do not find he was at 
Bothwell himself, but he was attacked, and 
foi'ced to pay thirty pounds Scots by way 
of fine, only because he hired a yoimg man 
to be his servant, Avho had been at Bothwell, 
and was taken prisoner, and liberate by the 
council, upon his taking the bond. This 
person is yet alive ; and I have this and 
some other severities which may come in 
afterwards, under his own hand. Several 
other instances might be given from this 
one parish. Many poor femilies were 
spoiled, under pretext of having been at 
Bothwell. One man who was not there, 
had thirty pounds forced from him, and an- 
other a greater sum. But, by those hinfe, 
we may some way guess at the ravages 
committed upon the neighbouring parishes ; 
and indeed particular instances A^oidd be 
endless. 

if we follow Claverhouse into Galloway, 

Q 



122 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III, 



we shall find some things yet worse. 

He carried in Avith liira some Enpf- 
lish dragoons, several ti'oops of horse, and 
some companies of foot. The damag'cs 
those committed are beyond reckoninjr. 
We have heard somewhat of their method 
with such as were alleged to be at Bothwell : 
but I find in Gallo^vay they scarce made 
any distinction betwixt those and others. 
Li that country they seized all the horses 
they could find, and either carried them off, 
or made then" owners pay near their full 
price; and spulied all the houses in their 
way, without putting themselves to the 
trouble to ask questions ; and earned away 
every thing they pleased. In the parish of 
Cai'sfairn Claverhouse took abundance of 
horses, and such as were of any use he 
carried with him. From one man in Craig- 
engillen were taken three, worth eleven 
nobles apiece. In the same parish they took 
fifty pounds from a poor widow woman, be- 
cause, as they alleged, a servant which was 
in her house had been at Bothwell. The 
neighbouring parish Bahnaclellan was in the 
lilie manner sadly harassed, and many 
others near by. In one house, one of the 
ruffian soldiers forced the woman before her 
husband's eyes, and then spoiled the house, 
and carried off what made for them. In 
the parish of Glencairn, the soldiers under 
Claverhouse made terrible havoc ; besides 
the ordinary practices in other places whi- 
thersoever they came, the seizing horses, pil- 
laging houses, and the like : two passages 
of their barbarity I have well vouched, 
cannot well be passed. They apprehended 
a poor harmless youth at his work, and 
pressed him to declare who of his neighboiu's 
were said to be at Bothwell. The young 
man either could not, or would not inform 
them. And Avhen ho had stood out their 
threatenings, they came to put him to the 
torture. Boots and thumbkins were not at 
hand, and the way they fell on was this, 
s. small cord was tied about his head, and 
both ends of it were wreathed about the 
but of one of their pistols, then they twisted 
it about the upper pai-t of his head w ith 
the pistol so hard, that the flesh was cut 
round in to the skull. The pain was inex- 
pressible, and his cries were heard at a 
great distance. They catched a young herd 



boy in the same parish, and would have him 
to discover where his master was, ^hom 
they alleged to have been at Bothwell. The 
boy very probably could teU them nothing 
about his master : however they took him, 
and fastened two small cords to his thumbs, 
and by these himg him up to the balk (roof) 
of the house. The torment he endured 
was very great, yet they got nothing out of 
him. * But the other youth, last spoken 
of, died within a little after he came out 
of their hands. A vast nmnber more of 
their cruelties might easily be added in 
AjTshu-e, Galloway, Dumfries, and Niths- 
dale : but I have only selected one or two 
of the different kinds of their severities 
from a good many instances in my hands, 
and there are instances in other shires 
as well as these. Francis Park in Croft- 
foot, in the parish of Carmunock, in Lan- 
arkshia-e, was, some little time after Both- 
well, questioned for lending his plough to a 
neighboiu- of his, who was by the soldiers 
said to have been at Bothwell, to plough 
one acre of land. Wlien he could not deny 
the matter of tact, that he lent his plough 
to such a man, straightway foiu'teen sol- 
diers were quartered upon him for some 
days : and they took up an inventar of all 
his goods and plenishing. The poor man 
was forced to compound, and give the sol- 
diers fifty pounds to save his house from 
being plundered. George Park in Miiir- 
side, in the same parish, w as forced to pay 
200 merks, for no other cause, but his har- 



* " The cruel enemy got my dear brother into 
their hands. They examined him concerning 
the persecuted people where they haunted, or if 
he knew where any of them was, but he would 
not open his mouth to speak one word to them. 
They spoke him fair — they oflFered him money to 
speak and tell them, but he would not — they 
held the point of a drawn sword to his naked 
breast — they fired a pistol over his head — they 
set him on horseback behind one of themselves, 
to be taken away and hanged — they tied a cloth 
on his face and set liim on his knees to be shot to 
death — they beat him with their swords and with 
their fists — they kicked him several times to the 
ground with their feet — yet after they had used 
all the cruelty they could, he would not open his 
mouth to speak one word to them ; and, although . 
he was a very comely proper child, going in ten 
years of age, yet they called him a vile ugly 
dumb devil, and beat him very sore, and went 
their way leaving him lying on the ground, sore 
bleeding in the open fields."— Diary of Sergeant 
James Gibbet, &c. — Ed. 



CHAP. 111.1 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



123 



bourinof his o^\^l son for a little in his house, 
after he had been at ]3othwell. I shall shut 
up these particular instances with one 
which 1 have well vouched from persons 
yet alive, who were present. Some time 
after Bothwell, Greorge Forbes, a trooper in 
captain Stuart's troop, then lying- at Glas- 
gow, came out one morning with a party 
of soldiers to the village of Langside, in the 
parish of Cathcart, not two miles from that 
city, and by force broke open the doors of 
John Mitchel tenant there his house, who, 
they alleged, had been at Bothwell. John 
was that morning happily out of the way, 
thereupon tliey seized Anna Park his wife, 
a singularly religious and sensible country 
woman, whose memory is yet savoury in 
that place ; and pressed her to tell whei-e 
her husband was. The good Avoman per- 
emptorily refusing, they bound her, and 
put kindled matches betwixt her fingers, to 
extort a discovery from he]\ Her torment 
was great; but her God strengthened her, 
and she endured for some few hours all 
they could do, with admirable patience; 
and both her hands were disabled for some 
time. When they found they could not 
prevail, they spoiled the house, and abused 
every thing in it. The milk they could not 
drink was poured out on the ground : the 
groats she had for the sustenance of her 
family, they gave to their horses; and what 
of them, and the meal in the chests, they 
could not consume, was cast out to the 
dung-hill. 

These hints may serve to let us into 
some knowledge of the barbarity of this 
period. In short, multitudes were so har- 
assed and oppressed, that, seeing no door of 
relief, they choosed to take upon them a 
voluntary banishment, and went off, some 
with, and others without their fomilies to 
foreign countries ; such was the rage of the 
soldiers, and so lamentable Avere the cir- 
cumstances of the poor country at this time. 



Of the treatment of the prisoners taken at 
and after BothioeU. 

Having given some idea of the hardships put 
upon the country in general, it is time to look 



after the prisoners taken at Hamilton 
muir, and some others catched up and 
down after the defeat; and it will be proper 
to put all that is come to my hand, relative 
to them, in tliis section, though it passed in 
different mouths this year. About twelve 
or thirteen hundred were carried in from 
the place of action to Edinburgh, among 
whom was Mr John Kid; and Mi- John 
King was afterwards taken : I leave them 
both to the next section. Afterwards about 
two hundred more were brought in to 
Edinburgh from Stirling; some whei'eof 
were apprehended as coming from the north 
and Fife, to join the army at Bothwell; 
others of them were taken at and about 
Glasgow, several of whom had never been 
in arms, but had spoken kindly to the 
wounded men and prisoners, and endea- 
voured to supply their necessities: and 
others of them were picked up here and 
there by some of the less cruel of the sol- 
diers. We have already noticed, that those 
who surrendered themselves were presently 
stripped, not only of their arms, but of their 
clothes also, and they were carried into 
Edinburgh almost naked. Such who, from 
compassion, brought any refreshment to 
them by the way, Avere for the most part 
abused and beaten, and the vessels wherein 
they brought provision broken, and the 
meat and drink scattered, spilt, and trod 
upon. None but women durst appear in 
showing any compassion towards them : 
the men who ventured upon this were 
catched, and sent prisoners with them. At 
Linlithgow, a good many of them stayed 
one night in their way to Edinburgh, and 
the above named inhumanities were re- 
markably practised there to any who noticed 
them. In their journey they were gener- 
ally tied two and two. When they were 
come to Corstorphine, within two miles of 
Edinburgh, great multitudes came out of 
the town to stare and gaze upon them. 
Both sides of the road were lined with 
people, and some of them were most bitter 
and malicious in their jesting and reproach- 
ing the prisoners as they went by. Too 
many of that profane mob followed the pat- 
tern of the old mockers literally, and said, 
" Where is your God ? take him up now, 
and Mr Welsh, who said you should wiu 



124 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



the day?" That good man had no 
such expresnou,* and was under 
very melanclioly views of the issue fi-om 
the temper of some among- them. Thus, 
for two miles, to crown the hardships they 
had been and were under, they endured the 
reproaches, mockiugs, and sharp tongues of 
the proud, and those who were at ease: 
their souls indeed M^ere among- fierce lions, 
but many of them were perfectly serene 
and easy under all this. 

They came to Edinburgh, June 24th, 
when 1 find the council " give orders to 
the magistrates of Edinburgh, to receive the 
prisoners taken at the late fight, from the 
commanding- officer, and recommend them 
to their custody ; and that for that end 
they put them into the inner Grayfriar's 
church-yard, with convenient guards to 
wait upoii them, who are to have at least 
twenty-four sentries in the night time, and 
eight in the day time ; of which sentries 
the officers shall keep a particular list, that 
if any of the prisoners escape, the sentries 
may assure themselves to cast the dice, and 
answer hody for body for the fugitive, 
without any exception ; and the officers ai-e 
to answer for the sentries, and the town of 
Edinburgh for the officers. And if any of 
the prisoners escape, the council will re- 
quire a particular account, and make them 
answerable for them." And next day, the 
council order a banlif to be beat through 
the town, discharging- any of the inhabitants 
to come near the place Avhere the prisoners 
are, save such who come with meat and 
drink, which is to be delivered at the gate, 
to be distributed equally by persons ap- 
pointed for that effect. When they came 
into Edinburgh, they were^ agreeably to 



* Tlie editor of Kirkton supposes it very pro- 
hable that Welsh would say this, although 
Wodrow thinks proper to deny it. In this re- 
mark, IMr Sharp only shows his gross ignorance 
of Mr Welsh's character and views, for his 
whole conduct in this case, even as given hy 
llussel himself, proves that he did not, and could 
not anticipate any splendid results from an army 
so divided and so distracted among themselves as 
Ihat of the covenanters previous to the hattle. 
Mr Law, in his INlemorials, states what is more 
likely to be true, that Cargill prophesied ample 
success to the covenanters on this occasion.— 
Ed. 

f A public pioclamiition. 



the council's orders, carried to the Gray- 
friar's church-yard, except some few who 
were taken to prison. In that enclosure 
they continued near five months, for the 
most part in the open air; and the two 
hundred who came from Stirling, were 
quartered with them. A good many, as we 
shall hear, were liberate upon their taking 
the bond, and some few now and then were 
tal<en up to the tolbooth. In this open 
prison their case was lamentable enough : 
in the day time the soldiers kept guard in 
an angle of the church-yard ; and all night 
the prisoners Avere made to lie down, with- 
out any accommodation almost, upon the 
cold ground, Avhere they stood all day ; and 
if any of them in the night time had raised 
their head to ease themselves a little, the 
cruel soldiers Avere sure to shoot at them. 
When sleeping in the night, miiny of them 
were robbed of any little money their 
friends sent them; yea, their very shoes 
and clothes were stolen aAvay from such of 
them who had beds and couches brought in 
to them by Avell disposed people. Their 
alloAvance which the duke of Monmouth 
caused give them before he left Edinburgh, 
otherwise, it is probable, they had not been 
favoiu'ed with this small matter, was a 
barrel of ale to be distributed among them 
all, and a loaf of coarse bread to each of 
them, and that for every day. The ale 
they should have had was, after his depar- 
ture, very seldom given them ; and this AA'as 
some Avay made up by the water from the 
common fountain, Avhich was let into them 
by a conduit. Their bread by Aveight Avas 
to be but four ounces, Avhich frequently 
Avas not given them in fall tale. And this, 
small as it is, was the only allowance I can 
find that ever the government gave to pris- 
oners dui'ing all the time of the persecution 
I am describing. Indeed the good jjeople 
of Edinbiu-gh Avere not Avanting in supply- 
ing them both in meat, money and other 
necessaries ; but so ill natm-ed Avere the sol- 
diers at the gate, that sometimes they 
Avould not permit the Avomen (for no men 
Avere suffered to get in to them) to enter, 
but would have obliged them to stand at 
the entry from morning till night, Avithout 
getting access ; so that some of the pri- 
souei-s would have been famished, had it not 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



125 



been for the daily allowance given them, 
which yet was very inconsiderable. Great 
were the ditRculties their friends met with 
before they could get in any food or raiment 
to them, and the guards still exacted some- 
what for either meat or diink as it came in 
to them. And to observe it by the by, this 
was not only their case, but common to 
other prisoners in common prisons : people 
were still obliged to gratify the keepers for 
any access they had to visit or minister to 
their friends, or even their nearest relations. 
And although this be not much noticed, yet 
it was a most heavy tax upon suffering peo- 
ple, and their relations, to be thus imposed 
upon, when mean while, they were not 
overstocked with money. They were per- 
fectly open to the weather, and had not the 
least shelter from the rains, wind, or (^old, 
for some months : indeed towards winter, 
a few Aveeks before they Avere brought out 
of this place, some huts made of deals were 
set up for them, which was mightily boasted 
as a great favoui". 

Several other circumstances might be 
added, relative to their difficulties in the 
church-yard : the soldiers, except some few, 
who were better natured, M^ere extremely 
rude to them, beating and maltreating them 
upon the most frivolous occasions. The 
people who got in to them from the town, 
pitying their circumstances, pressed them 
hard to take the bond, and when they did 
comply, the merciless soldiers mocked and 
reproached them, and violently upbraided 
them with deserting the cause they had 
owned at Bothwell, and seemed to delight 
in maldng them uneasy. And which was 
yet worse, the ruffians were most rude and 
indiscreet to the women, relations of the 
prisoners, yea, sometimes offered to abuse 
them, and when the prisoners resisted and 
hindered them, the soldiers were sure to 
get them hardly used as mutinying and 
resisting them. In the night time, when 
the soldiers came among the prisoners, and 
stole away their clothes, and the prisoners 
happened to awake, and endeavoured to 
hold what was their own, to-morrow they 
were complained of, and hardly dealt with. 
Many other hardships were they under, 
too long here to be narrated. 

After the prisoners were thus lodged in the 



Grayfriars' church-yard, the council 
met several times while the duke of ^"''^• 
Monmouth was in the city, and then mode- 
rate measui'es were piu-sued. After several 
meetings, it was agreed upon, that a bond 
should be offered to all the prisoners in the 
church-yard, upon the signing of Avliich 
they were to be set at liberty. Yet I find 
it noticed, that a good many of them had 
not the offer of it at first, the managers re- 
solving that some hundreds of them should 
be sent to the plantations, as they gave out, 
to satisfy the king in this matter. But I 
liave reason to think the king would have 
been very easy in this : and the reserve 
was rather to satisfy themselves, and the 
cruel disposition of too many of the clergy. 
We have seen that transportation was fii-st 
proposed by the council. What I meet with 
in the council register as to this bond, is, 
July 4th, before the duke went off: " the 
lords of his majesty's privy council, in obe- 
dience to his majesty's letter, of the date 
June 29th, (inserted before in a note, p. 
11 G,) ordain such of the prisoners as were 
taken in the rebellion, (except the minis- 
ters, heritors, and ringleaders, who are to 
be prosecuted by the justices and othei's, 
to be sent to the plantations, to the num- 
ber of three or four hundred, conform to 
the list brought in by the committee, and 
to be approven by the council) to be set 
at liberty upon their enacting themselves, 
not to take anns against his majesty or his 
authority ; and appoint the clerks of council 
to see the said prisoners enact themselves, 
and to intimate to them, that if they, or 
any of them shall hereafter be in anns at 
field-conventicles, the persons so taken shall 
forfeit the benefit of his majesty's indemnity, 
and thereupon to dismiss them ; and appoint 
one of the bailies of Edinbiu-gh to attend." 
Thus this matter stood as it was first or- 
dered. This bond was extended and put in 
form : and I have seen two copies of a bond 
pressed after Bothwell; the one hath a 
plain relation to the indemnity, and 1 sup- 
pose was what was made use of up and 
down the country ; and the other I take 
to be that which was offered to the prison- 
ers. It may not be luifit to insert them 
both here, being but short. The first rujis 
thus: 



126 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



1679 



" I being satisfied with his 

majesty's act of indemuity, dated 
the 27th of July last, and enactinpf my- 
self to the effect underwritten ; there- 
fore I bind, oblige, and enact myself, 
that I shall not hereafter take up arms 
ag-ainst his majesty, or his authority. 
As witness my hand, &c." 

The other bond, which, I suppose, was 
offered to the prisoners at Edinburgh, was 
to the same purpose ; but a little adapted 
to their circumstauces, and follows : 

" I being apprehended for being 

at the late rebellion ; and whereas 
the lords of his majesty's privy council, 
in pui'suance of his majesty's command, 
have ordained me to be set at liberty, 
I enacting myself to the effect under- 
written : therefore I bind, oblige, and 
enact myself in the books of the privy 
council, that hereafter I shall not take 
up arms, without or against his ma- 
jesty, or his authority. As Avitness 
my hand, &c." 

The exact niunbers of such who took 
this bond, and of those who refused it, I 
cannot pretend to give ; it is certain the 
most part by far fell in ivith it : and I find 
it said, that many of these who signed the 
bond did it under the thoughts, that theu* 
rising was not against his majesty's authoi'- 
ity, and consequently that it did not bind 
them up from any such appearance, when 
occasion offered again. I find about four 
hundi-ed continued in the church-yard, as 
refusers, though, as hath been hinted, many 
of them had not the bond in their offer at 
first. The rest, it seems, either subscribed 
the bond, or were silent when notars signed 
it for them, which was reckoned enough 
where they could not write ; and so they 
were dismissed. But then as to the per- 
sons thus liberate by the council's order, 
we must not think their sufferings \>ere 
at an end ; some instances to the contrary 
have been ah-eady given. The most part of 
them were tossed and harassed upon their 
retiu-n to their houses, for no other reason 
tlian their being at Bothwell, as likewise 
their friends and relations upon their ac- 



count; yea, their neighbours, and such as 
dealt with them, were distressed for con- 
verse and communing with them. They 
had no pass given them ; and though the 
council had done with them, the army had 
not : and those made little or no distinc- 
tion betwixt such as had been taken, and 
were liberate, and those Avho had not 
been taken. And it deserves oiu* remark 
further, that both the prisoners now dis- 
missed, and many others Avho had escaped 
from Bothwell, after the fii-st brush was 
over this year, returned to their houses and 
possessions, and there being no sentence 
against them, they resorted openly to kirk 
and market, fairs, and other public places ; 
yea, some of them were put into public 
employments, as procurators, fiscals, and 
sheriff-clerks in courts. This could not 
but make the most prudent and cautious 
satisfied, that either they were not at Both- 
«ell, or, if they were, the government 
was fully reconciled to them. Yet, in the 
year 1682, and afterwards, when the mat- 
ter of reset and converse was pushed as 
criminal, not only with intercommuned 
persons and fugitives, but such as were 
held and repute to have been in the re- 
bellion, though no sentence had ever passed 
upon them, multitudes were brought to 
trouble, and every body was open to it; 
and some, as we may hear, were condemned 
precisely upon reset and converse. Of 
these foiu- hundred ^ho remained in this 
inclosure, it was reckoned about a hun- 
dred got out, some one way, some another, 
without any direct compliance. Divers 
had interest made for them by their friends 
among the counsellers. Some, by climbing 
over the walls of the church-yard with the 
hazard of their lives, and others by chang- 
ing their clothes in the night-time, and, 
especially after huts were put up, got out 
in women's clothes. A great deal of pains 
was taken upon such who remained, by 
those at Edinburgh, who were of opinion 
the bond might be subscribed without sin ; 
but very little ground ^^as gained. They 
began now to be inured to their hardships, 
and, by their mutual conversation, they 
strengthened and heightened one another's 
scruples anent the bond, and their spirits 
became more and more soured by the se- 



CHAP. Ill] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



1^7 



veriiies they Mere under ; and many turned 
peremptory ajjainst all terms with their 
persecutors. The bond was once and ag-ain 
offered to them, now, I believe, without 
exception, Avhen the offerers were pretty 
much assured few of them Avould take it; 
yea, they had frequent alarms, every week, 
that the council would put them all to death. 
But as their troubles grew, so did their 
firmness and resolution. 

While the prisoners continue tlius at 
Edinburgh, the managers send dii-ections 
through the west and south to the persons 
under\A'ritten, to offer the bond to such as 
had been in the rising, and were not heri- 
tors or ministers, and a power to inquire 
after others. The persons thus empowered 
were, the lord Collington for the shire of 
Edinburgh, tlie earl of Winton for Had- 
dington, the earl of Linlithgow for Lin- 
lithgow, the marquis of Montrose for 
Perth, the earl of Roxburgh for Roxburgh, 
the laird of Hayning for Selkirk, the earl 
of Carnwath for Lanark, the earl of Queens- 
berry for Dumfries, the earl of Glencairn 
for Ayr, the earl of Wigton for Dumbarton, 
the earl of Nithsdale for Kirkcudbright, sir 
William Murray of Stenhope for Peebles, 
earl of Mar for Stirling, lord Ross for 
Renfrew, the earl of Hume for Berwick. 
Those persons, in a letter from the council, 
July 1 7th, have the following directions and 
powers given them. " That whereas his 
majesty, by his letter June 29th, hath or- 
dered, &c. as above, the council empowers 
them to call before them such who were 
in the rebellion, and are not heritors, min- 
isters, or ringleaders, whether it be those 
T\'ho were not apprehended, or, being ap- 
prehended, have escaped, and have not 
taken the bond, and to offer it to them, 
and upon their signing it to dismiss them, 
certifying them, that if they shall hereafter 
be in arms, or at field-conventicles, they 
shall forfeit the benefit of the king's in- 
demnity ; that, in case of refusal to sign 
the bond, their persons be secured in prison. 
Further, they are empowered to inform 
themselves what heritors, ringleaders, and 
ministers within their shire, were in the 
rebellion, or did contribute to the sending 
out of persons thereunto, and to seize and 



imprison them, and with all diligence 
report their names to the council." * 

When the indemnity is published, the same 
persons generally are empowered to adminis- 
trate it, in terms of the proclamation Ave have 
seen. Many remarks might be made upon 
these persons named by the council : most of 
them were violent enemies to presbyterians, 
and much engaged in the persecution, and 
many of them had, or had the prospect of 
having, the gift of the moveables and for- 
feitiu"esJ in the places wherein they had in- 
terest ; and that Avould make them not a 
whit the less careful in their business, when 
their pockets were to be concerned. There 
are in this list not a few papists notwith- 
standing all the laws that they be not em- 
ployed in places of trust. The family of 
Winton, generally speaking, hath been 
popish ; Nithsdale, I knoAV, was, and sir 
William MiuTay of Stenhope, in several 
papers I have seen is said to be popish ; 
he had much of their spirit, and was most 
violent in the persecution. 

A letter from the king, dated July 26th, 
to the council, bears ' his detestation of the 
murder of the late archbishop of St An- 
drews ; and being desirous to vindicate that 
innocent blood, and show his detestation of 
the mm*der, he commands them to cause 
process criminally nine of these Avho were 
in the late rebellion, with this additional 
consideration, of having owned these mur- 
derers, who are hereby excepted from any 
indemnity, and that, besides the persons 
who are to be excepted therein, those nine 
being to be executed merely upon that ac- 
count. They, being convicted, are to be 
hanged in chains upon the place where the 
horrid murder was committed.' No reflec- 
tions are necessary upon this ; it probably 
was a proposal sent up from Edinburgh. At 
the same time Lauderdale, in his letter, sig- 
nifies to the council, " that the king- avou- 
ders he hath no accovmt of the trial of the 
prisoners Avho AAcre eminently ringleaders, 
and active in the rebellion ; and that it is his 
express pleasure that the justice court pro- 
ceed immediately to the trial of them." The 
council, in answer to both, acfjuaint the 
king, "that the justiciary hath ah-eady sen- 
tenced Messrs King and Kid; and they 



12S 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



have appointed a committee to consi- 
' ■ der the most proper methods for pro- 
ceeding- against others who have been linj^- 
leaders in the rebeUion.' ' The report of this 
committee comes in August 6th, and is as 
follows. " The king-, by his letter July 26th, 
having ordered nine of these who were in the 
late rebellion to be prosecuted, with this ad- 
ditional aggravation of having owned the 
murder of the late archibishop of St An- 
drews, by your lordships' order, we thought 
lit to examine the prisoners in the Gray- 
friars' church-yard, and to take notice of 
such as should refuse to call the late ris- 
ing in anns rebelUon, or killing the arch- 
bishop miu'der, or those who refused the 
bond not to rise in arms hereafter ; and, 
amongst those prisoners, there is a list of 
thirty persons given in here : and whereas 
there are some other prisoners in the tolbooth 
of Edinburgh and Canongate, of the same 
guilt and persuasion, and who did not come 
to the places in Fife, to vindicate them- 
selves of the murder, it is our opinion, that 
the king's advocate or depute be appointed 
to examine all those forenamed, and pro- 
cess nine of the most giiilty of them before 
the justices. That a committee of council 
for secrecy, not exceeding three or four, 
be appointed to give in lists of such her- 
itors, ringleaders, and preachers, as ai'e not 
yet in custody, to general Dalziel, with 
warrant to them to give orders for securing 
their persons, till they be brought to jus- 
tice. That the advocate or depute be ap- 
pointed to process before the justices such 
heritors, ministers and ringleaders, as are 
in custody, and not yet processed according 
to the king's letter." They move also, that 
the prisoners for conventicles be liberate ; 
and that William Page fined in a thousand 
pounds, and Robert Blair in two thousand 
merks, for conventicles, be remitted to the 
treasury for modification. The council ap- 
proves of all, and ordains acts and orders to 
be extended according thereunto ; and that 
the earl of Murray, bishop of Edinburgh, 
lord CoUington, Mr Maitland, and general 
Dalziel, or any three of them, be a com- 
mittee for that effect. 

I find, by a letter from the king, dated 
August 15th, with the list of prisoners, 
ami their examination, which I have an- 



nexed below, * they are ordered to be pro- 
cessed before the criminal covu't ; which 
was done, as Me shall see on the next 
section, and a good many executed. This 



* Letterjrom ilic Mn^ to the council, August 
Ibt/i, 1679. 
Charles R. 

Right trusty, &c. We greet you well. 
Whereas by our letter of the SGth day of July 
last past, we did (upon the considerations there- 
in mentioned) command you to cause process 
before the criminal court, nine of those who 
were in the late rebellion, with the additional 
aggravation ot'liaviiig owned the murderers of the 
late archbishop of St Andrews, whom we did 
thereby except from any indemnity we should 
grant. And that besides the persons who are to 
be excepted therein, these nine being to be exe- 
cuted merely upon that account, and they being 
convicted, we did order that they be hanged in 
chains upon the place where that horrid murder 
was committed ; amongst whom we did recom- 
mend unto you to include such as appeared not 
upon the places of trial in Fife, appoiiited by our 
proclamation, and that you should not let out 
such of the shire of Fife, as were then in custody, 
till they be purged of their accession thereto ; and 
that you should take all courses consistent with 
law, for the further discovery of such as are 
guilty of that inhuman crime. And where.is 
now, by the examination of some prisoners in 
the south Grayfriar yard of Edinburgh, anent 
their being in the late rebellion, and concerning 
the said horrid murder (taken by some of your 
number the 5th instant. ) We find, that severals 
of them do not own the late rebellion to be a re- 
bellion, nor the murder of the late archbishop of 
St Andrews to be a murder. Some of them do 
not acknowledge the said murder unlawful, and 
others say it is not sinful. These are tlierefore 
to authorize and require you, to cause the per- 
sons mentioned in the inclosed list, to be pur- 
sued criminally, and to cause speedy justice to 
be done on them according to law. For doing 
whereof this shall be your warrant. And so 
we bid you heartily farewell. Given at oui* 
court at (ut supra) and of our reign the thirty- 
first year. 

By his majesty's command, 

X/AUDERnALE. 

FoHoivs the tenor of the list contained in the 

Juresaid letter. 
Charles R. 

James Lileburn in Kinross, being called and 
required to subscribe the bond, appointed by his 
majesty's letter, not only refuseth the same, but 
thinks the murder of the archbishop no murder. 

David Hardy in Leslie, being called and ex» 
amined, refused the said bond, or to say that 
the late rebellion was a rebellion, or that the 
archbishop's murder was a murder. 

Robert Bogie in Newbigging, being called and 
examined, says, that he thinks the late rebellion 
was not a rebellion, and thinks that the arch- 
bishop's murder was not a murder. 

John Richardson in Stenhouse, being called 
and examined, declares, he thinks that the late 
rising in arms was no rebellion, and is not clear 
to sign the bond, and thinks that the last rising 
was not against the king, but for the truth of 
God. 



CHAP. 111.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



isn 



is all the account I meet -with, in the re- 
C^sters, of the treatment oi" the prisoners. 
From other narratives come to my hand, 
the reader may take the followin"' hints. 

In August the council pitched upon fif- 
teen of them in the Grayfriars, whom they 
looked upon as ringleaders to the rest, and 
brought them up to the tolbooth of Edin- 
burgh, and gave them an indictment to die. 
The day after they were brought up (as 
papers before me bear) Mr Edward Jam- 
ison, a very worthy presbytcrian minister, 
came in to them, being sent by the meeting 
of presbyterian ministers at this time in 
Edinl)urgh, as I shall afterwards speak of. I 
find no evidence that Mr Jamison was sent 
by them : however, it is certain, he did 
reason with the prisoners at great length, 
endeavouring to persuade them to subscribe 
the bond; he urged the lawfulness of this 
mean to save their lives, and essayed to 
make them sensible their refusal to do this 
would be a reflection upon religion, and the 
cause they had appeared for, and likewise 
a throwing away their lives, in ^ihich their 
friends would not be able to vindicate them. 
Through this pains taken, thirteen of them 



Robert M'Gill, webster in Gallowshields, 
confesses his being in the rebellion, but that he 
is not clear to say, the killing of the archbishop 
of St Andrews was a murder. 

David Somervvel in East-Calder, confesses he 
was in the rebellion, but will not call it a re- 
bellion, nor take the bond, and says be thinks 
he needs not, for he says, he has found out an- 
other way for it. He will not acknowledge the 
killing of the archbishop to be a murder. 

Alex. Steven in Bothwell parish, confesses he 
was in the rebellion, but will not call it a re- 
bellion, nor the killing of the archbishop to be a 
murder. 

Thomas "Williamson in Over-Cranston, con- 
fesses his being in the rebellion, that he is not 
clear to call it a rebellion, nor the killing of the 
archbishop to be a murder. 

John Scot in Ettrick forest, confesses he was 
in the rebellion, but is not (dear to call it a re- 
bellion, or that the killing of the archbishop is 
a murder. 

William Cameron in Dalmellington, confesses 
he was in the rebellion, but is not clear to call 
it a rebellion, or that the killing of the arch- 
bishop is a murder. 

Robert Miller in Waterford, confesses he was 
in the rebellion, but will not call it a rebellion, 
nor will he call the killing of the archbishop a 
murder. 

James Wood in the ])arish of Newmills, con- 
fesses he was in the rebellion, but will not call 
it a rebellion, nor the archbishop's murder, a 
murder. 



condescended to subscribe the bond. 



1679. 



and were liberate. Those who did 
not subscribe, in their papers allege, that 
some of those who did subscribe came to 
visit the two refusers, one of which was 
John Clyde, afterward executed, and re- 
gretted their sig^ning very much, which 
strengthened their hands. 

After this, the counsellers gave it out that 
they would allow no more of them to sub- 
scribe : meantime the most part of the 
prisoners seemed as little desirous of the 
bond, as the managers were to give it them, 
until some, by the daily solicitations of 
friends and wellwishers who visited them, 
others by their beginning to fag under so 
much bad treatment, as we have heard, 
near two hundi-ed signed a petition to have 
liberty to take it. It is said, a letter writ 
to the prisoners by Mr George Johnston, 
of whom before, had a great deal of in- 
fluence upon divers of them : some papers 
bear, that it came from the meeting of 
ministers ; but this is not probable, and I 
see no proof advanced for it ; the letter is 
before me, but too long here to be insert. 

When this petition is a signing among 



John Govan in Kirkliston parish, confesses 
he was in the rebellion, but refuses to acknow- 
ledge it a rebellion, or that the archbishop's mur- 
der was unlawful. 

Thomas Pringle in Stow parish, refuses to 
acknowledge the rebellion to be such, or th:it the 
archbishop was murdered. 

Andrew Sword in the parish of Borg in the 
stewartry of Kirkcudbright, refuses to acknow- 
ledge the rebellion to be a rebellion, or the arch- 
bishop's murder, a murder. 

James Gray in West-Calder, refuses to ac- 
knowledge the rebellion to be a rebellion, or that 
the archbishop's murder was unlawful. 

John Thomson in the parish of Shots, acknow- 
ledges the rebellion was a rebellion, but denies 
the unlawfulness of the archbishop's murder. 

John Waddel in the parish of Shots, acknow- 
ledges the rebellion to have been a rebellion, but 
denies the archbishop's murder to be sinful. 

Patrick Keir in the parish of Kincardine, 
denies that the rebellion was a rebellion, or that 
the archbishop's murder was unlawful. 

Thomas Brown in Edinburgh, denies that 
the rebellion was a rebellion, and says, that if 
it were to do he would advise whether or no he 
would do the like ; and refuses to call the arch- 
bishop's murder sinful. 

William Anderson in Livingstone parish, 
denies the rebellion to be a rebellion, or that thu 
archbishop's murder was a mui'der. 
Charles R. 

By his majesty's command, 

Laudeki-ai.e. 



?0 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



the prisoners, Robert Garnock, and 
■ aboitt; two and thirty more, join- 
ed in a verbal protestation against siicli who 
were for supplicating' the counciL Robert, 
whom we shall afterward meet with, in 
the name of the rest signified to as many 
as would hear him, that he protested 
against what they were doing, and they 
resolved no longer to join M'ith them in 
worship, since, as they conceived, they had 
denied the cause they had been appearing 
for, and materially had acknowledged their 
rising at Bothwell to be sinful. As soon as 
the accounts of this came to the managers, 
Robert Garnock was immediately carried 
from the Grayfriars to the iron-house, and 
put under great hardships, yea, it was re- 
solved he should die. Several in the pri- 
sons of Edinburgh and Canongate joined 
in this protestation of his : and the con- 
fusion the prisoners were in, in the Gray- 
friars, from the hazard Robert was repre- 
sented to be in, whereto, they reckoned 
they had been some kind of occasion, with 
some other concurring things, MTought so 
upon them, as more than a hundred re- 
filed from the supplication, and sided with 
tlie dissenters. These things coming to be 
kn©^yn to the counsellers, some were sent 
down to take up the numbers of the sup- 
plicants and subscribers. The accounts 
were but confused which now could be got, 
and the council could make nothing of 
them: whereupon they came to a resolu- 
tion to call them all one by one before them, 
and examine them ; and the justice-clerk 
came in to them, before the diet of the 
council in the afternoon, and told them, in 
a very threatening manner, this was the 
last offer they were to have ; and such as, 
when before the council, were wiUiug to 
subscribe, should have the favoiu* of ban- 
ishment, and those Avho refused the bond 
were to be condemned to die. The council 
sat late, and examined about fifty of them : 
it so fell out, that not one of the dissenters 
were called in before them ; and the 
council finding none who were examined 
dissenting from the designed supplication, 
and being weary, resolved to put an end to 
their trouble about them, and to give them 
I all one cast, and passed an act of banish- 
i ment upon them all to Bai-badoes. The 



persons who were processed before the 
justiciary, as we shall afterwards hear, were 
not among this number, but mostly made 
up of those who were in the prisons of 
Edinburgh and Canongate. This is the 
most distinct account I can gather of the 
treatment of those prisoners, from several 
papers Avrit at this time. 

August 14th, the council WTite to Lau- 
derdale, " that the keeping of the prisoners 
in the Grayfriars' church-yard is chargeable, 
and will be more inconvenient when the 
season turns cold and tempestuous ; they 
propose a frigate may be sent down to 
transport them." In a letter, dated Sep- 
tember 5th, the king acquaints them, 
" that William Paterson merchant in Edin- 
burgh had undertaken the transportation of 
the prisoners, and authorizes them to do- 
liver them to him, he giving security, under 
a reasonable penalty, to land and dispose of 
them in the plantations, sea-hazard, mor- 
tality, and force of arms excepted." Upon 
the reading of this, the council appoint a 
committee to consider the state of the pri- 
soners, in order to then* transportation. It 
seems, Mr Paterson delayed giving caution 
for some time; for, November 8th, I 
find him called before the council, and in- 
terrogate, why he had not found sufficient 
caution. He answers, that he found diffi- 
culty to provide it, and, by reason of the 
storms, he could not get provisions sent 
aboard, but once upon Tuesday next he 
undertook to have all done. Accordingly, 
I suppose, he did: and, upon the 15th of 
November, two hundred and fifty-seven of 
the prisoners were taken out of the Gray- 
friars' church-yard, early in the morning, 
before any of their friends knew of it ; and, 
for any thing I can find, they had no pre- 
vious intimation given to themselves : yea, 
such ^Yaii the cruelty now used, that thirty 
of them, Avho were dangerously ill of a flux 
and other distempers contracted by their 
hard usage, ^vere hun'ied away A^ith the 
rest, and no pity showed them. They were 
carried doAvn under a guard to Leith, and 
there put aboard a ship lying in the road; 
they continued twelve days in Leith road 
before they sailed. The barbarity exercised 
upon them in the ship cannot be expressed. 
They were stowed under deck in so lictle 



CHAP. 111.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



131 



room, that the most part of them behoved 
still to stand, to give room to such who 
^Yere sickly, and seemingly a dying : they 
were pinned so close, they almost never 
got themselves moved, and were almost 
stifled for want of air. Two hundred and 
fifty seven of them being pent up in the 
room which could scarce have contained a 
hundred, many of them frequently fainted, 
being almost suiibcated. The seamen's 
rudeness and inhumanity to them was sin- 
gular : when lying in the road, not only did 
they hinder their friends to see them, or 
minister to their necessities, but they nar- 
rowed them very much in their bread they 
ought to have had, and allowed them little 
or no di'iuk, though the master had con- 
tracted to give both ; to that pitch were 
they brought, that divers of them were 
forced to drink their o^vn urine, to quench 
the extremity of their thirst. And it may 
be nauseous to remark, that, Avhen they 
were about to throw their excrements 
over board, the seamen were so malicious 
as to cast them back upon them. It is 
with much truth then, that I find one of 
themselves, James Corson, a pious serious 
person, in some letters of his dated from 
Leith road, comjdaining to his wife and 
friends, ' that all the trouble they met with 
since Bothv^ell, was not to be compared to 
one day in their present circumstances ; 
that their uneasiness was beyond words : 
yet he owns, in very pathetical terms, that 
the consolations of God overbalanced all, 
and expresses his hopes that they are near 
their port, and heaven is open for them.' 
I am told, there ■was fourteen thousand 
merks collected for their use by honest peo- 
ple at Edinburgh, and put in the hands of 
some, to buy clothes and other things for 
them, and somewhat was to be given to 
each of them, that might relieve their 
necessities when in America: but I don't 
hear it was so well employed for their be- 
hoof as it might have been, and not much 
of it was ever suffered to come to them 
by the master and seamen ; the most part 
of them never came to need it. Upon the 
27th of November the ship sailed from 
Leith, and met with very great storms. 
Upon the 10th of December they found 
themselves off Orkney, in as dangerous a 



sea as perhaps in the world. They 
came pretty near the shore, and cast 
anchor : the prisoners, fearing what came to 
pass, intreated to be set ashore, and sent to 
what prison the master pleased ; but that 
could not be granted. Instead of this, the 
captain, who, by the way, I am told, was 
a papist, caused chain and lock all the 
hatches under which the prisoners were. 
About 10 at night, the ship was forced from 
anchor by a most violent tempest, and dri- 
ven upon a rock, and broke in the mid- 
dle. The seamen quicldy got down the 
mast, and laying it betwixt the broken ship 
and the rock, got ashore ; yet so barbar- 
ous were they, tliat, upon the cries of the 
poor men, they would not open the hatches, 
though it is probable, had this been done, 
most part would have got ashore. But so 
far from this w&s the popish master, and 
his men, that I have many concurring in- 
formations, some of them from persons pre- 
sent, that they hindered them from getting 
up upon the rock, and struck at them. 
And yet this villain and his men were never 
called to an account by the council, though 
the matter was notourly known ; and this 
was as directly mmder, as if their throats 
had been cut. However, about forty, some 
say fifty, got hold on boards of the ship, 
and came ashore, and so about 200 were 
lost, or rather murdered. 

I conclude this tragical story, by re- 
marking from the proclamation of indem- 
nity, of the date July 27th, that the king, 
by his letter of the 29th of June, orders 
the lives of the prisoners, who refused the 
bond, to be secm-ed, when he appoints them 
to be transported; and, by the indemnity 
itself, their lives are a second time se- 
cured them : hence I must infer, that, not 
only by the law of God, the villains, who 
were guilty of this barbarity to these 
good men, ought to have been prosecuted* 
but the council, as executors of the king's 
laws and letters, had they shown the same 
regard to the king's will and engagements 
in this case, as in other pretended infrac- 
tions by the presbyterians, ought to have 
pursued these people for murdering so 
many whose lives the king had ordered to 
be preserved. But it is time now to come 
to the managers' own public murders as 



132 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



LBOOK £11. 



1679. 
law. 



in some respects they may be term- 
ed, or executions under colour of 



Of the trial and execution of Messrs 
John King and Kid, August \.ith, 1679, 
and the trial and death of the Jive who 
suffered, November 1 ^th, at Magusmuir. 

I HAVE reserved the sufferers unto death, 
immediately after Bothwell, unto this 
section. The manag^ers were resolved to 
make some public examples of their sever- 
ity ; and thoy pitched upon the two min- 
isters, the only ministers taken ; it may be, 
had there more fdllen into their hands, 
they would have taken the same methods 
with them. I cannot indeed say whether 
Mr Kid was ordained ; if he x^as, it seems 
to have been but a little before Bothwell. 
With them in a little time they join five 
others, under the pretext of their beinjr 
concerned in the primate's death : but it is 
certain, they were absolutely free of that 
attempt. Many others indeed were exe- 
cuted in the following- years for no other 
reason, but that they had been at Bothwell, 
or would not expressly declare that rising to 
be rebellion and unlawful, as shall be after- 
M'ards noticed : but those seven were all 
who died publicly at this time; and by 
the process it will appear that they are 
found guilty, rather because some must 
he made guilty, than for any thing- worthy 
of death in them, especially Messrs King 
and Kid, with whose trial I begin. 

When Ml- John King was taken prison- 
er, I know not. It is plain enough it was 
some time after the engagement, since his 
name is in the proclamation June 26th. I 
find him afterward at Glasgow, where he was 
either taken, or brought thither when taken. 
A very remarkable providence fell out that 
day he was carried east to Edinburgh, 
which I should not notice, were I not well 
informed of it. Upon the Lord's day orders 
were given to a party of soldiers immediate- 
ly to march east, and carry Mr John King 
with them to Edinburgh ; and we will find 
it was their ordinary to march, and es- 
pecially to transpoi't prisoners from place 



to place on the sabbath. My accounts of 
them are, that they were English dragoons : 
one of them, a profane and profligate wretch, 
after they were upon the street, and on 
horseback, ready to ride off with theu" pri- 
soner, called for some ale, and drunk a 
health to the " confusion of the covenants," 
and another to the " destruction of the peo- 
ple of God," and some more very horrid, 
and rode off. He met with one of his com- 
rades at the Stablegreen-port, who knowing 
nothing of the matter, asked him where 
he was going ; he answered, " to convoy 
King to hell," and galloped up to the rest 
a little before him, whistling and singing. 
The judgment of God did not linger as to 
this wretch ; he was not many paces for- 
ward in the hollow-path, a little from the 
port, till his horse stumbled, and somewhat 
or other touching his piece, which was 
primed and cocked, it seems, the carabine 
went off, and shot him dead in the spot. 
The party went on, and carried Mr King 
to Edinburgh, where we shall find him just 
now. 

Ml' Kid was among the prisoners taken 
at Bothwell, and with some few others, 
from Aihom discoveries were expected, im- 
prisoned in the tolbooth of Edinburgh^ 
June 24th. There he Avas frequently ex- 
amined by some counsellers. He had been 
represented as a Jesuit popish priest, and 
what not ; but he gave abundant discover- 
ies of his being a firm protestant, and 
good man. He was narrowly examined 
as to the occasion and beginnings of the 
rising, and the persons concerned in it. 
The managers were very willing to find a 
great plot in this, and to involve as many 
as they could, that they might enrich them- 
selves, and a good many who were gaping 
after new forfeitures. Mr Kid could tell 
no more but what is above narrated, that 
it was begim by Claverhouse his attacking 
a field-meeting; and the people who de- 
feat him, found it necessary to keep to- 
gether in their own defence, and others 
joined them, until matters came to the 
height we have heard. And when in his 
process, we shall hear, he was put to 
tortiu-e, he had no more to say; and in- 
deed there was nothing further in the 
matter. All I meet with concerning him 



CHAP III.] 



in the council-registers, is July 1-tth. " Mr 
John Kid being' this day called before the 
council, and interrog'ate upon several heads 
for the discovery of the rebellious corres- 
pondence, &c. (it runs thus verbatim in 
the register) and by his answers giving' 
pregnant presumptions of his disingenuity, 
the council order him to be questioned by 
torture; and these same interrogatories 
being- proposed in torture, he continued in 
his denial." I need not vindicate this good 
man from the charg^e of disingenuity ; it is 
the common pretext at this time for this 
barbarous way of proceeding. He had in- 
genuously told all he knew in this matter 
before. 8ome papers say he Mas oftener 
than once in the boots. He carried under 
the torture most christianly and meekly, 
like a follower of the blessed Jesus. 

By the justiciary registers, I find upon 
July 1 6th, iVIr John King appearing^ before 
them, and when examined judicially anent 
his accession to the rebellion, his confession 
was put in writ, and he signed it. The 
lords order it to be insert in the books of 
adjournal, to be adduced as probation against 
him. I shall give it just now in the pro- 
cess. He had been examined July 9th, 
before the council, and repeats his confes- 
sion frankly before the justiciary, that he 
might escape the boots, and not die two 
deaths. And July 17th, the lords of justi- 
ciary called before them Mr John Kid 
preacher, and having- judicially examined 
him anent his accession to the rebellion, 
his confession was put in writ, and order- 
ed to be insert in the books of adjournal, 
and he required to sign it, which he refused 
to do, and the lords subscribe it. The same 
day the lords of justiciary receive a letter 
from the king-, to encourage them in their 
procedure against the sufferers, which I 
shall notice further upon the last section. 
Indeed they were abundantly frank, where 
there was any shadow of law to go upon. 
Mr King and Mr Kid upon the 22d of 
July, receive their indictment from the ad- 
vocate ; and upon the Sltli, they petition 
the council, that they may be allowed ad- 
vocates to plead for them upon Monday 
28th, when they were to be tried for their 
life ; and Mr David Thoirs and Mr William 
Monnipeny are allowed them. At the 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 133 

direction of those lawyers, a petition 



is presented to the lords of the jns- ' ' 
ticiary, which containing several matters 
of fact, relative to them, and showino- the 
hard measure tliose two good men met 
with, I shall insert it here from the 
registers. 

Petition of Messrs John King end Kid 
prisonei's, 

Humbly sheweth, 
That the petitioners upon Tuesday last 
the 22^ instant, late at night, received a 
citation, at the instance of his majesty's 
advocate, to appear before the lords of jus- 
ticiary, upon aionday next, to underly the 
law, for several crimes and points of trea- 
son contained in the indictment then de- 
livered to them. True it is that the peti- 
tioners have several grounds of exculpation, 
which might tend to the clearing of their 
innocence; as, Imo. The said Mr John 
King, his being in company with the rebels 
did proceed from no rebellious principle ; 
but being taken prisoner by Claverhouse, 
he ordered him to be bound in cords, and, 
after that Claverhouse and his party had 
retired from Loudonhill, he was found by 
the rebels in that posture, and detained al- 
most still by them a prisoner until the de- 
feat, and not suffered to go from them : so 
that, in effect, he Mas always in the quality 
of a prisoner. 2do. During the time he 
Avas with them, he not only refused to 
preach, but he M'as so far from encouraging 
them to rebellion, that he made it his M'ork 
to persuade them to return to their former 
loyalty and obedience, and de facto, per- 
suaded severals to go from and desert them. 
3tio. Albeit he had sometime a sword about 
him, yet he never offered to make use of 
the same directly or indirectly, or to malie 
any resistance to authority; and he only 
carried a sword to disguise himself, that he 
might not be taken for a preacher; and he 
did make his escape before the engagement. 
And the said Mr John Kid, Imo. Did not 
only retire from them how soon he heard 
of his majesty's proclamation, but, when 
some of them came to his house to persuade 
him to retuiTi, he absolutely refused. 2do. 
He continued at his own house, and always 



134 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



1679. 



exhorted such of the rebels as came to 



him, to lay down their arras, and sup- 
plicate for pardon. 3tio. At the desire of thera 
that were most peaceable, he went, in the 
simplicity of his heart, to Hamilton, to per- 
suade them to obedience, and for no other 
end or account whatsomever. 4to. When 
Robert Hamilton, and some other of the 
ringleaders, became enraged with the peti- 
tioner's peaceable advice, he came on his 
journey homeward, and Mas pursued by a 
party of the rebels, who threatened to kill 
him if he would not return, neither had he 
any arms, but a short s» ord, to disguise 
himself from being kno^Ti as a preacher. 
5to. When taken, and since he got quarters 
and assurance of his life from my lord 
general, who was impowered by his majesty 
to pardon and remit, and both the prisoners, 
M'ith others, had so far prevailed with the 
most part of the rebels, that if his majesty's 
forces had forborne to assault for two hours 
longer, they had all, or most part of them, 
submitted and yielded. And as for being 
present at field conventicles, if the defen- 
ders shall purge themselves of the rebellion, 
as, no doubt, they will, they are secured 
for this by his majesty's late proclamation. 
Likeas they have several relevant objec- 
tions against some of the inquest : and see- 
ing the petitioners are able to prove the 
haill of the premisses by witnesses above 
all exception, in case they had an exculpa- 
tion allowed them for that effect, and ^^hich 
by the law of the kingdom, and custom of 
the court, cannot be refused them ; and 
seeing by the said practice and laws, no 
person can be indicted for capital crimes, 
upon less than fifteen free days, whereas 
the petitioners are indicted upon five at 
most; therefore humbly crave, that the 
lords will allow them an exculpation and 
diligence, for summoning of witnesses for 
pro\ang the premisses, and several other 
defences which they have to eik and allege ; 
and to allow them a competent time to 
execute the same, seeing their witnesses 
live at distance in the west country ; and 
to prorogate and continue the diet until 
that time. 

We have no ground to question the mat- 
ters of fact in this petition, since so peremp- 



torily they undertake to prove thera. The 
style is evidently that of their lawyers, and 
when people are under their manageraent, 
it must be expected their petitions will run 
in their phrases, as a patient must follow a 
physician's prescription. This petition was 
probably presented by their advocates to 
the justiciary. Their dying speeches and 
known sentiments make it evident, they of 
themselves would never have termed this 
rising a rebellion. The lords peremptorily 
refuse them an exculpation, but allow dili- 
gence for citing of witnesses against the 
appointed diet, to prove their objections 
against the assizers contained in the list 
given them. This was certainly hard 
measure ; and, if the reasoning in the 
petition hold, contrary to law, and, I am 
sui'e, to equity, since the probation of 
these facts which they iindertake, would 
have cleared them of the rebellion libelled. 
But the design was formed, that these 
two innocent persons should die. 

Upon the 28th of July, Mr King and 
Mr Kid are brought before the justiciary. 
Their indictment was first read, which I 
shall give but in abstract. It bears, " that 
they had been in the rebellion, and in 
company ttith rebels, who in May last 
burned the king's laws ; that they had 
preached at several field-conventicles, where 
persons were in arms ; that they did 
preach, pray, and exercise to rebels, and 
continued with them tiU their defeat, and 
had been taken prisoners." The king's 
advocate adduced for probation their con- 
fessions before the council and justiciary, 
which now they adhered to, and they are 
as follow. 

Edinburgh, July 9th. 
' Mr John King confesses that he mos 
in the rebellion, with arras. Being in- 
terrogate what gentlemen he saw there, 
declares, he remembers Earlston yomiger 
was there. That the night of the fight, 
he declares, he was in a place near Stra- 
thaven, called Peithill, next night at Muir- 
kirk ; denies he was at Glasgow that Mon- 
day, when the king's forces were assaulted 
by the rebels ; denies that ever he heard 
of a rising before the same was ; denies 
he ever was on any council with the rebels 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



135 



at any time. Says, he thinks the rebels 
were never better than five or six thou- 
sand men; that he knew not any person 
chosen gfeneral, but that Robert Hamilton 
took on him the command. Declares, that 
upon the Sunday after he was rescued 
from Claverhouse, he went westward to- 
wards NewmiUs, and did not join with the 
rebels tiU the Wednesday thereafter ; that 
he knew John Balfour of Kinloch and Ra- 
thillet were among' them, but not that 
they were murderers of the archbishop. 
Confesses, he was in the bishop's closs in 
Glasgow, but not within the house, nor 
drank there. That when taken he had two 
pistols on him. 

'John King.' 

Mr John Kid's confessions before the 
council and justiciary, adduced against 
him, follow. 

Edinburgh, Jiily 9th. 
* Mr John Kid confesses before the 
council, that he preached at field-conven- 
ticles jn Stirling-shire, and Clydesdale, but 
never at any, where there were men in 
arms, except two; one of which was at 
the moss, which lies on the west end of 
Livingstone parish betwixt and the Shots 
in the dead of winter, but cannot remember 
the other. 

*JoHN Kid.' 

Edinburgh, July 17th. 
' Before the justiciary Mi- John Kid con- 
fesseth he preached at several field-conven- 
ticles, and at some of them there were 
armed men, particularly at Monkland, 
who dismissed after sermon. That since, 
he did not preach in any where but in 
Andrew Thomson's barn in Monkland. 
That twelve days before the defeat, he went 
to the rebels, and that night went out of 
their camp to a country man's house more 
than a mile distant, which house is be- 
side the ModereU, but hath forgot its name, 
and that of the man. He stayed there three 
days, and returned to the camp the second 
time, and that same night went from the 
rebels to Robert Marshall's house in Monk- 
land; and four days after that, being the 
Thiu-sday before the defeat, he again went 



1679. 



to the ligger, and went to quarter in a 
gentleman's house, at some more than 
a mile's distance, and came back towards the 
camp on Saturday before the rout ; and 
was with them upon Sunday, when he 
and some of his friends came along to hear 
what was the effect of the parley at the 
bridge. Declares, he had a shabble with 
him, which he brought the second time 
he came to the rebels, and got from Robert 
Thomson, and was about him when taken. 
Declares, he was taken two or three miles 
from the field where the rebels were de- 
feat, his horse having bogged with him. 
This he declares to be truth, but refuses 
to subscribe. Edinbm-gh, Jidy 28th, judici- 
ally confesseth the truth of the above de- 
claration, and abides at the same, and 
craves pardon for not subscribing it, and 
throws himself on the king's mercy, and 
the Lord's favour. 

' John Kid.' 

There were no reasonings, nor was there 
room for any. With those confessions the 
advocate declared lie closed the probation. 
The lords remit the matter to an assize, 
and the assize imanimously bring them in 
as guilty by their o^\^l confession of preach- 
ing at field-conventicles, and being in ai-ms 
with the rebels. The lords appoint them 
" to be taken to the market-cross of Edin- 
burgh, upon Thursday August 14th, be- 
twixt two and four of the clock in the 
afternoon, and to be hanged on a gibbet; 
and when dead, that their heads and 
right arms be cut off, and disposed of as 
the council think fit ; and that all their 
land be forfeited, as being guilty of the 
treasonable crimes foresaid ; which was 
pronounced for doom." 

After what hath been narrated, the se- 
verity of this sentence does fully enough ap- 
pear. They had no evidence against them, 
but their own confession, which was 
partly gained by promises, and extorted by 
the boots. The rebellion they offer to purge 
themselves from, and have an exculpation 
refused to them ; and though the law did 
make preaching at field-conventicles death, 
yet there is no probation of this against 
Mr King, and the king's proclamation se- 
cured them both ; and the indemnity pro- 



136 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK m. 



claimed a little before their death 

pardons that in others. 
The day after their sentence, I find Mr 
Stevenson, brother to doctor Stevenson, 
rides up post to London, to procure a re- 
mission ; and I question not, but the duke 
of Monmouth, who, it seems, had pardoned 
Ml- Kid, if access had been got to him, 
would have used his interest ; but the 
death of these two being- resolved on at 
Ediuburoh, nothing- Avas got done. Accord- 
ingly upon the 14tli of August, after the 
king's indemnity had been proclaimed with 
a great deal of pomp in the forenoon, the 
sentence was executed upon these two suc- 
cessful preachers of the gospel, in all its 
points. They died in full peace, serenity, 
and joy, and their speeches being already 
moi'e than once published in Naphtali, I 
do not insert them here. Their heads 
were cut off, and their right hands, and 
affixed upon the Netherbow-port of Edin- 
burgh, beside that of Mi' James Guthrie, 
as new monuments of the injustice of this 
period. 

Were it worth A\'hile, I could at a great 
length refute the silly and groundless as- 
persions cast upon these two good men by 
that scandalous paper before mentioned, 
" The Spirit of Popery speaking out of the 
Moii'ths of fanatical Protestants," and ex- 
pose the weakness and virulence of that 
foul-mouthed author ; but I am uuHilling 
to rake into so vile a heap of slander and 
lies. The A^Titer pretends to be a Scots- 
man, and asserts, " the Latin tongue is as 
common among the men in Scotland, as 
their mother tongue ; that the Highlanders 
who came down upon the west country, 
were a very civil, generous, and governa- 
ble people; that the worthy and excellent 
persons who suffered after Pentland, were 
drunk like beasts with ale and brandy, the 
day on which they were executed;" which 
are knoA^ai, foolish, and abominable un- 
truths, '^l^th a vast deal of such senseless 
stuff. His proofs that the presbyterian 
ministers were all Jesuits, and maintained 
Jesuitical principles, are such as make me 
jealous the author of a design to recom- 
mend Jesuitism. He casts together some 
Jesuitical tenets Avhich were never main- 
tained by presbyterians, and mixes in with 



them a great many others maintained by 
no Jesuit that I know of; such as, " con- 
demning the English liturgy ; that prelacy 
is an antichristiau constitution ; that it is 
popery to observe festivals ; that there is 
a mutual reciprocal obligation betwixt kings 
and subjects ; that magistrates in church- 
matters have only a cumulative, not a pri- 
vative power." If this be Jesuitism and 
popery, let the reader judge. In short, 
this passively obedient author endeavours 
to bespatter our reformation and reformers, 
and hath nothing 1 can see but a hotch- 
potch of lies and slander gathered up from 
papers and books many a time answered, 
such as Lysimachus, Nicanor, Balcanquell's 
large Declaration, Presbytery displayed, 
and Ravillac Redivivus ; to which he adds 
a new legend of most groimdless stories 
upon presbyterian ministers and others, 
furnished by the prelatic clergy in the west 
about this time, which are known to be 
abominable lies, some of them destroying 
themselves, and all of them frequently ex- 
posed and answered; so that they are 
neither worth repeating or refuting. 

I come nov/ forward to give some ac- 
count of the other five men who were ex- 
ecuted in November at Magus-muir- 
Thither the council sent them to die, to 
declare their detestation of the mm'der of 
the primate in that place : biit it is merely 
for Bothwell they A^ere condemned ; and 
there Avas no probation of their having 
any share in that attempt ; and they to 
their last declared their freedom from it. 
It was a new instance of the rigliteousness 
of om* managers, to brand them Avith this, 
and put them to death there, as if they 
had been guilty. I shall likcAvise give their 
trial from the justiciary registers. We have 
already seen the king's letter, of the date 
July 26th ordering this trial. 

Upon the 26th of August, William Rich- 
ardson in Stonehouse, Tliomas Brown 
shoemaker in Edinburgh, John Balfom* in 
Gilstoun, Alexander Balfour there, Thomas 
Williamson in Over Wariston, Robert 
M'Gill in Gallashiels, Robert IMiller in 
Waterfoot, James Paton in Inverkeithing, 
Andrew Thomson in Sauchy, are indicted 
I'or treason in joining Avith the rebels in 
June last. The lords continue them till 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



137 



the last day of September, and allow them 
for advocates Mr Walter Pring^le, Mr 
David Thou-s, Mr William Monypeny, 
Ml- Patrick Hume, Mi- William M'Calm, 
I lind no more about these nine in the 
justiciary registers, till November 10th, 
Avhen some of them, with a good many 
others, are before the justices. But Nov- 
ember 8th, " the council remit to the 
advocate to pursue before the criminal 
court the prisoners in the tolbooth of Edin- 
burgh, to the nimiber of thii-ty, who have 
refused the bond, or such of them as he 
thiuks fit." Accordingly, November 10th, 
I Und James Findlay, Thomas Brown, 
James Wood in Newmills, Andi-ew Sword 
weaver in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 
John Waddel in new Monliland, John 
Clyde in Kilbride, with a great many 
others, panuelled before the justiciary. 
Their indictment being the ordinary form 
nsed against most part who siiiFer, for 
some years, I insert from the registers. 

" Wliereas, by act 1. pari. 1. James I. 
Act 14. pari. 6. James II. Act 6. pari. 
7. James II. and many other laws, per- 
duellion and rising in arms are declared 
treasonable crimes, and are to be punished 
with the pain of death. Nevertheless it is 
of verity, that albeit the king's majesty, 
their gTacious sovereign and natural prince, 
had, by indemnities and remissions, cov- 
ered and concealed from the eyes of stran- 
gers, all those extravagancies, Avhicli they 
and those of their profession had for a long 
series of years owned openly, to the great 
contempt as ^vell as ruin of his majesty's 
authority, protecting their persons, as it 
were, against his own laws, and prefer- 
ring their safety to his own security : yet 
the said persons, shaking off all fear of 
God, and respect, not only to his majesty's 
laws, but to human society, did enter into 
a deep combination to overtm-n the funda- 
mental laws both of church and state, pro- 
fessing openly, that they would have a 
parliament of their own constitution, where- 
in there should be neither bishop nor noble- 
man. And in order Avhereunto, upon the 
29th of May last, and because that day was 
set apart for thanksgiving to the eternal 
God, in commemoration of his majesty's 
lu. 



happy restoration, did burn at the 
cross of the royal bm-gh of lluther- 
glen, those acts whereby his majesty's 
royal prerogatives were established; and 
did, by a public proclamation, declare his 
majesty an usurper, and that he had robbed 
Jesus Christ of his crown, because (for- 
sooth) he would not acknowledge them 
and their ministers to be Christ's infallible 
vicegerents and to be superiors to him ia 
his own kingdom. And after they had 
thus entered into open hostility against 
his majesty and their native country, they, 
at Loudon-hiU, on the first of June there- 
after, engaged with his majesty's forces 
under the command of the hiu-d of Claver- 
house, captain of one of his majesty's troops 
of horse, and gave for a word to the sol- 
diers, ' No quarter.' And albeit they got 
quarter, they refused it universally to all 
who fought for his majesty, hewing to 
pieces in the most barbarous way that ever 
was known, any v^honi they could kiU, 
And having joined with the bloody and 
barbarous murderers of the archbishop of 
8t Andrews, who, as their emissaries, 
kiUed his grace, and whom they rose ia 
ai-ms to protect as such, they immediately 
did convocate the whole country, to the 
number of ten or twelve thousand, and 
assaulted his majesty's burgh of G'lasgow, 
and having entered the same, did rob and 
spoil his majesty's good subjects, did open 
the prison doors, and throw out of the 
graves the dead bodies of such chilchen as 
belonged to the orthodox clergy, com- 
manding, by a most insolent act of their 
supremacy and mock judicatory, all the 
orthodox clergy, to remove themselves* 
their wives, and famiUes, from the west- 
ern shires, under pain of death. And 
having threatened Avith fire and sword 
all such of his majesty's good subjects as 
would not join them, and to plunder 
and ravage their houses, and rob their 
horses and ai-ms, did, to the mmiber of ten 
or twelve thousand, elect and nominate 
Robert Hamilton their general, because he 
had burned his majesty's laws and acts of 
parliament, and John Balfour, alias Burgle, 
David Hackston of Rathillet, and 
their chief officers, because they had 
declared in an open assembly, (lifting up 



138 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III- 



their hands) that these were the 
■ hands which murdered the arch- 
bishop of St Andrews. And did by these 
officers condemn and execute these who 
had served his majesty, particularly 

a butcher in Glass^ow. And 
upon the day of June last, under 

the conduct and command of these officers, 
they marched to the town of Hamilton, 
where, npon the day of the said 

month, they refused to lay down their 
arms, being specially invited and requii'ed 
thereunto by his grace the duke of Buc- 
cleugh and Monmouth, captain general of 
his majesty's forces, who promised to take 
them into his special protection, and to in- 
tercede for his majesty's mercy and clemen- 
cy to them all, which they refused, send- 
ing most insolent and rebellious proposi- 
tions to his grace, wherein they required, 
in express terms, the overtiu^ning of 
the present government of the church, and 
several other things destructive to his 
majesty's government ; and because these 
were refused, they did, after they were 
di'awn up, and divided in regiments and 
companies, march towards his majesty's 
army, and fire at them: but God having, 
by a remarkable judgment, defeat them by 
their own consciences, his majesty did, 
by another unparalleled instance of his un- 
wearied goodness, issue out an act of in- 
demnity, dated the day of 
secui'ing to them their lives, providing 
they should oblige themselves, not to take 
up arms against his majesty or his author- 
ity : in pursuance of which, they should 
have made application for getting benefit 
of the said indemnity, by offering to sub- 
scribe a bond never to rise in arms against 
his majesty or his authority, betwixt and 
the 1 8th day of September last. Notwith- 
standing they failed therein, yet the said 
bond was several times tendered to them ; 
and particularly, upon the day 
of October last, the same was offered to 
them by the lord justice-general, and Mr 
Richard' Maitland of Gogar, with certifi- 
cation as effeired: and though they con- 
temptuously refused the same, yet it was 
again offered unto them upon the last day 
of October last, and the 3d day of Novem- 
ber instant respective, which they again 



refused, (hough in duty they were tied to 
tlie obligation therein, albeit the same had 
not been offered benignly to them, as the 
ransom of their lives which they had justly 
forfeited. And by declining whej-eof, and 
refusing to call the late rebellion a rebel- 
lion, they discovered fully their traitorous 
inclinations to continiie in their former re- 
bellious principles. Of the which crimes, 
the forenamed persons, and ilk one of them, 
are actors, and art and part. Which being 
found by an assize, they ought to be pu- 
nished with forfeiture of life, land and 
goods, to the terror and example of all 
others to commit the like hereafter." 

This odious and false representation of 
matters of fact, with a very little change, 
as circimistances required, I find used in 
the processes of this natiu-e in the jus- 
ticiary books, therefore, and because I take 
these and the like black aspersions in the 
public papers of this time, which were 
never proven, nor designed to be proven, 
but patched up from the lies the army and 
clergy brought in to Edinburgh, are the 
fund out of which the viperous and party 
Avriters in defence of this time, \a ith lyins" 
additions of their own, make up their 
pamphlets and books, whereby presbyteri- 
ans are blackened, and the cause of tyranny 
and arbitrary government supported.* It 
may not be out of the road to make a few 
reflections upon this indictment. And they 
fall into two sorts as to matter of fact, and 
as to its relation to the persons in the pan- 
nel. The candid representations of things 
in the former part of this history will take 
off the most part of the allegations and 
aspersions heaped together here by the ad- 
vocate. How far it may be ordinary in 
these cases to aggravate and calumniate, 
that at least the criminal may be hit by 
somewhat or other, I do not know: but 
this I am persuaded of, that scarce one of 
the facts here charged, in the manner here 
represented, is true. There was no com- 



* The same misrepresentations have been re- 
peated, with new additions, by almost all who 
have written upon the subject, till by reitera- 
tion they have gained the full belief of their in- 
ventors, and are now very generally supposed 
to be well authenticated facts. — Ed. 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



139 



biiiation entered into for overturning fun- 
damental laws, by the people at Bothwell, 
or before it, as appears by tlieir own decla- 
ration, and their professed and known pur- 
pose to have the g-overnment, and the exer- 
cise of it, brought from an arbitrary des- 
potic management, to an administration 
according to law. That they craved a par- 
liament in its freedom, is certain; that it 
might sit without prelates was their wish, 
though not sought ; but that it should be 
without the nobility, was never in their 
thought. Wliat Mas done at Rutherglen, 
was the act but of a few, and never ap- 
pro ven by others, and here misrepresented : 
and it was never their opinion, nor that of 
any presbyterian, that their ministers were 
Chi-ist's infallible vicegerents, and supe- 
rior to the king in his kingdom. These 
are .inuendos e(]ually wicked and ground- 
less. I never heard of any word given 
at Drumclog ; neither can I believe it was 
that named. The alarm was sudden, and 
the circumstances such as did not need 
any word ; and that quarters were given, 
is certain enough. * It is inconsistent with 
the circumstances of time and matter of 
fact, to add, that the murderers of the 
archbishop were emissaries of these peo- 
ple, and that they rose in arms to protect 
them. It was unworthy of the advocate to 
jjroduce such self-contradictions before a 
grave court, and to add so notour an un- 
truth, that with ten or twelve thousand 
they attacked the city of Glasgow : A\'hat 
allov^•ances must we make to writers at 
distance in our affairs, when our own 
people blunder so grossly, and I fear de- 
signedly ! Every body knows, that gather- 
ing at its greatest was not half that niun- 
ber; and when Glasgow Avas attacked, 
they were far from so many hundreds, I 
had almost said scores. The spoiling of 
Glasgow, opening prisons to let out any 
malefactors, and far more their opening of 
graves, are malicious untruths, and of the 
same kidney with the senseless procla- 
mation, and pretended judicatory upon 



* Robert Hamilton, in one of his letters, 
(1684) acknowledges having given such a word ; 
but probably Mr Wodrow had not seen that 
letter at the timeof publishing his history. — Ed. 



1679. 



the butcher, which foUows.f Of 
the same sort is their electing 
Robert Hamilton, and Balfour, and Ra- 
thillet, because they had owned themselves 
murderers of the primate. These are all 
idle and false stories, as appears abundant- 
ly from what is above. 

I am ashamed to insist so long upon 
such stuff, which I doubt much if the 
advocate believed when he put it into the 
indictment. The reasons of any thing that 
is true in what follows, have been already 
given. As to the relation those things 
bear to the persons in the pannel, at least 
the five executed, we may notice, that the 
archbishop's death is not so much as 
charged upon them ; though, from their 
being executed at Magus-muir, it is too 
generally thought, and printed likewise, 
that these persons had a share in this 
fact. Further, it is more than probable 
none of them were concerned in most 
of the facts charged, some of them only 
being at Bothwell, and one without arms 
too. Such a charge as this, had it been 
matter of fact, would have answered Mr 
Hamilton, and some few others of them ; 
but it bears no relation to the poor com- 
mon soldiers, such as these five ■were, 
whose lives the king had spared by his 
express letter; and it seems to have been 
a bloody freak, to have some people ex- 
ecuted in the place where the bishop had 
been killed. And indeed no other ac- 
count of it offers to me ; for those five 
were perfectly in the same circumstances 
with the rest of the prisoners who re- 
fused the bond. 

However the indictment is read, and 
sustained : all the rest, except the five 
who were determined to be put to death, 
are continued to another diet, and at length 
dropt, at least I find no more about them 
in the registers. Thomas Brown, John 
Waddel, Andrew Sword, John Clyde, con- 
fess judicially they were taken in arms : 
and the bond is offered to them judicially, 
which they peremptorily refused, as a 
condemning of Bothwell rising, and their 



•f- James Russel acknowledges such a judica- 
tory, and their proceedings were certainly righ- 
teous. Kirkton, p. 457. — Ed. 



140 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



own practice ; neither would tliey 
acknowledge Bothwell risinnf to be 
a rebellion. The assize find them, by their 
owni confession, gaiilty of being- in arras 
at Bothwell ; and the lords' sentence is, 
" That they be carried to the muir of Magus, 
in the sheriffdom of Fife, the place Avhere 
his grace the archbishop of St Andi-e\i's 
was murdered, upon the 16th of November 
instant, and there to be hanged till they be 
dead, and their bodies to be hung in chains 
until they rot, and aU their lauds, goods, 
and gear to fall to his majesty's use." 

James Wood's case was a little different 
from the other four : the probation against 
him is some oaths of soldiers, that he was 
taken at Bothwell : and the assize are so 
just as to bring him in, as being taken at 
Bothwell without arms ; and yet the judges 
throw him in with the rest, and pass the 
same doom upon him. This is another 
instance of the illegal and severe proce- 
dure of this period, to hang a man, and put 
him up in chains, as a murderer of the 
primate, who was only present at the ga- 
thering at BothA^ell, without arms. 

Accordingly they were all executed in 
Magus-muir, upon the day abovenamed. 
Their speeches in Naphtali bear the date 
of November 23th, whether this be a mis- 
take in the printing, or the council, for 
some reasons, prorogate the day, I know 
not, it is not material. Their joint testi- 
mony, general and particular, with their 
speeches, and dying words upon the ladder, 
are all printed in Naphtali, and I do not 
swell this work with them. I have before 
me some of their letters to their friends, 
fuU of a strain of piety and seriousness, 
wherein, as in their printed papers, they 
give the reasons why they could not save 
their lives by taking a bond which they 
judged unlawful, and declare their beino- 
entirely free of the death of the primate, 
with their hopes of the pardon of their 
sins, and everlasting happiness, in a very 
humble and christian manner. 

Thus I have given as fair and full an ac^ 
coimt of such who were put to death this 
year, for their accession to Bothwell, as I 
could. It was the care of the managers, 
and a pleasure to the clergy, that the only 
two preachers taken should be cut off, and 



they suffer properly for preaching of the 
gospel in the fields, and are l)oth very full 
in owning the king's authority; and the 
five country people are made a sacrifice, as 
it were, to the place of the primate's 
death. 



Of the circuit courts held, and the gentle- 
men who were forfeited, after Bothwell, 
this year. 

The council, as we have heard, were not 
idle in the prosecution of such who had 
been at Bothwell ; but, to make the seve- 
rities upon this score the more extensive, 
cu'cuit courts are established through all 
the corners of the country, where it could 
be supposed any of these people were. 
We shall meet with circuit courts almost 
in every succeeding year of this reign. 
Matters were now taking a new tm-n at 
court : Lauderdale had in appearance pre- 
vailed over those who opposed him. This 
juncture was too favourable to be neglect- 
ed by our prelates and managers ; and to 
gratify them, and supply the hungry de- 
pendents of Lauderdale's party out of the 
estates and goods of such whom they in- 
clined to find guilty, these circuits were 
appointed. 

The proclamation, of the date August 
14th, wiU give us the alleged reasons for 
these circuits, and therefore I insert it be- 
low.* As it was published the same day 



* Proclamation for Circuit-courts, August 14//i, 
1679. 
Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the 
faith : to our lovits 

heralds, macers, pursuivants, or mes- 
sengers at arms, our sheritfs in that part, con- 
junctly and severally, specially constitute, greet- 
ing : forasmuch as, by our proclamation of the 
27th day of July last, we have indemnified and 
pardoned, with the exceptions therein specified, 
all such as were engaged in the rebellion Kifiti, 
or the late rebellion in this present year 1679, 
providing they appear before such as our privy 
council shall nominate, betwixt and the days 
expressed in the said proclamation, and enact 
themselves in manner therein mentioned. And 
as it is our royal intention, that the said par- 
don and indemnity shall be effectual to all 
such persons as shall accept the benefit thereof; 
so it is our express will and pleasure, tliat such 



CHA1\ in.] 



OF THE CIIUllCII OF SCOTLAND. 



141 



with the indemnity, so it is designed to en- 
force it ,• and such as take not the benefit 
of it, are to be prosecuted before these 
courts : a proof that our managers ^ere 



jiersoiis as shall not enact themselves betwixt 
anil the days expressed in the said proclama- 
tion, be proceeded against with the utmost se- 
verity the law does allow. As also it being 
most just and necessary for vindicating the hon- 
our and reputation of this our ancient kingdom, 
that thepersons giiiltyofthathorrid assassination 
and murder of the late archbishop of St An- 
drews ( which we will never forget) may be 
brought to condign punishment, and all legal 
courses taken for that effect : therefore we, with 
advice of our privy council, do ordain justice- 
airs, or circuit-courts to be holden by the com- 
missioners of our justiciary, at tlie places, and 
upon the days aftermentioned, viz. at the town 
of Stirling, the lirst day of October next, for 
the shires of Stirling, Dumbarton, Clackman- 
nan, Perth besouth the river of Earn, and the 
stewartry of Monteith ; at the town of Glas- 
sow, the eighth day of October, for the shires 
of Lanark and Renfrew; at the town of Ayr, 
the fifteenth day of October, for the shire of 
Ayr and jurisdictions within the same ; at the 
town of Dumfries, the twenty second day of 
October, for the shires of Dumfiies and Wig- 
ton, the stewartries of Kirkcudbright and An- 
nandale ; at t'le town of Cowpar in Fife, upon 
the first day of the said month of October, for 
the shires of Fife and Kinross ; at the town of 
Edinburgh, the eighth day of Octr)ber, for the 
shires of Edinburgh, Haddington, and Lin- 
lithgow ; at Jedburgh the fifteeenth day of 
October, for the shires of Roxburgh, Selkirk, 
Peebles, Berwick, and bailiary of Lauderdale. 
With power to the said commissioners to divide 
themselves in two circuit-courts, to the effect 
foresaid. In which courts the said commission- 
ers are to proceed against the persons who were 
engaged in the said rebellion, and have not ac- 
cejited, or shall not accept the benefit of our 
indemnity, by enacting themselves in the terms 
of our gracious proclamation, within the diets 
therein mentioned, and particularly against the 
murderers of the late archbishop of St Andrews; 
and that the said commissioners issue citations 
against all the said rebels, and specially against 
the said murderers, containing a particular de- 
scription of these murderers ; which citations 
are to be executed at the market-cross of the 
head burghs of the shires where these persons 
dwell, or formerly dwelt, or where they ordi- 
narily haunt and resort, to the effect that none 
may supply, harbour, commune or correspond 
with the said murderers, nor with any other 
of the rebels, before these other rebels, not ac- 
cessory to that horrid murder, enact themselves, 
conform to our act of indemnity ; and in case 
any person shall contravene, they shall be pro- 
ceeded against with all rigour, as accessory to the 
said rebellion and assassination. And further, 
we, with, advice foresaid, do ordain the heritors 
and masters of the ground where any of the 
rebels have their dwelling and residence, to pre- 
sent to the said justice-airs, the persons of 
these rebels, who shall not, before the diets 
contained in our act of indemnity, enact them- 
selves not to bear arms against us, or our author- 
ity ; with power to them to apprehend thtir 



willing to cramp and narroAV the 

• 1679 

king's indemnity as much as possi- 
ble. All who were concerned in the rising 
at Pentland thirteen years ago, all who had 



persons : an<l in case of their refusal, to enact 
themselves (as aforesaid) to send them to the 
next prison, there to be detained and kept m 
sure firmance, until they enact themselves, as 
aforesaid, within the said diets, and thereupon 
be dismissed ; or otherwise to detain and ju'e- 
sent them to the justice-airs. And in case the 
said masters do not apprehend them, by reason 
of their being fugitive, or latent, that after 
the said diets they remove them, their wives, 
bairns, and servants off their ground, under the 
certifications contained in the acts of parliament. 
And the clerks of the justice-court, are hereby 
ordained to go before the said diets, in due 
time, and take up a porteous roll of the names 
and designations of the said rebels, already 
known and contained in our proclamation, or 
that shall be delated upon oath to have been in 
the rebellion, or to have harboured the rebels 
before enacting themselves (as said is) or the 
murderers of the late archbishop of St An- 
drews, or have been at field-conventicles since 
our last proclamation of the twenty-ninth of 
June last, or that since the said day have 
threatened, abused, or robbed the orthodox 
clergy, and that they cause cite the persons 
guilty of the said crimes, to the said justice- 
airs, and that they take information upon oath, 
of the lands, sums, and moveables belonging to 
the rebels, and that they cause arrest the rents 
of their lands, sums, and moveables, and put the 
moveables upon inventar and bond in the cus- 
tody of their masters ; and in case their masters 
refuse, in the custody of some other sufficient 
person, to be made forthcoming in case they 
shall be condemned guilty of the said rebellion, 
and that they return an exact account thereof, 
and of their diligence, to our council at their 
next diet, being the eighteenth day of September 
next. And we, with advice foresaid, do here- 
by require the said commissioners of our jus- 
ticiary, to proceed against such of the said mur- 
derers as were in the rebellion (though in ab- 
sence) and that it be a part of their sentence, 
to be hanged in effigie, in all the shires of Scot- 
land, that they may be more easily discovered and 
apprehended, that none be deceived in harbour- 
ing of them, or communing with them, under 
false names and designations. And for the 
encouragement of any person or persons to ap- 
prehend the said murderers, we do hereby give 
assurance to any who shall apprehend them, 
and present them to our council, dead or alive, 
or shall so discover them, as that thereby they 
be apprehended, they shall be indemnified, and 
rewarded in the sum of ten thousand merks 
Scots money ; and in case of the concourse of 
more persons, by discovering, or joining in the 
apprehending of them, the said sum shall be di- 
vided amongst them ; and in case any of the 
said murderers be apprehended and taken, or 
discovered, so that thereby they may be taken 
by any persons excepted in our acts of indemnity, 
they shall also be indemnified (notwithstanding 
they fall ^vithin the exception) and a pardon 
shall be passed for them under our great seal ; 
and in case they apprehend John Balfour of 
Kinloch, and David Hackston of Kathillet, 



142 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



been at, or accessory to the rising- 
at Bothwell, and the murder of the 
primate, who are coupled with the Both- 
well people, to render them more odious, 
are to be prosecuted with the utmost 
rigour of law. 

In order to the harassing the west and 
south of Scotland, the commissioners of 
the justiciary are required to divide them- 
selves into two justice-airs, or circuit courts, 
the one to sit at Stirling the 1st of Octo- 
ber, at Glasgow the 8th, at Ayr the loth, 
and at Dumfries the 22d, the other is to 
meet at Cowpar of Fife the 1st of Octo- 
ber, at Edinbiu-gh the 8th, at Jedburgh the 
15th, citations are appointed to be time- 
ously issued out against such as were to 
compear, containing a particular descrip- 
tion of the murderers of the archbishop. 
1 question very much if they were able to 
give such a description of them as they 
promise. All suppliers, intcrcommuners. 



dead or alive, they shall not onlj' have their par- 
don, but also the reward aforesaid. Our will 
is heret'ore, and we charge you straitly, and com- 
mand that incontinent, these our letters seen, ye 
pass to the market-cross of Edinburgh, as also 
to the market-crosses of the head burghs of the 
sheriffdoms, Haddington, Linlithgow, Perth, 
Roxburgh, Selkirk, Berwick, Peebles, Dum- 
fries, Stirling, Dumbarton, Clackmannan, Lan- 
ark, Renfrew, Ayr, Wigton, Fife, stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, and other places needful, and 
there by open proclamation, make publication of 
the said circuit-courts to all our lieges and sub- 
jects, wheretlirough none pretend ignorance of 
the same, that the said circuit-courts are to be 
holden upon the days, and at the burghs and 
places respective abovewritten ; and that ye com- 
mand and charge all dukes, marquisses, arch- 
bishops, earls, lords spiritual and temporal, 
barons, and others of our freeholders, who hold 
lands of us in chief, and owe suit and presence 
within the several bonds, shires, and precincts 
belonging to the said respective circuit-courts, 
to compear before the said commissioners, at 
the said courts, npon, and at the days and 
places foresaid, with continuation of days, to 
do whatever in law is incumbent, and ought 
to be done by them in that behalf ; as also that 
ye command all and sundry the said dukes, 
marquisses, earls, lords spiritual and temporal, 
IS also lords of regalities, Stewarts, barons, 
sheriffs, justices of peace, bailies, chambei'lains, 
magistrates and ministers of our laws, and all 
subordinate judges within our sheritl'doms above- 
written, and whole lieges of the same, that thej', 
and every one of them, give all due respect to 
our commissioners and justices foresaid, and 
such special assistance as to tlieir offices and duty 
appertains, and as is incumbent to them by the 
laws and acts of parliament of this our an- 
cient kingdom, as they, and every one of them 



or corresponders with the said rebels and 
miu-derers, are to be prosecuted with all 
rigour as accessory to the rebellion and 
murder : here is large room to the lords 
of the circuit to attack multitudes. They 
are expressly required to proceed in ab- 
sence, which, if it be meant to forfeiture, 
Avas what once in a day would have been 
reckoned illegal, and to burn in effigy the 
principal persons concerned. The heritors 
and masters of the land where the rebels 
live, are empowered to apprehend, and re- 
quired to present them to the circuit, and 
imprison them till then. The neglect of 
this Avas matter of sore persecution to many 
loyal and religious gentlemen, and others, 
who had no mind to be actively concerned 
in the severities of this time; and if they 
be latent or fugitive, they are required to 
remove their mves, bairns, and servants 
off' their ground. This was hard with a 
witness, for the alleged rebellion of the 



will answer upon the contrary, and under all 
highest pain and charge that after may follow. 
And particularly that ye command our sheriffs, 
that they cause sufficient and legal men com- 
pear before our said commissioners at the fore- 
said diets, and such diets and places as the said 
commissioners shall appoint for assizes and wit- 
nesses, as they shall be cited to that effect. As 
also, that the said sheriffs and freeholders with- 
in the said shires and bounds, meet our said jus- 
tices, at their entry into the same, and convoy 
them into the same, and accompany them during 
their remaining there, ay and while they be re- 
ceived by our next sheriff and his deputes, into 
the next shire. And we ordain these presents 
to be printed. Given under our signet at Edin- 
burgh, the fourteenth day of August, 1679, and 
of our reign the thirty-first year. 

Alex. Gibson, CI. seer. Concilii, 

Follow the names of these appointed to take bond 
from the rebels, in the several shires following, vias. 



tor the shire of 

Edinburg-h, 

Haddington, 

I,inlitligow, 

Perth, 

Roxburgh, 

Selkirk, 

Lanark, 

Dumfries, 

Ayr, 

Dumbarton, 

Fife and Kinross, 

Wigton, 

Stewartry of Kirk- 

cudbright, 
Peebles, 
Stirling, 
Renfrew, 
Berwick, 



The lord Collington, 
The earl of Winton, 
The earl of Linlithgow, 
The marquis of Montrose, 
The earl of Roxburgh, 
The laird of Hayning, 
The earl of Carhwatli, 
The earl of Queensberry, 
The earl of Glencairn, 
The ear' of Wigton, 
The lora Chancellor, 
The laird of Burghton, 
'. The earl of Nithsdale, 

.Sir William Murray of Stenhope, 
'I'he earl of Mar, 
The lord Russ, 
The earl of Hume. 



God save the king. 



CHAP. VUl. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



148 



head to make the whole iamily to suffer, 
and proved matter of much sore and heavy 
trouble to many poor families. The clerks of 
the court are ordered timeously to go before, 
and take up Porteous-rolls of the designa- 
tions of the rebels named in the proclama- 
tion Jime 26th, or that shall be delated 
upon oath to have been in the rcbeUion, 
or harboured rebels, or murdered the arch- 
bishop, or have been at field-conventicles, 
or have threatened, robbed, or abused the 
orthodox clergy : these are good large sub- 
jects for their rolls. All those are to be 
cited, and infoi-mations taken upon oath of 
the value of their lands, moveables, and 
what bonds they had; accounts whereof 
are to be laid before the council, September 
1 8th. A reward of ten thousand merks is 
offered to such who bring- in any of the 
murderers of the primate, dead or alive, to 
the council : and even the persons express- 
ly excepted in the indemnity shall be in- 
demnified, and have the reward, if they 
can apprehend John Balfour of Kinloch, 
and David Hackston of Rathillet, dead or 
alive. And, for the gi'eater solemnity, all 
dukes, marquisses, archbishops, earls, lords, 
spiritual and temporal, barons and freehold- 
ers, are charged to attend, and give respect 
and conciu-rence, as law requires, and as- 
sizes and Avitnesses are to be got ready. 

I should now give a view of their proce- 
dure in those circuits, but their minutes 
and registers are not preserved, as far as I 
can find. A great deal of the severities of 
this period, that were committed at these 
circuits, are quite bm'ied, though indeed 
a great branch of the persecution lay here. 
Whether they kept registers, I cannot say ; 
but the circuit up and down the country, 
appointed by the council, reckoned them- 
selves accountable only to the council, and 
there are none of their proceedings noticed 
in the justiciary-books ; and if they made 
any report to the council, I don't meet 
Ai'ith it in any of their registers. And I 
have from other papers very little of their 
procediu-e this year : probably the western 
circuit had most business, since the peo- 
ple concerned in Bothwell were, generally 
speaking, in that precinct. According to 
the proclamation, the clerks came before 
the meeting of the cucuits ; and they, or 



persons deputed by them, went 
through every parish in the precinct • 

of the court, and took up informations. 
The sheriffs and justices of the peace 
had been at great pains to prepare matters 
for these clerks and their assistants, by 
finding out persons proper to be witnesses 
against such who had been in the rising in 
each parish, and procuring informations 
where they dwelt, what lands, heritages, 
goods and gear they had ; yea, so great 
was the pains taken in every parish, that, 
in most places, it was observed, they missed 
few or none, dead or living, who had been 
there ; and a great many were insert, who 
had not been there. The curates, in such 
places where they were, laid out themselves 
to the utmost to get informations, and were 
very diligent this way, and helpful to these 
concerned. 

Some difficulties, arising about the clerks' 
procediu'e, being represented to the coun- 
cil, I find what follows in the registers 
agreed to, August 26th. " The lords of his 
majesty's privy council having it represent- 
ed, that, by the late proclamation for cir- 
cuits, the clerks of the court are appointed 
to take information, upon oath, of the 
lands, sums of money, and moveables be- 
longing to those who were in the late re- 
bellion, and to cause arrest the rents of 
their lands belonging to them, and put 
their moveables under invcntar and bond, 
in the hands of their masters, and, in case 
their masters refuse, in the hand of some 
other sufficient person, to be made forth- 
coming in case they shall be condemned as 
guilty of the said rebellion ; and, desiring 
to know what course shall be taken, in case 
the persons, to whom the custody and se- 
questration of those goods shall be offered, 
refuse to take them, the lords, in the case 
foresaid, do order the sheriff-principal to 
secure these goods to be forthcoming, and 
give receipts to the clerk." From these in- 
formations the Porteous-rolls were framed. 
These rolls were filled with persons of all 
sorts who had any substance, without much 
regard to their being at Bothwell or not. 
Any envious neighbour, base prodigal, or 
banlcrupt, in or out of the army, or the 
ill natured clergy, would inform against 
the most innocent, as, upon some pretence 



144. 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



or otlier, accessory to the rising ; and ^ 
that was ground enough to put him 
into the PorteoiLS-roUs : and when once in, 
the covetous donators ohliged them to com- 
pound with them for their moveables, or 
seized them, even before any indictment or 
sentence. It was but few at that time who 
were willing to have their names brought 
in open court, if they could by any means 
help it ; for people, who foimd themselves 
falsely informed against, feared, that, if 
they com]>eared and pleaded their inno- 
cence, they Avould likewise be falsely sworn 
against, by idle fellows who stuck at no- 
thing, and unjustly condemned, or some- 
what or other vexatious propounded to 
them. It ^vould indeed be endless here to 
give instances of malversations and op- 
pressions, contrary even to their own law, 
at this time ; nor is it possible to give ac- 
count of the vast smns of money paid, by 
bribes to clerks, to prevent being put into 
the rolls, or to get themselves dashed out 
of them, at and before this and the follow- 
ing circuits. 

I find, by some papers relative to this 
year, that, generally speaking, the witnesses 
were sixteen in every landward parish, and 
twenty-four in every pai'ish where there 
was a bui'gh royal or of barony. These 
witnesses, prepared in every parish, were 
cited in before the clerks and their assist- 
ants, to Glasgow, Ayr, Wigton and Dum- 
fries, under the pain of forty pounds Scots. 
Wlien the ^vitnesses came in, they were put 
to declare who in their parish had been at 
Bothwell, or had been harbom'ers of any 
who were there ; and all they named were 
])ut into the rolls. I see it remarked at 
Wigton, that those declai-ations were not 
made upon oath, but were only simple 
informations that they had heard so and 
so ; and I jealouse it was so in other 
places. And though the proclamation does 
indeed require information to be given upon 
oath, yet the natm-e of the thing makes 
it plain, the witnesses could for most part 
only declare upon hearsay ; and upon this 
did the persecutions run, and gi-eat numbers 
of innocents were informed against. 

Next, the clerks with their assistants 
formed their indictments, with the lists of 
two or three of the witnesses they de- 



pended most upon, and issued summons to 
forty-five assizers. The reader will easily 
observe, without my help, what a vast 
trouble and expense these cii'cuits were to 
the coimtry, ah-eady hai-assed with the 
army. The pannels were indicted of being 
accessory to the murder of the archbishop 
of St Andre^vs, or being at Drumclog, re- 
sisting the king's forces, or being at the 
rebellion at BothweU-bridge and Hamiltoii- 
muir, June 22d, or being at field-conventicles, 
&c. The witnesses and assizers v^ere smn- 
moned to compear before the lords of the 
cu'cuit, at the days and places respective, 
named in the proclamation, under the pen- 
alty of one hundred pounds Scots, and the 
persons indicted, were by theii* indictment 
charged to compear under the pain of re- 
bellion, and clear themselves of those 
things laid to their charge, or hear them- 
selves condemned, as law accords. At 
the days named in the proclamation, the 
justiciars, or lords of the circuit, came to 
the places respectively mentioned : a 
mighty parade Avas made in meeting them 
upon the borders of every shire, accom- 
panying them to the place of meeting, and 
convoying them after the com't was over 
to the next shire, and the country put to a 
great deal of charges this way. 

I have very fev/ accounts of particular 
persons processed before these circuits tliis 
year, but A\hat will come in afterwai'ds, 
when what was now begun against gentle- 
men and others Avas carried a greater 
length. Therefore I shall only in the gen- 
eral take notice, that at GlasgoAV, Ayr, 
and Dumfi-ies, the lords had great numl)ers 
before them. Such who compeared not, 
being heritors, and confessed their being 
at BothAveU, had the bond offered to 
them. 

I find the council, September ICth, Avrite 
up to Lauderdale for liberty to the justices 
to offer the bond ; Avhich, by a letter from 
the king November 1st, is granted, Avhen 
legal excuses are advanced for their not 
appearing foraierly Avhen the bond was in 
their offer. In the same letter his majesty 
declares himself satisfied Avith the pni- 
dence and moderation the earl of Ar- 
gyle has shoAvn in his procedure Avith the 
Macleans; and that he hath kept himself 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHUKCH OF SCOTL.\ND. 



145 



within the bounds of his conunission. Such 
who signed this bond were liberate, but I 
do not hear that many took it. Those 
who compeared and denied their indict- 
ment, were imprisoned until they found 
security to appear at Edinburgh, and an- 
swer to the things laid to their charge: 
this some did, and were put to a great deal 
of trouble thereby ; however at present 
they were dismissed and allowed to go home. 
And all who did not compear, were de- 
clared fugitives, and denounced rebels. 
Very few heritors ventured to appear. 
The absent heritors were denounced, and 
a good many of them within a little for- 
feited. Noblemen, gentlemen, soldiers, 
and such ^vho were most active in the ar- 
bitrary measures of this time, very soon 
procured gifts of the lands of the heritors, 
and most of them possessed them until the 
revolution. They or others got a right 
to the moveables of tenants, and those 
Avho had no heritage ; and the soldiers 
came and spoiled their houses, goods and 
geai", and made a teiTible havoc, seizing 
the goods and possessions of their friends 
and relations, as being alleged intromitters 
with ^^'hat belonged to the rebels. Thus 
during the following years, there M'as a 
general devastation of all that belonged to 
any who complied not in every point with 
the course of the times. 

I promised in the next room, to give 
some account of the forfeitures passed upon 
persons who had been, or were alleged to 
have been at this rising at Bothwcll. It 
was but a few who had this sentence passed 
against them that year ; and therefore I shall 
much delay my accounts of this to the fol- 
lo«ing years. The reason why their trials 
in order to forfeiture were delayed, was not 
want of inclination in the managers to be 
fingering the estates ; for we see heritors 
are directly excepted out of the indemnity, 
and were in the eye of a good many very 
early ; but either they for some time want- 
ed full information of persons concerned in 
the rising, or the court was not fully de- 
termined as to the utmost of those severe 
courses, till towards the end of this year, 
or the managers could not agree among 
themselves about the dividing the spoil. 
I shall, ere I end this work, insert the 
m. 



1G79. 



list of forfeited persons in this period, 
from the act of parliament after the 
revolution rescinding them. This year 
July 18th the council grant commission to . 
prosecute a forfeiture against Alexander 
Ilarailton of Kinkel ; and the same day 
being informed, that John Cunningham of 
Bedland, formerly forfeited for accession 
to Pentland, was at Bothwell, they order 
him and his cautioners to be cited. We 
shall meet m ith him afterwards. I know 
not a more proper place to bring in an 
abstract of Kinkel's sufferings than here, 
when he is seized after Bothwell, from an 
attested narrative sent me by his Avorthy 
relations. He underwent a continued 
tract of trouble, almost since the restora- 
tion. When presbyterian ministers were 
forced from their charges, his house was a 
shelter to many of them in their \vanderings. 
There they preached, and none were ex- 
cluded who came to hear them. This being 
almost imder the primate's eye, it drew 
down his indignation upon Kinkel, who 
was cited to appear at his courts, but he 
declined. The Inshop went the length to 
cause cite him out of pulpit, in order to 
excommunication. The people of St An- 
drews, when they heard a person of Kin- 
kel's piety and character, cited out of pul- 
pit, merely for his conscientious noncon- 
formity, to evidence their detestation of 
such methods, generally went out of the 
church. When the bishop saw his excom- 
munication would be despised, he procured 
him to be intercommuned, Avhich forced 
him to (juit his house, and undergo innimi- 
erable hardships ; and in a little time a gar- 
rison was sent to th e house of Kinkel, who 
turned out his lady and family, when the 
lady Kinkel was very near to be delivered, 
and scarce could she find a house that would 
receive her, her husband being denounced. 
The garrison continued in the house several 
weeks and destroyed most of the plenish- 
ing, damaged the house, and eat up the 
provision in it. Captain Carstairs, of whom 
before, had particular orders about Kinkel, 
and, after frequent searches for him, one 
day attacked him, and killed his horse 
under him. All this time his family was 
in great difficulties. After Bothwell, he 
was taken, and the soldiers were very 

T 



146 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



-^ rude to him, bound him with cords, 
' ' and carried him to Edinburgh, where 
he continued in prison about eighteen 
months. His family was then oblig^ed to 
come and hve at Edinburgh, ivhere they 
were at vast charges, and a great deal of 
money was given to keep oif what was daily 
almost threatened upon him in order to 
draw money from them. It stood yet more 
money to obtain some favour to him at 
London. Upon this he was liberate, upon 
condition that he sliould appear at the cir- 
cuit, or where called, under the pain of 
twenty thousand merks. He was frequent- 
ly called upon to extort money from him, 
and gave vast sums to the advocate and 
others. Thus, though he escaped forfei- 
ture, his estate was ruined. At the liberty 
he came back to his house of Kinkel, after 
thirteen years' banishment from it, and set 
up a meeting-house. This soon brought 
him to new trouble ; and by the then i)ri- 
mate Ross his procurement, a party of sol- 
diers came and carried him and Mr Orrock, 
who preached with him, to Edinburgh, 
contrary to the king's declaration of liberty. 
In a little time they were both liberate, 
(ireat ^^ere the hardships he underA\'ent in 
this long coiu'se of suflerings, too long here 
to be insert. 

There are no other processes before the 
justiciary this year, of a public nature, save 
one relative to the primate's murderers, 
which is deserted. November 10th, "John 
Brown of Drumsarhan, James Clow in Bal- 
lock, John Stevenson in Waterside, indicted 
for harbouring, assisting, and supplying 
John Balfour of Kinloch, David Hackston 
of Rathillet, George Balfour in Gilstoun, 
James Russel in Kettle, Robert Dingwal a 
tenant in Caddam, Andrew Guillan webster 
in Balmerinoch, Andi-ew and Alexander 
Hendersons, sons to John Henderson in 
Kilbrachraont, and George Fleming, son to 
George Fleming in Balbuthie, miu-derers of 
James archbishop of St Andrews, upon one 
of the days of May last, in manner contained 
in the indictment, given at the justice-ayr 
lately holden at Stirling in October last. 
The lords desert the diet for several causes." 
Eight other persons are pannelled upon the 
same score, and no probation being offered, 
they are dismissed. 



I shall end this section with a short hint 
at another method taken at this time, which 
was yet more afflictive to the country, be- 
cause it was more general. The king and 
council gave gifts of the moveables of such 
who had been at Both well, to whom they 
pleased ; and in the uplifting of them, these 
donators extended their spulies to all such 
as they pretended were any way concerned 
in, connived at, or had harboured and reset 
those who had been at Bothwell. Under 
the notion of uplifting moveables, fearful 
and general ravages were made upon pa- 
rishes, and prodigious sums were exacted 
generally by military force. The earl of 
Glencairn had the gift of the moveables of 
the parish of East Monkland in the shire of 
Lanark ; and a party of soldiers came there 
with powers, as they said, from him, and 
robbed and spoiled all who were not ex- 
actly conformists to prelacy, Avhether they 
were concerned in Bothwell or not. Great 
were the insolencies exercised in that pa- 
rish : to that height came they, that duke 
Hamilton interposed, and procured an order 
from council to withdraw those forces. 
Edmonston of Broich had the parish of 
Straitoun, in the shire of Ayr, given him, 
to uplift the moveables of such there who 
were concerned in Bothwell. Through the 
most parts of the parish, the soldiers in 
their march southward, as Me heard, had 
perfectly spoiled the houses of such as they 
alleged were guilty ; yet this new commis- 
sion is granted for their moveables. Thus 
double, and sometimes oftener, punishment 
is inflicted for one fault. From that one 
parish Broich at this time exacted upwards 
of two hundred pounds sterling, besides 
much more loss which cannot now be com- 
puted. Few parishes in the west and south 
escaped this violent oppression ; and one 
person would have had several parishes in 
gift ; as the two just now named, and many 
others had. And if the persons who had 
these gifts could not narrowly enough look 
to them by themselves, they ordinarily as- 
signed them to others, who carefully looked 
after them. In short, the donators and their 
assignees were, generally speaking, the most 
severe persons in the country, and squeezed 
poor persons and families most luiaccoun- 
tably. 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, 



147 



Thus I have given as distinct an account 
as my materials allow me, of the conse- 
quents of this rising at Bothwell. Sorer 
troubles are yet before us. But I come to 
end this chapter and year with. 



Of the state of preshyterians who had not 
been concerned in Bothwell, their third 
indulgence, the debates betwixt duke 
Hamilton and Lauderdale, and some 
other things this year. 

Hitherto, in givin"^ the history of this re- 
markable year, I have all along kept mine 
eye entirely almost upon the business of 
Bothwell, and passed by some very con- 
siderable matters, which, had it not been to 
prevent the breaking of that story, should 
have come in above at their proper dates. 
These I come now to take in all together 
in this section. I begin with the state of 
presbyterian ministers and others this year, 
not directly concerned in the rising. Upon 
the first chapter we heai'd of their meeting 
with no small trouble about conventicles in 
the beginning of the year ; and how much 
it was their endeavour to get the heights 
of some concerned in Bothwell rising mo- 
derated. When the duke of Monmouth 
came down, the presbyterian ministers in 
and about Edinburgh had notice from Lon- 
don, that he would not refuse an applica- 
tion from them. This I gather from a 
letter just now before me, from a person of 
quality at London, to a minister at Edin- 
burgh, which I here insert. 

London, June 18th, 1679. 
« Sir, 

" I have given W. a short hint of 
my expectations here. I told the duke of 
Monmouth I would write to you, that some 
of your persuasion should come and Avait 
upon him, and give him an account of your 
peaceable inclinations. I have encourage- 
ment from him to invite you and some of 
your number from all places to address 
yourselves to him, he will take it kindly ; 
and by it I am confident you will much 
engage him to be your friend : therefore, 
let me iutreat you, and all your brethren, j 



not to omit so ffreat an occasion of 

1679 
advantage to your affairs. My bro- 
ther will be with him, and he will introduce 
you to him: or, if yoii miss my brother, 
the lord Melvil will be always with him, 
who is very friendly to yoiu* interest 
There shall be nothing left undone here 
that may advance the interest of all hon- 
est peaceable men." Farewell. 

When the duke retiu'ned from the west 
country to Edinburgh, he staid but a few 
days : and I can give no particular account 
of the application made to him by preshy- 
terians. Only in the general, I know he 
was once and again waited upon by some 
presbyterian gentlemen and ministers, and 
earnestly dealt with to use his interest 
with his majesty, that a full and unciogged 
liberty might be granted to preshyterians. 
A copy of a petition to him I have before 
me, which, for any thing I know, is a 
draught of that which was delivered to him 
at Edinburgh, by several ministers and 
others there; and I insert it below.* It 



* Supplication of tlie presbi/leriqns to the duke of 
Monmonth', 1679. 
As we cannot but, in all humble and grateful 
sense of his majesty's grace and clemency, ac- 
knowledge God's goodness to the poor distressed 
]ieople of tills kingdom and church, that he has 
put in his majesty's royal heart to invest and 
authorize a prince of your grace's excellent wis- 
dom, heroic valour, gracious moderation, and 
sincere affection to the true protestant religion, 
with power to express and exercise bis gracious 
royal condescensions of favour to his suffering 
and much afflicted subjects here: so next to 
his gracious majesty, whose goodness and cle- 
mency we most thankfully acknowledge in all 
the favours conferred by your grace, we judge 
ourselves much obliged, with all dutiful thank- 
fulness, to testify our great and deep sense of 
the gracious favours your grace has already 
manifested in your excellent moderation, by the 
tender of his majesty's gracious concessions for 
peace, as also your tender compassion to that 
pitiful broken company, in hindei-ing the effusion 
of much Christian blood, which some others 
were much thirsting after, which shows much 
goodness joined with your greatness, a conjunc- 
tion of excellencies which is very rare in persons 
of power, and yet where it is, makes them most 
like to God, who, when he hath power to de- 
stroy, yet is merciful and ready to pity and for- 
give; and does truly entitle your grace to that 
noble and heroic eulogy, which Darius when 
conquered gave to Alexander, that he was 
most valiant in the fight, and moderate and 
merciful in the victory : whereas it is contrary 
with men of baser spirits. These signal evi- 
dences of your grace's moderation and clemency, 



U8 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK Ill- 



appears to me to be a rude and unfin- 
* ished draught, and I do not question 
but some expressions in it,whicli seem to bear 
hard upon the rising- at Both well, would be re- 
formed before it was gone into by the bulk 
of presbyterians in and about Edinburgh, 
who reckoned, according to their Bible and 
principles, bating the heats and heights run 
into, they could justify that appearance. 
But having seen no other draught, I have 
set this down as containing probably the 
materials gone into. I find the duke re- 
ceived those who waited upon him very 
graciously, and was most civil and discreet 
in his answer, signifying nothing should be 
A^anting which was proper on his part. 



do encourage us to lay down some touches of 
our great grievaru'es and pressures at your grace's 
and excellency's feet, that, through God's good 
hand, you may mediate with his majesty for some 
ease and redress of them, most of the saddest and 
heaviest of which are wholly unknown to his 
majesty. All nonconformist ministers, a very 
few excepted, were turned out from their 
charges, dwellings, and livelihoods, for no other 
cause than that they could not comply with pre- 
lacy, against which they were engaged under so 
many strong and high bonds, they found them- 
selves under a constraint of preaching the gospel 
through an obligation from their office, without 
tlie least disrepect to his majesty's authority or 
laws ; for the which exercise of their ministry, 
some were taken and kept long iu hard and ex- 
pensive prisons ; people for hearing them, be- 
sides imprisonment, pressed with great and 
exorbitant fines; other preachers, without any 
citation known to them, were denounced, inter- 
communed, fined, confined, and banished ; many, 
after long and grievous imprisonments, sent 
away as slaves to foreign parts, and to serve 
iu the wars under the French king. And 
when all these sore pressures were laid up- 
on Protestants for hearing and preaching of 
the gospel, without any disturbance of the peace, 
there was a general connivance at Popish meet- 
ings very open and avowed, without the least 
check and control. There being several times 
some killed, only for hearing sermon, when 
they ha<i no arms for their own defence, and 
many taken ; by the long continuance of these 
oppressions, which make wise men mad, some 
were provoked to take arms to the fields, only 
for their defence when they went to hear ; but 
as we did not expect there should have been 
such a rising in arms, so we never counted our- 
selves bound to approve the same as to any ex- 
tremities run to by some heady and turbulent 
men, though many simple well-meaning people, 
under great oppression, were drawn in to join 
with them; for we are far from Jesuitic prin- 
ciples, or German, Anabaptistic, fanatic fury, 
and abhor all assassinations and murders made 
bj' private persons, acted with such principles of 
heady violence. Such disorderly practices are 
not to be imputed to presbyterians or their prin- 
ciples, all which are not only consistent with all 



And when he went to court, he carried a 
petition with him to the king. All I know 
about it is from some passages in an ori- 
ginal letter before me, writ by a good hand, 
to Mr John Fife, preacher of the gospel, 
now prisoner in the toolboth of Edinburgh, 
dated July 9th, 1679. " This day my lord 
duke M ent away. I saw a petition he had 
got, and was to carry to London with him : 
he was pleased to express himself thus a 
little before his departure. I think, if any 
place get favour, it should be Scotland ; for 
a gaUanter gentry and more loving people 
I never saw. I am hopeful, if you manage 
well what you have, it will be made larger. 
I can assure you, continues the writer, he 



due subjection and respect to authority and 
peace, but also do religiously tie and oblige 
thereto, according as it is held forth in the scrip- 
tures of truth, our Confession of Faith, and 
catechisms, unto which we constantly adhere. 
And it inaj' be upon good grounds averred, that 
neither the persons running to any of these ex- 
tremities, nor the people who joined with them, 
^vould ever have been so disorderly, if tliere had 
been any allowance of liberty for preaching and 
exercising of discipline over these who were of 
the presbyterian way, as is allowed in some 
other of his majesty's kingdoms : which as it 
can be no more inconsistent with prelacy in 
Scotland than where it is granted ; so there is 
j far stronger reasons for it from his majesty's in- 
j terest here, and the condition of his subjects, 
I who have bad it confirmed by lawful authority, 
I have been under so many and strong engage- 
ments to adhere thereunto, and have had so 
much experience of the good thereof, by their 
long continuing and merciful enjoyment of it. 
May it therefore please your grace, out of the 
bowels of pity and goodness, to commiserate 
our deeply distressed condition, and improve 
the favour you have with his majesty, that we 
may yet breathe under the shadow of his gra- 
cious condescendence, in allowing exemption 
from the grievous pressures we are under, of 
oppressive sentences, imprisonments, and otlier 
grieving executions of the law ; and that his 
majesty may grant liberty of preaching the gos- 
pel, and exercise of church order and discipline, 
towards and over these of our own persuasion, 
which will not in the least be prejudicial to 
civil peace, or his majesty's settled and quiet go- 
vernment, but will be a mean of preventing 
church disturbance, and confusions which tend 
to the breaking of the civil peace. Which if the 
Lord shall incline his majesty to grant, through 
your grace's interposing, will bring the bless- 
ings of many who are ready to perish, upon his 
majesty and your grace ; and you shall be called 
the repairers of the breaches, and the hearts of 
the good people of the land will be so much the 
more knit and engaged to his majesty's person 
and government, and to your grace, as the in- 
strument whom God hath stirred up to effec- 
tuate it, and render his majesty glorious, and 
your grace renowned to all generations. 



CHAP, in.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



149 



is a great favourer and lover of Scotland, 
and there is no question but he will em- 
ploy his power for it : and if Lauderdale be 
discourted, to whom the duke is no friend, 
this will come the sooner." Upon all these 
accounts the writer of the letter presseth 
the prisoners, " to carry very soberly, and 
wishes the persecuted party would leave 
field conventicles, at least for a little, till 
the duke came down again ; and adds, he, 
God willing, would not stay long. And 
assures them, some in the council are gap- 
ing for field conventicles, in order to get 
things marred." 

The effects of the duke's going up, seem 
to be the short-lived third indulgence, 
A^'hich had the proclamation published June 
29th when the duke was here, for a kind of 
preface to it, the consideration of which I 
of design left to this place. This proclama- 
tion, dated at Whitehall, June "29th, I have 
insert below.* It Avas probably procured 



1679. 



* ^proclamation suspending laws against con- 
venticles, June 29lh, 1679. 
Charles II. by the grace of God, king of Scot 
land, England, France and Ireland, defender of 
the faith &c. To all and sundry our good sub- 
jects, whom these presents do or may concern, 
greeting : we having, with the advice, and con- 
sent of our parliaments, passed so many acts in 
favours of the protestant religion, against field 
conventicles, whereby our subjects were with- 
drawn from public ordinances, in such ways as 
exposed them to hear Jesuits, or any other 
irregular preachers, and were at last debauched 
to meet with arms in formed rebellions, we 
might have expected a most hearty concurrence 
from all such as resolved to live religiously and 
peaceably in suppressing those disorders : in place 
whereof, magisti'ates having by their negligence, 
and masters by their connivance, heightened 
those distempers into a formed rebellion, founded 
upon extravagancies, inconsistent with the 
protestant religion and our monarchy ; which 
we having by the mercy of God, and the affec- 
tion of our subjects, overcome so totally, that 
our clemency cannot be liable to any miscon- 
struction : we have therefore thought fit, with 
the advice of our privy council, to recommend 
the vigorous execution of all our former laws 
and proclamations against such rendezvouses of 
rebellion; commanding hereby our judges, ma- 
gistrates, and officers of all ranks and degrees, to 
apprehend, condemn, 'and punish all such as 
frequent any field conventicles, the ministers by 
death, and the hearers by fining and otherwise, 
according to the prescript of our laws ; such as 
bear arms there being to be demeaned as traitors 
conform to our former proclamation, dated the 
13th day of IVIay last, and ordaining that all 
masters shall be liable for presenting such of 
their teTiants, and such as live upon their ground, 
to underly the law in our justice-airs, conform 
to the 6th act, pari. 3. James V. As also we 



by the duke's letters, wherein he 
woidd readily give his thoughts 
upon the proposals made to him, and the 
expedients which offered to him for the 



most peremptorily command all in office under 
us, to prosecute with all legal rigour, those 
inhumane and execrable murderers of the late 
archbishop of St Andrews, and all such as 
have had accession thereto, by concealing or 
resetting the assassinates. But we, being de- 
sirous to reclaim all such in that our ancient 
kingdom, as have been misled by ignorance, or 
blind zeal (the pretexts of disorders) and to con- 
vince all indifferent persons, that too great 
severity is as far from our design, as our incli- 
nations, have, according to the power reserved 
to us by the fifth act, and second session of our 
second parliament, suspended the execution of 
all laws and acts, against such as frequent house 
conventicles in the low countries, on the south 
side of the river of Tay only, excepting always 
the town of Edinburgh, and two miles round 
about the same, with the lordships of Mussel- 
burgh, and Dalkeith, the cities of St Andrews, 
and Glasgow^, and Stirling, and a mile about 
each of them ; being fully resolved, not to suffer 
the seat of our government, nor our universities 
to be pestered with any irregularities whatso- 
ever. And for a further evidence of our pro- 
tection to all who resolve to live peaceably, we 
hereby suspend all diligences for fines upon the 
account of conventicles, except such fines as are 
imposed by our privy council, and such fines of 
interior judicatures, as were uplifted or trans- 
acted for, prior to the twenty-ninth of May 
last, and all letters of intercommuning, and 
other executions, except in so far as concerns 
those who were our actual servants, or in public 
trust. But to the end, that none whom we 
may justly suspect, shall, under the colour of 
this favour, continue to preach rebellion, schism 
and heresy, we hereby ordain all such as shall 
be suffered to preach, to have their names given 
in, and surety found to our privy council for 
their peaceable behaviour, only one preacher 
being allowed to a paroch ; and none to be 
allowed who have appeared against us in this 
late rebellion, nor none who shall be admitted by 
the unconform ministers in any time hereafter: 
assuring all those to whom we have extended 
this favour, that if they, or any of them, shall 
for the future frequent any field conventicles, or 
disturb the peace of these our kingdoms, we 
will secure our people, and maintain our author- 
ity and laws by such effectual courses as, in 
ruining the authors, cannot be thought rigid, 
after so insufferable and unnecessary provoca- 
tions. This our forbearance being to continue 
in force only during our royal pleasure, as we 
shall see those dissenters deserve our favour. 
And to the end all our good subjects may have 
notice of this our royal will and pleasure, we 
do hereby command our lyon king at arms and 
his brethren, heralds, macers, pursuivants, mes- 
sengers at arms, to make proclamation hereof, at 
the market cross of Edinburgh. Given at our 
court at Whitehall, the twenty-ninth day of 
June, 1679, and of our reign the thirty-first 
year. 

By his majesty's command, 

Lauderdale. 

God save the kitsv. 



150 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



settling' of the country; the result 
' of which seems to be this proclama- 
tion, which, with the letter we shall just 
now hear of, was the foundation of what 
was called the third indulgence. Reflec- 
tions upon this proclamation are needless 
after what hath been given upon former 
public papers. The narrative alleges, that 
field conventicles have exposed people to 
Jesuits. Doubtless the papists took hold of 
all occasions to make pi'oselytes, and de- 
bauch people's consciences ; and failed not 
closely to improve the steps at present taken 
in Scotland and England for weakening the 
protestant interest. The only ground I can 
find for the cry of Jesuits mixing in with 
field conventicles in Scotland, is some pas- 
sages in doctor Oats's Narrative, printed by 
authority at London this year. Article 1. 
It is narrated, " that Wright, Morgan, and 
Freeland were sent over to Scotland, to 
preach under the notion of Scots presbyte- 
rians." Whether this be true or not, de- 
pends upon the faith of Jesuits, who write 
this news to Madrid. Article 43 goes fur- 
ther, and says, " the deponents saw fathers 
Moor and Sanders, alias Brown, despatched 
to preach among Scots presbyterians." Ar- 
ticle 73 says, " that letters from the fathers 
met at Edinburgh, dated August 10th, 1678, 
bear, that they had eight thousand catholics 
ready to rise when the business grew hot, 
and to join the disaffected Scots under the 
direction of the Scots Jesuits. And, article 
74- bears, " that twelve Scots Jesuits were 
sent with instructions to keep up the com- 
motions in Scotland, and to carry themselves 
like nonconformist ministei's among the pres- 
byterian Scots." This is all I see relative 
to this charge in Oats's Narrative, and 
what does it amoimt to ? but that the Je- 
suits had this in their view, or pretended 
to have it : and I shall not doubt but 
they did all in their power to provoke 
honest people to extremities, to serve the 
duke of York's interest, to keep the High- 
lands under their power, and ready to ap- 
pear against the bill of exclusion in case of 
need, and to sow the tares of antimagistra- 
tical principles. But what is all this to 
presbyterians? Are not Jesuits' designs as 
open and plain in the church of England by 
the very same narrative, and their success 



evident ? and yet that church is not charged 
upon this score. Can one instance be given 
of a Jesuit hitherto preaching at field con- 
venticles, and getting presbyterians to hear 
him ? The greatest enemies of field meet- 
ings have never been able to produce one 
instance, or to give the least documents of 
any correspondence betwixt the one and 
the other. Indeed it hath once and again 
been made evident, that the Jesuit Coutzen's 
instructions for ruining protestants were 
fallen in with exactly by our Scots mana- 
gers of the duke of York's faction, and 
some of our prelates : but I am bold to say, 
not one party of men in Scotland were 
more free from the influence of Jesuits than 
Scots presbyterians at this juncture; and 
whatever eiForts these Jesuits made, they 
had no success. What hand they might 
have after this, by their secret influence, 
to run some to heights, I cannot say ; but, 
after my utmost search, I cannot find the 
least footsteps of a correspondence betwixt 
such as even cast oiF the authority of the 
king, and came to heights wherein other 
presbyterians would not vindicate them and 
the Jesuits. This much I thought proper 
to say here, once for all, upon this head. 
It is added in the proclamation, that 
Bothwell rising was founded upon extra- 
vagancies inconsistent with the protestant 
religion and monarchy. Had they been 
condescended upon, I should have consider- 
ed them : but this general calumny is more 
than taken off by the former accounts of 
their declarations and requisitions Avhen in 
arms. Next, the proclamation comes to 
statute death upon aU ministers who preach 
at field conventicles, and such as are in 
arms are adjudged to be traitors. Masters, 
by an old antiquated law, are made liable 
for all that live on their lands, and the 
utmost prosecution of these accessory to 
the primate's death, is appointed. Then 
the king, by the power placed in him by 
act 5th, session 2d, parliament 2d, suspends 
the execution of the laws against house 
conventicles on the south side of Tay. The 
parliament does fully empoAver the king 
thus to do ; and from this it is evident thi« 
indulgence was no exercise of a dispensing 
power, but agreeable to the laws then in 
being. How far this act of parliament is 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, 



151 



applicable to the indulgence granted to 
presbyteriaus in the year 1G87, shall be 
considered. It is most plain iu this case. 
Exceptions are made of Edinburgh, Glas- 
gow, Stirling-, and some other places ; and 
diligences upon finings, intercommuning, 
and such other sentences, are stopped. Only 
one preacher is allowed to one parish ; 
their names are to be given to the privy 
council, with surety for their peaceable 
behaviour. This was a handle to the 
council in a few weeks to render this liber- 
ty precarious. This indulgence is only 
during pleasure; and all ministers who 
were at Bothwell, and after this shall be 
admitted, are excluded from any benefit by 
it. It is plain, this was one of the least 
clogged favours which had been granted to 
presbyteriaus since the restoration : it was 
much owing to the present struggle for 
liberty in England, and the just informa- 
tion the duke of Monmoutli gave the king 
of the good inclinations and intentions of 
the body of presbyteriaus in Scotland to 
his person and government. It was a short 
breathing time to presbyterian ministers 
and others, and relieved multitudes who 
were fugitive and intercommuued, and up- 
on their hiding for many years. 

This proclamation came to Edinbm-gh, 
July 4th, and that day, in prosecution of it, 
" The council grant order to the magistrates 
of Edinburgh to set at liberty the ministers 
underwritten, prisoners for conventicles, 
Messrs John Mosman, Archibald Maclean, 
James Forthie, William Kyle, Robert Flem- 
ing, Francis Irvine, and Thomas Wilkie, 
they enacting themselves in the books of 
privy council, for their peaceable behavioiu*, 
and that they shall not preach at field con- 
venticles under the pains contained in his 
majesty's proclamation ; and ordain such 
ministers as are in the Bass to be sent for, 
that they may be set at liberty upon their 
enacting themselves as aforesaid." 

A letter is before me, writ by a good 
hand upon this proclamation, too long to 
be insert : I shall only set down a few pas- 
sages trom it, which may give some light 
to the circumstances of presbyteriaus at 
this time. The writer observes, ' That this 
proclamation is so favourable, as ought to 
oblige all the well affected to accept of it 



with all thankfulness, and use it with 
temperance and prudence ; and what 
may be a foundation for more, if skilfully 
used.' Whereupon the writer takes occasion 
to give his opinion, to be communicated to 
some gentlemen and ministers in the west. 
He thinks, ' that by the return of the outed 
ministers, every one to their own parishes, 
the benefit of this indulgence will be much 
lost, and one part of the country, and that 
which needs least. Mill be supplied, and the 
far greater part left destitute. He reckons 
the church's present case to be but a build- 
ing, and therefore the ministers ai-e to pre- 
fer the general interest of the church to the 
ties to particular places ; and that consider- 
ation should be had of the bounds and 
shires enjoying favovu", and these ought to 
be compared with the presbyterian minis- 
ters yet remaining, and the ministers so 
scattered up and down, as all may be wa- 
tered as much as may be ; that thus some 
that halt betwixt two opinions may be 
fixed, and those who are in hazard of v\ an- 
dering, and going to extremities, may be 
preserved. He moves, that one minister 
may be fixed so as to answer most conve- 
niently the exigencies of three or four 
parishes ; and conceives it may be as pro- 
per to dispose of ministers by way of mis- 
sion, into places where it is well known 
they will be welcome, as to wait for calls : 
he is earnest to have ministers set to their 
work in all quarters without delay. He is 
against building of houses to meet in at 
present, but would have large barns and 
houses taken ; and hopes the general bent 
of this part of the nation will soon make it 
appear to the government, that this liberty 
ought to be enlarged.' We shall quickly 
find there was little use for these proposals, 
for this hberty was soon cramped. As soon 
as the duke of Monmouth had regulated 
matters he thought most necessary here, 
he went for court, where he was very gi'a- 
ciously received by his father. Upon his 
arrival he procured a letter from the king, 
yet further enlarging this favour, which 
July 14th, came down express from Lon- 
don by one of the duke's footmen. I here 
insert it. 

Charles R.— " Right trusty, &c. We 



152 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



greet you well. Having resolved to 
■ make the favours designed by our late 
proclamation effectual, we hereby declare, 
that we designed therein, that such as are 
allowed to preach thereby, are also allowed 
by the same proclamation to administrate the 
sacraments, the one including the other. 
As also, that no fine imposed for any schis- 
matical disorders, (except treason) before 
inferior judicatories, and not yet transacted 
or compounded for, shall be uplifted, un- 
less the parties so fined shall fall back into 
their old transgressions, by rebellion or 
field conventicles; the suspension mention- 
ed in our proclamation being a sufficient 
discharge only in those cases. Ministers 
also now imprisoned, who were not in this 
rebellion, are to be set at liberty, without 
any other engagement, but that they shall 
live peaceably, and not take up arms against 
us or our authority, or find caution to an- 
swer when called by us or you : and so we 
bid you heartily farewell. Given at our 
court at Windsor Castle, the 11th of July, 
1679, aud of our reign the 31st year. 
" By his majesty's command, 

" Lauderdale." 

This letter, when it came down, was 
very inisatisfying to om* managers, and, I 
am told, it was some time before they 
would enter u2)on the consideration of it ; 
and they then essayed so to lay measures 
as the ends of it might be broken. Yea, 
so much frighted Avere the prelates with 
the former proclamation and this letter, 
that the archbishop of Glasgow is despatch- 
ed up to coui't at this time : I have no ac- 
counts of what he did ; but, no doubt, he 
fell in heartily with the duke of York's 
party, and in a few weeks there was a 
change above, and piece by piece this fa- 
vour was curtailed by the council, and, to- 
Avards the end of the year, perfectly re- 
moved, as Ave shall hear. 

Two days before this letter came to 
Edinburgh, the council, now Avhen they are 
delivered from the duke of Monmouth, 
begin to propose their difficulties in relation 
to the proclamation June 29th. In a letter 
to Lauderdale, dated July 1 2th, they signify, 
* That there being some doubt as to the 
sense of that clause in the proclamation 



June 29th, suspending all letters of inter- 
communing, and all other executions, if 
these Avords, all other executions, do im- 
port, that all persons, Avhether preachers at 
field-conA'enticles, or other persons, who 
being ringleaders of these rebellious rendez- 
vouses, and have been seized according to 
former proclamations, promising sums of 
money to the apprehenders, and imprisoned, 
should be set at liberty, or not. And if 
such as have been imprisoned till they pay 
the fines imposed upon them by sentence 
of council, or other judges, shall also be 
enlarged and set at liberty; and if these 
field-preachers, and other persons qualified 
as aforesaid, are to be liberate, they crave 
his majesty may declare his pleasure upon 
AA'hat terms and conditions they are to be 
liberate.' 

This was a modest Avay of asking a kind 
of repeal of the proclamation ; at least, they 
Avould still be judges whom to liberate, and 
Avhom not, and have all the iniquitous 
sentences, formerly passed, standing in full 
vigour. I observe to return to this pro- 
posal in the registers. July 19th they ac- 
quaint Lauderdale, that, in obedience to 
his majesty's letter of the Uth they have 
called the preachers, prisoners in Edinburgh 
(as I understand it, it is preachers for field 
conventicles, for the other Avere liberate 
upon the 4th) and offered them a bond, 
which tvAO of them subscribed, and the rest 
refused ; and they have sent for the prison- 
ers in the Bass, that they may offer it to 
them. And, August 14th, Avhen, it seems, 
they despair of liberty to continue their 
severities upon the ministers, according to 
the inclination they shoAV in their letter 
July 12th, they order, 'that the ministers, 
prisoners in the tolbooth of Edinburgh, 
(viz. such as refused their bond) be liberate 
on finding sufficient caution, under pain of 
ten thousand merks each, to appear before 
the council Avhen called; and that the lord 
CoUington, Abbotshall, register, or any one 
of them, receive caution, and liberate them.' 
In a little time, as we shall hear, a good 
many of them Avere called, and brought 
to new trouble. August 26th Mr Andrew 
Donaldson is liberate from the prison of 

Linlithgow, and Mr Erskine from 

that of Stirling, upon caution as above; it 



CHAP. 111.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



153 



seems they had been forgot, aud John 
Henderson in Cleish, in prison for conven- 
ticles. According to these resolutions, the 
ministers who had been in the Bass, Mr 
I^atrick Anderson, Mr James Frazer of 
Brae, Mr Thomas Hog, Mr John INIacgilli- 
gen. Ml- John Macaulay, Mr Robert Ross, 
Mr John La^^', Mr William Bell, are 
brought from the Bass to Edinburgh tol- 
booth, where some other ministers were, 
particularly the Reverend Mr Robert 
Fleming minister at Cambuslang, and after 
this to the Scots congregation at Rotterdam, 
and several others abovenamed. That same 
day they appear before the council, and are 
re([uired to enact themselves in the council- 
books to live peaceably, and not to rise in 
arms against the king, or any authorized 
by him. The ministers knowing the terms 
of the king's letter July llth did oblige 
them only to an alternative, this, or to find } 
caution to present themselves when called, 
choosed the last branch, and refused the 
first, and therefore were remanded to pri- 
son, directly contrary to the king's letter, 
except Mr William Kyle and Mr Francis 
Irvine, who signed the first part, an.d were 
liberate. July 22d, Robert Hamilton of 
Airdrie, his servant, and about fifteen more 
prisoners, are liberate upon the same terms; 
and, July 24th about twenty more prisoners 
for conventicles are liberate ; and, July last, 
John Balmerino, Andrew Snodgrass in 
Bridgend of Glasgow, aud about twenty 
others, were liberate, upon signing an ob- 
ligation not to rise in arms. This is all I 
meet with as to particular persons. The 
case of the rest of the ministers was de- 
bated some time. The laird of Lundie, aud 
some others of the counsellors, affirmed 
they ought to be liberate on bond; Sir 
Andrew Ramsay, and others on that side, 
were as peremptory for their signing the 
bond not to rise. In some time they were 
liberate, upon bond to appear when called, 
under penalty of five hundred pounds ster- 
ling per piece. 

Let us now take a view how the pres- 
byterian ministers improved this breathing 
time ; it was almost ovei-, at least measures 
fallen into for retrenching it, before ever 
some of them knew of it. Such to whom 
the notice first came, being willing that all, as 

III 



far as might be, should take the same 
course, advertised as many of their ' ' 
brethren as they could, to come in and meet 
at Edinburgh. Accordingly I find, that, upon 
the 8th of August, there was a very large 
meeting, perhaps more numerous than any 
that hath been since their judicatories were 
discharged by law; and, after consultation 
and reasoning, they came to agree upon 
those following conclusions and rules. 
" That all ministers should, in the first 
place, visit their own congregations where 
they were formerly settled, and try what 
access they can have to preach the gospel 
unto them. That they associate themselves 
into meetings, as their numbers in parti- 
cular bounds, and their circiunstances will 
best allow, and take care to provide preach- 
ing to the people, in the bounds of their 
respective meetings, Avho are desirous of it. 
That every minister shall be a member of 
the meeting within whose bounds he re- 
sides. That indulged ministei;s, not in- 
dulged to the congregations they were in 
when laid aside, if their people, of whom 
they formerly had tlie charge, call them, 
return to them, and quit the places they 
are at present in. That all who are li- 
censed to preach, be particularly taken ob- 
liged unto subjection to the meeting which 
licensed them, and to submit themselves to 
their direction." 

We see how much these ministers had 
the principles of presbyterian government 
at heart, and the preservation of the church 
from any hazard from persons who should 
afterwards be licensed and ordained ; and, 
had they not been stopped by the new turn of 
attairs at court, it is very probable, this in- 
dulgence would have been so managed, as 
to have cured our divisions, tended to a 
comfortable change in Scotland, and might 
have proved of great use, not only to the 
church, but even to the state. But very 
soon the popish party prevailed at court. 
Lauderdale once more seemed to prevail 
over his accusers, as we shall hear ; and by 
his means, as some say, the Duke of Mon- 
mouth, however well received at first, fell 
under a cloud, and all the expectations of 
doing some more in favours of the suffering 
presbyterians fell to the ground. The duke 
of York returned from Holland, and his in- 
u 



154 



THE HISTORY OK THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



1G79. 



fluence with the king' was presently 
so great, that all moderate measures 
were perfectly crushed ; for it is almost next 
to impossible that a papist should not drive 
hard in a protestant country, and preshy- 
terians must expect no favour when papists 
manage at coui-t. In short, this calm issued 
in a most severe and long- storm. 

Thus I find in the reg^isters, September 
18th, a letter from the king to the council, 
acquainting them, that he had recalled his 
commission to the duke of Buccleugh and 
Monmouth to be general. This Mas very 
acceptable to a good many at Edinburgh. 
The account given by the English histor- 
ians of this turn of affairs, is in short. 
When the duke of Moum.outh was at his 
height, the king fell sick at Windsor, and 
had three tits of a fever and ague towards 
the end of August. Upon September 2d, 
the duke of York came to London, to the 
surprise of every body, and rode post to 
Windsor. In a few tlays Monmouth was 
disgraced, and an entire change of affairs 
brought about. The secret spring of this 
sudden arrival was this. Essex and Hali- 
fax being about the king, and taking him 
to be in danger, they thought themselves 
so to. They reckoned the duke of Mon- 
mouth, under Shaftsbury's management, 
who hated them, would be at the head of 
affairs, against the duke of York, and that 
Sunderland, by his relation and friendship 
with Shaftsbury, Avould be safe, but had 
nothing to hope for themselves ; therefore, 
upon the king's first tit, without ever wait- 
ing for what might follow upon a second, 
they proposed to him the calling over his 
brother, which was done with all secrecy and 
speed. The king recovering,it was agreed up- 
on all hands that the duke should be received 
with seeming surprise. When the duke 
returned, Shaftsbury and Monmouth were 
so enraged, that nothing was left for Essex 
and Halifax, but to join the duke wholly, 
and throw the other two out of the king's 
affairs. Accordingly Monmouth was order- 
ed over to Holland, September 24th, and 
Shaftsbury turned out of council. Sir 
William Temple, not being entirely theirs, 
was left out, and resolved to lie aside from 
public affairs. To cover matters the duke 
of York went over to Flanders, soon to re- 



turn again, and Essex and Halifax left their 
posts in discontent; and Mr Hyde, after 
earl of Rochester, and Mr Godolphine, 
afterwards earl of Godolphine, came in, 
joined Sunderland, and made up the junto. 
This vast change in England soon brought 
the third indulgence to presbyterians here 
to be cramped, and then taken away. The 
effects of it appeared the very next council- 
day, September 19th. ' A warrant is grant- 
ed to general Dalziel, lieutenant-general of 
his majesty's forces, to give order to seize 
the murderers of the archbishop, (this is 
cast in in common form, but the great de- 
sign was) to apprehend any ministers or 
heritors guilty of the late rebellion, or 
others of the rebels who had not taken the 
bond, or any who harbom-ed or resetted 
them ; and to give orders to the officers 
and soldiers tinder his command, to secure 
them in prison till they be brought to jus- 
tice ; with power also to dissipate tield 
conventicles, and to seize the preachers 
and others present at them. And the coun- 
cil indemnify all slaughter or mutilation, in 
case of resistance. And, September 20th, 
they ordain the rents of lands, sums of 
money, and moveables belonging to the 
murderers of the archbishop, and heritors 
engaged in the rebellion, to be sequestrated 
and secured, that the same be not embez- 
zled ; and grant power to the earls of 
Murray and Linlithgow, treasurer-depute, 
justice-general, CoUington, and general Dal- 
ziel, to nominate fit persons in the several 
shires to be sequestrators.' This was a new 
and very sore trouble to the country. That 
same day the advocate is ordered ' to raise 
a process against Mr George Johnston, or 
any other ministers who have been guilty 
of field conventicles since June 29th last, 
upon the information given in, or that shall 
be given, notwithstanding any allowance 
given, or that sliall be given to them to 
])reach. And, at the same time, full power 
and authority is granted to major Robert 
Johnston, to search for any conventicles 
suspect to be kept in the town of Edinburgh, 
or suburbs thereof, and to apprehend and 
imprison the ministers and most substantial 
hearers ; to search for the murderers of the 
archbishop, as also any ministers or heritors 
in the late rebellion, or others who have 



CHAP. HI.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



155 



not signed the bond, and imprison them, 
and to report his diligence from time to 
time. He and his assistants are indemni- 
fied, as above, and this commission is to 
continue till recalled.' Thus, we see, the 
former methods are beginning again. 

To return to the indulgence, the council, 
September 19th, agree upon a draught of 
the license given to ministers, who are 
allowed to preach, by his majesty's 
proclamation June 29th, and his letter 
July nth, which I insert from the regis- 
ters. 

" The lords of his majestj^'s privy council 
having considered the petition of 
representing that they have chosen 
to preach, and administrate the sacraments, 
in the parish of conform (o his 

majesty's proclamation, June 29th, and his 
letter July 1 1th, and therefore desiring that 
caution may be received for the said 

conform to the said proclamation : the 
lords grant the supplicant's desire, ^vho 
have accordingly found sufticieut caution, 
acted in the books of privy council for the 
said that he shall live peaceably ; 

and in order thereto, that the said 
shall appear before the council, when the 
said cautioners shall be called to pro- 
duce him, under the penalty of six thou- 
sand merks, in case of failie." At the 
same time they agree upon, and record 
the tenor of the bond to be given for 
them, as follows. " Be it kend to all men 
by these presents, me for as much 

as, upon a humble supplication given in to 
his majesty's privy council, they have 
ordained caution to be received for 

who is allowed to preach and ad- 
ministrate sacraments in the parish of 

Therefore I bind and oblige myself, 
my heirs and successors, that the said 
shall live peaceably, and in order 
thereunto, that I the said 
oblige myself and foresaids, to present him 
before his majesty's privy council, when I 
am called so to do ; and in case of my failie 
in not presenting him, I shall be liable 
in the payment of the sum of six thousand 
merks Scots money. Consenting, &c. in 
common form." 

This bond was reckoned to be framed 
with a design to discourage parishes from 



giving it, and to be illegal. The procla- 
mation indeed requires surety for 
peaceable behaviour, but does not require an 
obligation to present the minister's person 
upon demand, under such an exorbitant sum, 
as many parishes, or such in them as were in- 
clinable to give bond, were not in case to 
give ; and care was taken to signify to per- 
sons concerned, that presbyterian ministers 
Mould find themselves obliged to do several 
things which might be constructed, or soon 
made unpeaceable behaviour; and it is 
plain, many would be unwilling in this case 
actually to present their minister to be per- 
secuted; and though he should be pre- 
sented, the line might be exacted upon his 
being found unpeaceable in his behaviour, 
by the tenor of the bond. All this would 
not have discouraged multitudes of parishes 
in the west and south, from calling presby- 
terian ministei's, if it had not been by this 
time pretty evident both to ministers and 
people, that now the court was changed ; 
and it m as fully resolved, carry as they 
would, as soon as possible to turn this in- 
dulgence to nothing, or at least so to ma- 
nacle it, as it should rent prcsbyterians 
more and more ; and so they had no great 
heart to make any great efforts this way. 
It Mas not altogether so much for the 
king's honour instantly to rescind this fa- 
vour ; but they resolved gradually to clog 
it, until it should be perfectly useless. 
Nevertheless presbyterian ministers counted 
it their duty to meet together and consider 
what was most fit to be done in this case ; 
and so, I think, towards the end of Sep- 
tember, a good many of them met together 
at Edinburgh, mostly to consider how far 
it Mas laM'ful and expedient for parishes to 
give in such bonds as the council required. 
Those occasional meetings, in this perse- 
cuted state of the church, did not assume 
any determining poMer. The matter Has 
reasoned, and the most part agreed it was 
laM'ful and expedient, if matters turned not 
Morse, to give in bonds. Some fcM' had 
some difficulties about this, but did not in- 
sist upon them, since all expected this 
would be a short-lived favovir. The sense 
of the meeting going abroad, several par- 
ishes came in with their petitions, and 
offered their hond to the council for 



15(5 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK 111. 



, „,-„ the ministers' peaceable behaviour. 
Thus Mr William Row, INIr James 
Walkinshaw, Mr Robert Law, and some 
others had bonds given in for them, and 
preached in their respective parishes, but 
for a short while. 

1 shall give here what I meet with in the 
registers this year concerning the parishes 
which gave bonds, and had presbyterian 
ministers allowed them. September 19th, 
' upon a petition from Sir James Duudas of 
Arnistoun, James Eliot of Southside, Alex- 
ander Pringle, John Watson, William Turn- 
bull, and other heritors and feuars in New- 
bottle, the council allow Mr George John- 
ston to preach in the terms of the foresaid 
act, in regard he hath found sufficient 
caution in the books of council. Septem- 
ber 20th, upon a petition of James Cock- 
barn of Langton, for himself, and the rem- 
anent heritors and parishioners of the parish 
of Langton, Mr Luke Ogle is allowed to 
preach there, he having given sufficient 
caution, as above, and that he shall not 
preach or dispense sacraments save in that 
parish. That same day, upon the petition 
of Andrew C'olquhoun of Carscadden, 
and Hugh Crawford of Globerhill, in 
name of the people of Easter-Kirkpatrick, 
Mr Robert Law is allowed to preach there, 
and Mr James Walkinshaw, in the parish 
of Badernock, and Mr William Row in the 
parish of Ceres. And December 18th, upon 
the petition of the heritors and parishioners 
of the underwritten parishes, the ministers 
named are allowed to preach in them. 
West-kirk in Eskdale, Mi- James Pringle, 
Orwell, Mr Robert Gray, Logie, Mr Rich- 
ard Honyson, Dalgety, Mr Andrew Don- 
aldson, Prestonhaugh, Mr Gilbert Rule, 
Yarrow, INIr W illiam Eliot, Ashkirk, Mr 
Robert Cuningham, Campsie, Mr John 
Law, Dunfermline, Mr John Wardlaw, 
Cardross, Mr Neil Gillies. 

Upon the 13th of November, the coimcil 
publish a new proclamation against conven- 
ticles, Avhich I have annexed below.* By it 



* A prodamalioii against conventicles, Nov. 13//;, 

1679. 
Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the 
faith, to macers, or messengers at 

arms, our sheriffs in that part, conjunctly and 



all are discharged to preach, or to hear any 
preach in any parish who have not given 



severally, specially constitute, greeting; foras- 
much as we by our gracious proclamation of the 
twenty-ninth of June last, and a letter under 
our royal hand, direct to our council, relative 
thereto, of the eleventh of July thereafter, hav- 
ing signified our desire to reclaim all such as 
have been misled by ignorance, or blind zeal, 
the pretexts of disorders, and to convince all 
indifiei'ent persons, that too great severity is as 
far from our designs as our inclinations, we did, 
according to the power reserved to us by the 
first act of the second session of our second par- 
liament, suspend the execution of all laws 
against such as frequent house conventicles in 
the low countries on the south side of the river 
of Tay only, excepting always the town of 
Edinburgh, and two miles round about the 
same; with the lordships of Musselburgh and 
Dalkeith, and the cities of St Andrews, Glasgow, 
and Stirling, and a mile about each of them; 
and did suspend all diligence for tines upon the 
aocount of conventicles, except such as wei'e 
imposed by our privy council, and such tines of 
inferior judicatures, as were uplifted or trans- 
acted before the twenty-Tiinth of jNlay last, and all 
letters of intercommuning and other executions ; 
and did ordain, that all such as should be suffer- 
ed to preach, to have their names given in, and 
surety found to our council for their peaceable 
behaviour, only one preacher being allowed to a 
parish, and none to be allowed who appeared 
against us in the late rebellion, nor none shall 
who should be admitted by the unconform min- 
isters in any time thereafter; which ministers 
so allowed to preach, are also allowed to admin- 
istrate the sacraments. And whereas we are 
firmly resolved to have all the acts of our grace 
and mercy made effectual (in the most favour- 
able sense) to all these for ■vvhom they were 
intended by us; and as already from time to 
time caution hath been received for such minis- 
ters, whose names have been given in to our 
council ; and upon application to be made to 
them, caution is to be received for such of the 
said ministers, as are qualified conform to the 
terms of our proclamation, who are desired to 
])reach and administrate the sacraments in an}' 
parish in the bounds therein expressed : so we 
thought fit hereby to declare, that we will not 
permit nor allow any to preach by virtur of the 
indulgence or connivance contained in that our 
proclamation, unless their names be given in, 
and caution found for them to our council, as 
aforesaid ; but will look upon and esteem them, 
and such persons as resort to such irregular 
meetings, as persons disaffected to our authority, 
and contemners of our grace and clemency, and 
will proceed against al' such with the utmost 
severity of law. Our will is herefore, and we 
charge you strictly, and command that, incon- 
tinent these our letters seen, j'e pass to the mar- 
ket-cross of Edinburgh, and other places need- 
ful, and thereat in our name and authority, by 
open proclamation, make publication of the 
premisses, that none may pretend ignorance. 
Ordains these presents to be printed. Given 
under our signet, at Edinburgh the thirteenth 
day of November, 1679, and of our reign the 
thirty-first year. 

Will. Paterson, CI. seer, concilii. 
God save the king. 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



157 



bond to the council, nnder the pains of 
being- repute disaffected to his majesty's 
authority, and contemners of his grace and 
clemency, and being; proceeded against 
with the utmost severity. The same day, 
by another proclamation, the council fall 
foul upon the poor commons Avho had been 
at Bothwell, for not taking the bond, and 
give them until the first of January next 
to take it, providing they come in and sa- 
tisfy the lords of justiciary between and 
then, of the reasonableness of their excuse 
for delaying to take it hitherto, and after 
that shut all doors of mercy against re- 
fusers. I have annexed it below.* It is a 
very ill-natured and fiery paper, unworthy 
of the gravity of the king, in whose name 
it runs, and makes him scold and speak 



* Proclamation anent the rebels ivho have not yet 

taken the bond, November 13th, 1679. 
Cliarles, by the gracH of God, king of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the 
faith, to maoers, or messengers at 

arms, our sheriffs in tliat part, conjunctly and 
severally, specially constitute, greeting : the 
rebellious and insolent rising at Bothvvell- 
bridge, was so far from hindering us from con- 
tinning our clemency and indulgeiice, to such 
as had so ill deserved of us formerly, tiien when 
it was ill our power to have extirpated that in- 
solent and vitious crew; yet to convince the 
world and them, that our former favours had 
not proceeded from force, but from clemency, 
an<l being desirous that this our clemency should 
have at last convinced them, whom we were 
unwilling to destroy, because they were our an- 
cient and native subjects, ^vho if they were not 
strangely misled, should rather venture their 
lives and fortunes for us, than for these vain and 
giddy preachers, whom all the rest of the pro- 
testant churches disown, and whose only quar- 
rel is, that we will not allow them to be them- 
selves chief rulers: we did by a most remark- 
able and unexpected proclamation, not only 
enlarge our indulgences to those who had not 
been engaged in that execrable rebellion, but 
even to those engaged therein; requiring only 
of such as were not heritors, or ministers, that 
they should oblige themselves not to rise in arms 
against us or our authority. Notwithstanding 
whereof, a great part of the said rebels liave not 
as yet taken the said bond, though conceived in 
so gentle and easy terms, and in which we de- 
signed as much the security of their native 
country as of our own authority. But because 
many of these who have not taken the bond, do 
profess that their not taking of it was occasion- 
ed by want of lawful intimation, or by their 
sickness, and that they have other legal defences 
or reasonable excuses ; and we being equally 
un^villing to preclude our people from any legal 
defence, and from offering their reasonable ex- 
cuses and verifications thereof, or, on the other 
part, to have our authority baffled by such as 
have even contemned our clemency : therefore 
to prevent both these, we hereby command all 



against those poor people, in the 
style of Fishmarket and Billingsgate. 
They are termed an insolent and vitious 
crew, their preachers are made vain and 
giddy, and disowned by all the i-est of 
the protestant churches ; and such as con- 
tinue to refuse after the day, are declared 
enemies to human society ; and all who 
harbour and reset them, are to be proceed- 
ed against as enemies to king and country. 
Some observe, that the advocate was now 
come down, and his tartness runs through 
this paper. This is what offers to me as to 
the state of presbyterians, and this third 
and short indulgence. Some hints as to 
favours done to some particular presbyteriau 
gentlemen, and about the prisoners, mIU 
come in ere I end this section. 



our officers, both in burgh and land, and the 
officers of our militia, and standing forces, to 
seize and apprehend, and our respective judges 
competent to proceed according to law, against 
such as were in the rebellion, and who have not 
yet given in the said bond before the diets men- 
tioned in our last proclamation, dated the 
twenty-seventh day of July last; or who shall 
not give in to our justices, betwixt and the first 
day of January next, in the year 1680, the said 
bond with the verifications of their reasonable 
excuses, and thereby satisfy the lords of justici- 
ary, that their not taking of it at the former 
diet proceeded not from their contempt ; indem- 
nifying hereby fully such as not being ministers 
or heritors, and others not excepted in our 
former proclamations, as shall satisfy the com- 
missioners of our justiciary, and shall be allowed 
by them to take the said bond in manner fore- 
said, and for ever excluding all such from our 
mercy and favour, as have been in the said re- 
bellion, and have not either taken the said bond 
before the diets contained in our last proclama- 
tion, or shall not take the same betwixt and the 
time as aforesaid : and we are confident all 
honest men and good Christians will concur 
against those obstinate rebels, as enemies not 
only to us, but to all human society, and who 
no^v want the least shadow of pretext for diso- 
bedience, or irregularity. Certifying likewise 
hereby all heritors who shall keep any of the 
said rebels upon their ground, or all others who 
shall harbour or reset them, that they shall be 
proceeded against with all the severity that law 
can allow, as enemies to us and their native 
country. Our will is herefore, and we charge 
you strictlj'-, and command, that incontinent 
these our letters seen, ye pass to the market- 
cross of Edinburgh, and other places needful, 
and there in our name and authority, by open 
proclamation, make publication of the premises, 
that none pretend ignorance ; and ordain these 
presents to be printed. Given under our signet, 
at Edinburgh, the thirteenth day of November, 
1679, and of our reign the thirty-first j'ear. 

Al. Gibson, Cl. seer, concilii. 

God save the king. 



158 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



IBOOK III. 



1679. 



Another matter of importance this 
yeai- which I have left to this section, 
is the debates betwixt some of our noblemen 
at London, and the attacks made upon the 
administration of the duke of Lauderdale, 
with some consequences of those. 1 have 
once and again touched at those, and 
would incline to have left this entirely to 
our civil historians, were there not some 
things in the opening of that debate, which 
confirm the preceding part of this history, 
and give light to the state of presbyterians. 
We have already heard somewhat of the 
struggle in the parliament of England for 
liberty, and the protestant religion, which 
they took to be in hazard ; and of the 
strong current there against the dukes of 
York and Lauderdale. The first, by his 
pretences to the succession, brought all 
valuable to men and Christians in England, 
to the utmost hazard ; and the other is not 
a little subservient to the same design, by 
his arbitrary and oppressive methods in the 
Scots administration. Things ripened a- 
gainst Lauderdale gradually, until the house 
of commons upon the 29th of May, present- 
ed the following address to the king. 

" We your majesty's most loyal and duti- 
ful subjects, the commons in this present 
parliament assembled, finding your majes- 
ty's kingdoms involved in imminent dan- 
gers and great difficulties, by the evil de- 
signs and pernicious counsels of some who 
have been, and still are in high places of 
trust and authority about your royal per- 
son, who, contrary to the duty of their 
places, by their arbitrary and destructive 
counsels, tending to the subversion of the 
rights, liberties, and properties of yoiu- sub- 
jects, and the alteration of the protestant 
religion established, have endeavoured to 
alienate the hearts of your good subjects 
from your majesty, and your government, 
which we by our duty are bound to pre- 
serve. We have just reason to accuse John 
duke of Lauderdale for a chief promoter of 
such counsels, and more particularly for 
contriving and endeavouring to raise jea- 
lousies and misunderstandings between this 
your majesty's kingdom and Scotland, 
whereby hostilities might have ensued and 
arisen between both nations, if not pre- 
vented : wherefore, we your majesty's most 



loyal subjects, cannot but be sensibly 
troubled and affected, to see such a person, 
notwithstanding of the repeated addresses 
of your late parliament, continued in your 
council at this time, when the affairs of 
your kingdom require none to be set in 
such employments, but such as are of 
known abilities, interest, and esteem in the 
nation, without all suspicion of either mis- 
taking or betraying the true interest of the 
kingdoms, and consequently of advising 
your majesty ill. We do therefore beseech 
your majesty, for the taking away of the 
great jealousies and dissatisfactions amongst 
your good subjects, who ai'e oppressed with 
great grief and sorrow, that your majesty 
will be graciously pleased to remove the 
duke of Lauderdale from your majesty's 
councils in your majesty's kingdoms of 
England and Scotland, and from all offices, 
employments, and places of trust, and from 
your majesty's presence for ever." 

The king would not be shaken from his 
brother's succession, and kept Lauderdale 
still about him, and, rather than part with 
so good friends, he dismissed his par- 
liament, and so ended the designed ex- 
clusion and prosecution of Lauderdale this 
session. 

' Our nobility in Scotland who were more 
nearly concerned in the oppressions of the 
duke of Lauderdale and his party, were 
waiting a favourable opportunity to table 
their grievances before the king, though in 
their former attempt they had not suc- 
ceeded. Accordingly, this spring, duke 
Hamilton went up again to court. The 
marquis of Athole, and Sir John Cochran, 
and some others I find there in June, and 
Sir George Lockhart, and Sir John Cun- 
ningham, tH'o of our most noted lawyers, 
came up ; and the king's advocate upon the 
other side. When duke Hamilton and the 
rest got access to the king, they laid before 
him their complaints and grievances. They 
were printed at this time under the title of 
" Matters of Fact," &c. The printed copy 
is a little incorrect ; and I have set it right 
by two or three copies I have of it in 
manuscript. This is a paper of such im- 
portance as deserves a room in the body 
of this history, though pretty long : and I 
insert it here. 



CHAP. HI. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, 



159 



" So7)U' partindar matters of fact relating to 
the admiiiistration of affairs in Scotland, 
under the duke of Lauderdale, humbly 
offered to your majesty's consideration, in 
obedience to your royal command. 

" The duke of Lauderdale did grossly mis- 
represent to your majesty the condition of 
the western coimties, as if they had been 
in a state of rebellion, though there had 
been never any opposition made to your 
majesty's authority, nor any resistance of- 
fered to your forces, nor to the execution 
of the law. But he purposing to abuse 
your majesty, that so he might carry on 
his sinistrous designs by your authority, 
advised your majesty to raise an army 
against your peaceable subjects; at least 
did frame a letter, which was sent to yom- 
majesty, to be signed by your royal hand, 
to that effect ; which being sent down to 
the council, orders were thereu^Jon given 
out for raising an army of eight or nine 
thousand men ; the greatest part whereof 
were Highlanders. And notAvithstanding, 
to avert this threatening, the nobility and 
gentry of that country did send to Edin- 
burgh, and for the security of the peace, 
did offer to engage, that whosoever should 
be sent to put the laws in execution, should 
meet with no affront; and that they would 
become hostages for their safety. Yet this 
army was marched and led into a peaceable 
country, and did take free quarters, accord- 
ing to their commissions; and in most 
places levied great sums of money under 
the notion of dry quarters ; and did plunder 
and rob your subjects, of which no redress 
could be obtained, though complaints were 
frequently made. All which was expressly 
contrary to the laws of the kingdom. In 
these quarterings, it was apparent, that 
regard was only had to that duke's private 
animosities ; for the greatest part of those 
places that were most quartered in, and de- 
stroyed, had been guilty of none of the 
field conventicles complained of; and many 
of the places that were most guilty, were 
spared upon private considerations. The 
subjects were at that time required to sub- 
scribe an exorbitant and illegal bond, which i 



their tenanvs and their wives, chil- 
dren, and servants, should live or- 
derly, according to law, not go to conventi- 
cles, nor entertain vagrant preachers,' \s'\t\\ 
sevei'al other particulars; by which bond 
those who signed it, were made liable for 
every man's fault that lived upon their 
ground. Your majesty's subjects were 
charged with lawborrows, denounced rebels ; 
and captions were issued out for seizing their 
persons, upon their refusing to sign the fore- 
said bond; and the nobility and gentry there 
who had ever been faithful to your ma- 
jesty, and had appeared in arms for sup- 
pressing the last rebellion, were disarmed 
upon oath ; a proclamation was also issued 
forth, forbidding them, under great pen- 
alties, to keep any horse above four pounds 
ten groats price. The nobility and gentry 
in the shire of Ayr were also indicted at 
the instance of your majesty's advocate, of 
very high crimes and misdemeanors, where- 
of some did import treason. Their indict- 
ments were delivered them in the evening, 
to be answered by them next morning upon 
oath. And when they did demand two or 
three days' time to consider their indict- 
ments, and craved the benefit of lawyers to 
advise with in matters of so high concern- 
ment, and also excepted against their being 
put to swear against themselves in matters 
that were capital, «'hich was contrary to 
law and justice ; all those their desires 
were rejected, though the like had never 
been done to the greatest malefactors in 
the kingdom. And it was told them, they 
must either swear instantly, or they Avould 
repute them guilty, aiid jjroceed according- 
ly. The noblemen and gentlemen know- 
ing themselves innocent of all that had 
been surmised against them, did purge 
themselves by oath of all the particulars 
that were objected to them, and were 
thereupon acquitted. And though the 
committee of council used the severest way 
of inquiry to discover any sedition or trea- 
sonable designs which were pretended as 
the grounds of leading in that army to 
those countries, yet nothing could ever be 
proved. So false was that suggestion, con- 
cerning the rebellion then designed, that 



was impossible to be performed by them, i was offered to your majesty, and prevailed 
' that their wives, childi-en, and servants, | with you for sending the foremeutioned 



160 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK 111. 



letter. The oppression and quarter- 
' ing still continuing, the noblemen 
and gentlemen of those countries went to 
Edinbui-gh, to represent to your council 
the heavy pressures that they and their 
people lay under ; and were ready to offer 
to them all that law and reason could re- 
■ quire of them for securing the peace. The 
council did immediately, upon their appear- 
ance there, set forth a proclamation, requir- 
ing them to depart the town in three days, 
upon the highest pains. And when the 
duke of Hamilton did petition to stay two 
or three days longer upon urgent affairs, it 
was refused. When some persons of qual- 
ity had declared to the duke of Lauderdale, 
that they would go and represent their con- 
dition to your majesty, if they could not 
have justice from your ministers; for pre- 
venting that, a proclamation was set out, 
forbidding all the subjects to depart the 
kingdom without license, that so your ma- 
jesty might not be acquainted with the 
sad condition of your subjects: a thino- 
Avithout all precedent and law, to cut off 
your subjects from making application to 
your majesty; nor less contrary to your 
majesty's true interest (who must be always 
the refuge of yoiu* people) than to the na- 
tural right of the subject. 

" The former particulars relate to the in- 
vasion of the rights of great numbers of 
your subjects aU at once; what foUow, 
have immediately fallen upon some single 
persons, yet are such as your whole people 
apprehend they may all be upon the slight- 
est occasions, brought under the like 
mischiefs. 

" The council hath, upon many occasions, 
proceeded to a new kind of punishment, 
of declaring men incapable of all public 
trust; concerning which, )rour majesty may 
remember \vhat complaints the duke of 
Lauderdale made, when during the earl of 
Middleton's administration, he himself was 
put under an incapacity by an act of parlia- 
ment. The words of his paper against the 
earl of Middleton are. Incapacitating was to 
whip with scorpions, a punishment intend- 
ed to rob men of their honour, and to lay a 
lasting stain upon them and their posterity,' 
iS:c. And if this was so complained of, 



when done by the high court of parliament, 
your majesty may easily conclude it can- 
not be done in any lower court : but not- 
withstanding it is become of late years an 
ordinary sentence of council, when the 
least complaints are brought in against any 
with whom the dulie of Lauderdale or his 
brother are offended. 

Instances of this are, 

" The declaring of twelve honest and 
worthy citizens of Edinburgh incapable of 
public trust, against whom no complaint 
was ever made to this day, as your majesty 
will perceive by another paper to be offered 
to you concerning that affair: the true 
cause of it was, that these men being in 
the magistracy, the duke of Lauderdale 
and his brother could not get a vast bribe 
from them out of the town's money, which 
was afterward obtained vhen they were 
removed. 

" The provosts of Glasgow, Aberdeen, 
and Jedburgh were put under the same 
sentence for signing a letter to your ma- 
jesty, in the convention of buiTows, with 
the rest of that body : which letter was ad- 
vised by him who is now your majesty's 
advocate, as that which had nothing in it 
Avhich could bring them under any guilt ; 
and yet these three were singled out of the 
whole number, and incapacitated, besides a 
high fine and a long imprisonment; as your 
majesty will more fully perceive by another 
paper to be offered to you. 

" Sir Patrick Huine of Polworth, being 
sent by the shire of Berwick, to complain 
of some illegal proceedings and to obtain a 
legal remedy to them, which he did only in 
the common form of law, Avas also declared 
incapable of public trust, besides many 
months' imprisonment. 

" The provost of Linlithgow, being com- 
plained of, for not furnishing some of your 
forces with baggage-horses, Mas called be- 
fore the council ; and, because he said, they 
wave not bound by law to furnish horses 
in such manner, he Mas immediately de- 
clared incapable of public trust, and Mas 
both fined and imprisoned. 

" There are also about fifty in the toun 
of St Johnston incapacitate, upon a very 
illegal pretence ; so that it is almost impos- 



CHAP. I J I.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



161 



sible for them to find a sufficient number of 
citizens for the public magistracy of that 
town. 

" Your subjects are, sometimes upon 
slight, and sometimes upon no ground, im- 
prisoned, and are often kept prisoners many 
months and years, nothing being objected 
to them, and are required to enter them- 
selves prisoners, which is (;ontrary to law. 
It was in the former article expressed, 
tliat many of the persons declared incapable 
of public trust, did also suffer imprison- 
ment. 

And, besides these instances, 

"Lieutenant general Drummond, M^hose 
eminent loyalty and great services are well 
known to your majesty, was required to 
enter himself prisoner in the castle of 
Dumbarton, where he was kept a year and 
a half, and ^ysis made close prisoner for 
three months of that time, and yet nothing 
was ever objected against him to this day, 
to justify that usage. My lord Cardi'oss 
was, upon his lady's keeping two conven- 
ticles in her own house, at which he was 
not present, fined in 1,111 pounds sterling 
(the print copy bears 1 1,000 pounds) and 
hath been kept now four years prisoner in 
the castle of Edinburgh, where he still 
remains, though he has often petitioned. 
And Sir Patrick Hume hath been now 
almost a year imprisoned a second time, 
and nothing is yet laid to his charge. 

" Besides these illegal imprisonments, the 
officers of your majesty's forces carry fre- 
quently warrants with them, foi apprehend- 
ing of persons that are under no legal cen- 
sure, nor have been so much as cited to 
appear; which puts many of your subjects 
under great fears, especially upon what was 
done in council about thi-ee years ago. 

" Captain Carstairs, a person now well 
enough known to your majesty, did entrap 
one iVIr Kirktou, an outed minister, into a 
chamber of Edinburgh, and did violently 
abuse him, upon design to have extorted 
some money from him : the noise of this 
coming to jNIr Bailie of Jerviswood, brother- 
in-law to the said Mr Kirkton, he came to 
the house, and hearing him cry murder, 
murder, forced open the chamber door, 
where he found the captain and hisbrother- 

i;i. 



in-law grappling. The captain pre. 
tended he had a warrant against ISIr 
Kirkton, and Mr Bailie desired him to show 
it, and promised all obedience should be given 
it, and that he himself would assist him in 
executing of it. But the captain refusing 
to do it, Mr Kirkton was rescued ; which 
was only the delivering a man out of the 
hands of a robber, which nature obliges all 
men to do, especially being joined with so 
near a relation. The captain complained 
of that to the council, and my lord Halton 
Avith others were appointed to examine 
witnesses. When it was brought before 
the council, the duke of Hamilton, the 
earls of Morton, Dumfries and Kincardine, 
my lord Cochran and Sir Archibald Prim- 
rose register, desired that the report of the 
examination might be read ; but that, not 
serving their ends, was denied ; and these 
lords delivered their opinion, that since 
Carstairs did not show any warrant, nor 
was clothed with any public character, it 
was no opposing of public authority in Mr 
Bailie to rescue his brother-in-law. Yet 
Mr Bailie was for this fined in six thou- 
sand merks, or three hundred and eighteen 
pounds steriing, and kept long prisoner; 
and these lords Avere upon that so repre- 
sented to your majesty, that, by the duke of 
Lauderdale's procurement, they were turn- 
ed out of the council, and out of all com- 
mand in the militia. And it can be made 
a})pear, that the captain at that time had no 
warrant against Mr Kirkton, but procured 
it after the violence was committed, and 
it was antedated to serve the turn at that 
time. This manner of proceeding hath 
ever since put your subjects under sad 
apprehensions. 

" There is one other particular offered to 
your majesty's consideration, concerning the 
way of using prisoners. There were fo nr- 
teen men taken at a field conventicle, who 
Avithout being legally convicted of that or 
any other crime, were secretly, and in th e 
night taken out of prison, by a warrant 
signed by the earl of Linlithgow, lords 
Halton and CoUington, and were delivered 
to captain Maitland, Avho had been page to 
the duke of Lauderdale, but was then a 
French officer, and was making his levies 
in Scotland, and Avere carried over to the 

X 



lG'2 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



1679. 



service of the French kintr, in the ! 



year 1676.* 

" The council hath, upon many occasions, 
proceeded to most unreasoiiahle and arbi- 
trary fines, either for slight offences, or for 
offences, ^^•here the line is regulated by 
law, which they have never considered 
when the persons were not acceptable to 
them. So the lord Cardross was lined in 
twenty thousand merks, that is, 1111 
pounds sterling, for his lady's keeping- two 
conventicles in her house, and christening 
his child by an outed minister, without his 
knowledge. The provost formerly men- 
tioned. Bailie of Jerviswood, A^ith many 
more, were also lined without any regard 
of law. 

" The council has at several times pro- 
ceeded to the taking of gentlemen's dwell- 
ing-houses from them, and putting garri- 
sons in them, in time of peace, contrary to 
law. In the year 1675, it was designed 
against twelve of your majesty's subjects, 
and was put in execution in the house of 
the earl of Calendar, lord Cardross and 
lady Lumsden, and was again attempted in 
the year IG7S. And houses belonging to 
the lairds of Cesnock, Balquhan, and Row- 
allan, were possessed by soldiers, and de- 
clared to be garrisons : nor did it rest there, 
but orders were sent from tlie council- 
board, requiring the counties about these 
houses to furnish them for the soldiers' 
use, and to supply them ^^■ith many neces- 
saries, manifestly contrary to law. It was 
against this that Sir Patrick Hume came to 
desire a remedy ; and common justice being 
denied him, he used a legal protestation in 



* Original letter, Mr John Carstares to Mr Robert 
M'Ward, February I6t/i, 1676. 
My dearest brother, you also doubtlesse heard 
of the s'vJng away 12 or 14 of the poor men that 
lay so loiige prisoners here in the tolbooth, lor 
being found hearing an outed minister preacli the 
gospel], to a frenoh captain, an uiiusuall barbarity, 
they are in effect thrustout from the inheritance'of 
the Lord, and bidden goe serve other gods. There 
is some tall<e here, but I think without ground, as 
if the dutch had catched them. Largo was 
lined last thursday in 4000 merks, and .SOO for 
hearing and receating Mr Welsh into his house, 
several! persons ar cited against to-morrow to 
the councell, for having been foutid at conventi- 
cles long since, — your friend was with us last 
Lord's day, with some few others, and some of 
these persons cited against to-morrow. — Jac. 
V. 1. 26. n. il.—Ed. 



the ordinary form of law, and was there- 
upon kept many months a prisoner, and 
declared incapable of all public trust, as 
was formei'ly mentioned. 

" There is another particular, whic'h, be- 
cause it is so odious, is unwillingly touched ; 
yet it is nec^essary to inform your majesty 
about it, for thereby it will appear, that the 
duke of Laiulerdale and his brother have in 
a most solemn manner broken the public 
faith that was given in your majesty's 
name. One Mitchell being put in prison, 
on great suspicion of his having attempted 
to murder the late archbishop of St An- 
drews, and there being no evidence against 
him, warrant was given by the duke of 
Lauderdale, then your majesty's commis- 
sioner, and your council, to promise him 
his life if he would confess, whereupon he 
did confess : and yet, some years after, that 
person (who indeed did deserve many- 
deaths, if there had been evidence against 
him) was upon that confession convicted 
of his crime ; and the duke of Lauderdale 
and his brother being put to it by him, did 
swear, that they neither gave nor knew of 
any assurance of life given him. And when 
it was objected, that the promise was upon 
record in the council-books, the duke of 
Lauderdale did in open court, when he was 
present only as a witness, and ought to 
have been silent, threaten them, if they 
should proceed to the examination of that 
act of council, which, as he then said, might 
infer perjury in them who had sworn ; and 
so did cut off the proof of that defence, 
M'hich had been admitted by the court as 
good in law, and sufficient to save the 
prisoner if proved. Tliis man was hanged 
upon the evidence of that confession only, 
though the promise that drew it from him 
appears upon record, and can be proved by 
many witnesses, and other clear evidences. 
And from this your majesty may judge 
what credit can be given to such men. 

" We do not at present enlarge upon 
other particulars, though of great impor- 
tance, such as monopolies, selling jjlaces 
and honours, turning men of known inte- 
grity out of their employments and offices, 
to which they had a just and good right 
during their lives, the profits of one of the 
most considerable of these being sequestrate 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



163 



for some time, and applied for the duchess 
of Lauderdale's use; the treating; about, 
and receiving of great bribes by the duke 
and duchess of Lauderdale, and the lord 
Halton, and particularly from the towns of 
Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Linlithgow, and 
many others, for procuring from your ma- 
jesty warrants for illegal impositions within 
these towns ; the manifest and public per- 
verting of justice in the session, besides the 
Diost signal abuses in the mint and copper 
coin, that are most grievous to all your 
subjects : but the number of these is so 
great, and they would require so many 
witnesses to be brought hither for proving 
them, that, we fear, it would too much 
trouble your majesty now to examine them 
all. But your majesty shall have a full 
account of them afterward. 

" One thing is humbly offered to your 
majesty, as the root of those and many 
other oppressions, which is, that the me- 
thod of governing the kingdom of Scotland 
for several years has been, that the lord 
Halton and his adherents frame any letter 
that they desire from your majesty to yoiu* 
council, and send it to the duke of Lauder- 
dale, who returns it signed unto them ; and 
tliis is brought unto the council; upon 
which, if a debate at any time arise, con- 
cerning the matter of the letter, as being 
against or without law; and when it is pro- 
posed that a representation of that should 
be made to your majesty, then the lord 
Halton, in his insolent way, calls to have it 
put to the question, as if it were a crime to 
have any warrant debated, or represented 
to your majesty, w hich is procured by the 
duke of Lauderdale or himself; and this is 
echoed by his party, and by this means all 
further debating is stopped. 

" There are some other particulars re- 
lating to many of these heads, that are 
ready to be offered to your majesty in 
other papers, which are not added here, 
lest your majesty should now be troubled 
with too long a paper." 

This detail of matters of fact, lays open 
so much of the iniquity of this period, that 
it deserves particularly to be noticed; it 
certainly contains a material vindication of 
the people at Bothwell, who appeared in 
defence of religion and liberty. The paper 



Mas formed by some of the best hands 
in the kingdom, and keeps close to a 
bare narrative « ithout any reflection. Had 
the nobility and gentlemen concerned iu this 
paper landed many things narrated at the 
door of the prelates, as well as Lauderdale's, I 
conceive the representation had been fuller, 
and not the less just. But Sharp, the 
prime actor in many of them, was now re- 
moved, and this method Avould not have 
answered their purpose, and, it may be, 
would in some measure have marred it. 
And so all is landed upon the duke. This 
one thing I notice, that as prelacy in Scot- 
land was one great source and occasion of 
our pressures and evils, so there were in 
England, at this time, ^ho had the same 
views of prelacy there. And with their 
essays to recover their civil liberty, were 
complaining of the evil influence prelacy 
had upon their civil concerns. It must 
indeed be o^ned, that the bishops of 
England, even at this time, and much more 
since the revolution, have been far better 
men. Christians, and countrymen, than the 
prelates in Scotland; yet many of them 
siding with the court for a popish succes- 
sor, and, as some remark, casting the 
balance against the bill of exclusion, very 
uuich diminished their character; and it 
was further thought, that their office, as 
established, was no small hindrance to trade 
and civil liberty. And that the reader 
may have some view of the reasons ad- 
vanced for this, I have insert below* a 

* Ansicer out of the u<est to a qiiestion out of the 
north, wherein the earth is opened, and the nap- 
kin found, in which the trading talent of' the na- 
tion hath been tied up, and lain hid for some 
years last past ; for want of which, all persons in 
England, from'the tenant to the landlord, from 
the U'eaver to the merchant, have lan'j,uished of a 
deep consumption. 

Above all things good policy is to be nsed, that the trea- 
sure and moneys iu a state be not gatliered into few 
hands, for otherwise a state may have a great stock, 
and yet starve ; and money is lil<e muck, not good ex- 
cept it be spread.— Sir F. Bacon, Ess. of Sedition and 
Troubles, chap. xv. p. 85. 

The blessings of Judah and Issachar will never meet, 
that the same people or nation should be both the 
lion's whelp, and the ass between two burdens. 
Neither will it be, that a people overlaid with taxes, 
should ever become martial and valiant. — Idem, p. 

So the king was wroth, and called for his priests, and 
said unto them. If ye tell me not who it is that hath 
devoured these expenses, ye shall die. And the king 
said, 1 see the footsteps of men, women, and children : 
and the king was angry, and took the priests with 
their wives and children, who showed him the privy 
door where they came in, and consumed such things us 



164 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



ipr-Q paper printed and handed about in 

England at this time, intituled, " An 

Answer out of the West to a Question 

out of the North," which contains the 



were upon the table. — Hist, of liell and the Drae-on. 
ver. 8, aO, 2). 

Sir, 

I must beg j-our pardon that I have so long 
tired your expectations, and whicli is vvoi'se, 
have altogether failed them, except the few 
scraps you find in this J'eply will stop the 
mouth of your first query ; for as to the four 
last, I have neither time nor capacity to send 
you any thing that may claim the title of a 
resolve. Yet that others more able, may con- 
tribute towards an answer to your so seasonable 
and rational demands, and that you may not 
think 1 have forgot them, I shall here insert 
them in order, as you proposed. 

Query 1. Whether the great cause of impo- 
verishing the nation, ruin of trade, and general 
consumption of comfort, settlement and content, 
which hath brought the land to a mere anatomy, 
is not caused by the pomp, pride, luxury, exac- 
tion, and oppressions of the prelates? 

Query 2. Whether, since ail other I'eformed 
churches in Europe did, upon the first reforma- 
tion and departure from popery, cast out ail 
diocesan bishops, name and tliitiij, root and 
branch, as an office altogether popish, together 
^vith all their hierarclii<'.al appui'tenances, and 
do to this day esteem of them no otherwise ; 
why did not, or doth not England also do the 
like? 

Query 3. Whether the several reformed coun- 
tries beyond the seas, did not take into the hands 
of their supreme governors all the lordly reve- 
nues of the prelates, and reserve them for public 
use, or dispose part of them to su<'h persons as 
had well deserved of them in the faithful service 
"if their country; and if so, whether it might 
lot be of good and great concern to this king- 
dom, for the lordships and baronies belonging 
to so many useless persons, to be disposed of by 
public authority, for public good; and more 
especially for tlie honourable maintenance of 
those worthy persons, and their postei'ity, who 
have lost their blood and estates in the king's 
service, and at present lie under great discour- 
agements, and bleeding wounds in their tempo- 
I'als, for want of a suitalile recompense; whilst 
these, who put them all together, never did half 
tlie service, nor, if occasion should require, never 
can, as one of these heroic gentlemen, yet, as 
ecclesiastics, are rewarded with two, three, four, 
five, six, seven, and eight thousand pounds per 
annum, a man ? 

Query 4. Whether, in those kingdoms and 
states where prelacy is extirpated, and a pres- 
bytery only retained, there be not as godly, able, 
orthodox preachers, and as constant preaching 
as in this kingdom ; and moreespecially, whether 
their subjects are not as cordially obedient, and 
as free from any rebellion, as in these places, 
where bishops are retained ? and also, whether 
their councils are not more free from molesta- 
tion, their nobility and gentry free from affronts, 
and the commonalty more free from oppre.ssion, 
where the prelates are disabled from sitting in 



larn^est detail of the civil grievances 
flowing from the hierarchy there, which 
I have seen ; and I suppose the paper 
is rare. How just they are, I must 



council, from pearking above the nobles, and 
froin imposing upon the commons? 

Query 5. Whether the present state of affairs 
in our neighbour nations, especially of France, 
who have a prodigious victorious army, a fleet 
still lying at IJochel, a fit place from whence to 
invade us, and the great industry of the pope 
employed to divert their arms from Spain, and 
turning them upon some other design ; whether, 
I say, it be not reasonable to consider of some 
way to engage all hearts and hands in this na- 
tion unanimously to oppose all invasions, rather 
than to multiply discouragements upon the body 
of the people by episcopal oppressions ? 

In ansvi'er to your first, I am by many rea- 
sons induced to conclude in the affirmative, that 
the cause of impoverishing the nation, ruin of 
trade, and general consumption of comfort, set- 
tlement and content, is caused by the pomp, 
pride, luxury, exaction, and oppression of the 
prelates. It is a true maxim of the learned Ve- 
rulam, "a smaller number that spend more, and 
earn less, do wear out an estate sooner than a 
greater number that live lower, and gather 
more : so it is with an overgrown clergy, for 
they bring nothing to the stock." " That the 
trading stock of the nation is devoured in this 
pre'.atical gulf, I shall demonstrate, by laj'ing 
op( II to view the black back-door, and sink that 
hath drained the trading purse dry. 

First. Tlie revcimes, ptmip^and slate of the pre- 
lates. — There are two provincial archbishops, 
Canterbury and York ; with their princely re- 
tinue, domestic chaplains, officers for temporal 
tithes, their spiritual officers, vicar-general, 
guardian of the spiritualities, dean of the arches, 
with all their under-ofRcers and attendants. 

Secondly. His courts. Court qffacullies. Court 
of audience. Prerogative court. Delesiates. — 
There are four and twenty bishops diocesan, 
with their tJ'ains, domestic servants, chaplains, 
ofiicers, and courts. To these belong 26 chan- 
cellors, and their attendants, 24 registrars with 
their clerks, 24 gentlemen apparitors, 120 infe- 
rior apparitors, 48 proctors. There are under 
these bishops, 60 arch-deacons, and these have 
60 courts, to which belong commissaries, officials, 
surrogates, 60 registrars, 120 proctors, 200 appa- 
ritors. So that the number belonging to arch- 
bishops, bishops, archdeacons, and their trade, 
are judged to be no less than ten thousand per- 
sons ; which will require, for their maintenance, 
two hundred thousand pounds per aimum, reck- 
oning them at twenty pounds a man; whereas 
some of them have one hundred pounds, some 
two hundred pounds, some four hundred pounds, 
squeezed out of the poor people. As for their 
standing rents, they are well known. Their 
lordly palaces, sumptuous houses, ecclesias- 
tical dignities, baronies, &c, viis et modis, 
such is their income, that it amounts at least 
to four hundred and fifty thousand pounds a 
year. 

They have many other ways to enrich them- 
selves, and impoverish the nation ; as First. By 
ordaining deacons and ministers four times a 



CHAP. 111. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



165 



leave to the defeuders of that constitu- 
tion. 

This paper, " Particular Matters of Fact," 
&c. when printed and spread, made a great 



year for money, by which they put up yearly 
hundreds of pounds. Secondly. By instituting 
an(I inducting parsons and vicars to benefices 
when they fall ; for every such institution and 
induction they have three pounds at least. And 
in England there are 9,Sb5 parishes ; so that at 
the rate of one in a parish, it amounts to twen- 
ty-seven thousand eig'-it hundred fifty-five 
pounds. Thirillt/. By making rural deans yearly, 
and for the oath taking, they pay eight siiiliings 
and sixpence, h'oinihli/. By granting licenses 
to beneficed ministers, to preach in their own 
cures: though they be ordained before, and 
strictly commanded to preach, yet they must 
not do it without a license, and this license costs 
them ten shillings, so that in 9,285 parishes, this 
comes to four thousand six hundred forty-two 
pounds ten shillings. Fiflhiy. By gra;iting 
licenses to curates to preach ; licenses for school- 
masters to teach school ; licenses for paiish 
clerks; licenses to physicians to pi'actise physic; 
licenses to midwives to do their office; and 
licenses to marry, which thing of itself ariseth 
to a vast revenue. For absolving excommuni- 
cated persons. For putting men to clear them- 
selves by oath, witfi their compurgators. For 
commutation of penance ; for so the rich come 
off with a round sum of money, but the poor 
doing their penance in kind, must stand excom- 
municated until they have paid their fees. 
Sixthli/. By probates <if wills, and granting let- 
ters of administration, which brings in con- 
stantly great sums of money. Seventhh/. By 
framing new articles, and forcing church war- 
dens 10 present upon oath, whereby many inno- 
cent persons are brought into their courts, and 
squeezed both in conscience and purse ; and so is 
the church warden also, if he do not take the 
oath pi'epared for him. 

By their visitations for vioney. First. Church 
wardens of every parish in England and chapel, 
are called, who receive a book of articles to pre- 
sent by ; if ajiy are wanting, they are warned to 
appear at their courts with costs.- These church 
wardens pay for their book of articles every 
year, (though the very same) as also for writing 
their presentments by a clerk (which they them- 
selves could do, but are not permitted) two 
shillings fourpence ; which in 9,285 parishes 
comes to one thousand fifty-eight j)ounds odd 
money yearly. Secnndlij. Ministers that are 
licensed, pay one shilling eightpence, or there- 
abouts, for showing their license to preach, to 
the registrar, at every bishop's visitation, though 
seen and allowed before; after that four shillings 
for procuration, to the bishop ; and to the gentle- 
man apparitor eightpence, though most pay 
twelvepence. 1 shall omit the poor curates' 
suit and service at this court, only let you know, 
that when any archbishop comes newly to York, 
all the parsons and vicars in his jurisdiction, 
though never so poor, and theii- charge never so 
great, give him a tenth of their livings for a 
benevolence, to help the poor bishop to settle 
himself in five or six thousand pounds a year ; 
and if anj', yea, the meanest vicar, whose poor 
children want bread, do through poverty onut 



1G79. 



noise. And July 1 1th, the council 
receive a letter from Lauderdale 
about it, bearing, " that the king is informed 
of an infamous Ubel, writ and dispersed at 



the payment, this reverend father doth pitifully 
whip "him to the very bones, in his merciless 
spiritual court. 

Bi/ a rcli -deacons' vi^iifaliovs. These are twice 
a year. At Easter visitation the ministers pay 
their paschal rents, or synodals, which sums are 
not alike to all ; some pay 50, some less. At 
Michaelmas they pay procurations; some seven 
shillings, some ten shillings, some less. _ But it 
is judgCd that ministers pay yearly at visitations, 
five thousand pounds, and upwards. 

fjy the vast chai^jes in collegiate churches. 
There are twenty-six great deans with their 
attendants and seivants, five hundred and forty- 
four canons, residents and prebendaries, with a 
numerous train of vicars, petty canons, singing 
men and boys, choristers, organists, gospellers, 
epistlers, vergers. Now this jovial crew have 
belonging to them, about four hundred thousand 
pounds yearly, in lands, rents, leases, and other 
revenues and profits thereunto belonging. 

The excessive expenses that many thousands of 
the trading people of the natioiL are put wilo, by 
the rigorous and tyrannical proceedings f the bish- 
ops, in excommunicating persons, for threepence, 
sirpencc, and very trivial things. A catalogue 
may shortly be presented to you of the many 
fauiilies already undone by them; wherein it 
will be made manifest, that more families have 
been ruined, more persons imprisoned, more 
money spent by the i-.ruelty of the prelates' pro- 
ceedings, than by all law suits in all courts of 
judicature, all payments and taxes whatsoever, 
except upon the late extraordinary occasion. 

The vast sufn's of money that the bishops, dea?is, 
L^'C. have treasured up, extarti?ig it from the snh- 
jecls for fines. You know, that for twenty years, 
some time bypast, their revenues were alienated, 
and sold for great sums of money to the natives 
of England. Those who bought them had 
greatly improved them, who, being some thou- 
sands of families, are undone by being turned 
out without any consideration. The bishops 
enter at a time when most of the old leases were 
expired, they proclaim their markets ; he that 
gives most, friend or foe, he shall be taken ten- 
ant. They screw up the value to the height; 
and hereby they have drained out of the people's 
])urses, such sums of money, that amounts to so 
monstrous a mass, that scarce any prince's trea- 
sury in Europe is able to balance it. In the 
mean time, the money that before ran current 
in trading, is dammed up in their cofl'ers. 
Hereby the money that should cat ry on tiade, 
is engi-ossed into the hands of a few rusty eccle- 
siastics, who neither serve our Lord .Jesus 
Christ, nor their country, but their own bellies; 
and hoard up the riches that should be, as the 
blood in the vena porta, to be distributed into 
every vein and pait of the body; but by being 
choked up in their corban, brings the whole 
nation into a consumption. And it is very 
considerable, that, in all other trades, men have 
something for their money. The farmer hath 
good lands foi' his money from the gentleman ; 
the clothier hath good wool from the farmer for 
bis money; the merchant hath good ;;loth from 



166 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK IIL 



Ediuburirh, printed and dispersed at 
London, and cried in the streets, re- 
flecting- upon the proceedings of the lords 
of council and session; that the king orders 



the clothier for his money, and thus it goes 
round to every one's benefit: but pray, what 
have we from the bishops for our money? The 
answer will readily be made bv the major part 
of the land. First. We have all our able, 
godly, orthodox ministers turned out, ruined 
and beggared, and no manner of supply provid- 
ed lor the maintenance of them and their fami- 
lies ; and in their rooms, in many places, a com- 
pany of debauched, illiterate, superstitious, pro- 
fane priests; which blind guides must needs 
lead them that follow them — to hell. Secondly. 
We have gotten most of our church-wardens 
perjured, that do swear to present according 
to their visitation articles, and most of them un- 
done that do not swear; although the imposing 
of such an oath is a breach of the fundamental 
laws of the land. Those church-wardens that 
are not perjured, but pursue the oath in perse- 
cuting their neighbours, are plunged into such 
horrid guilt, that without serious repentance, 
they must perish eternally ; for they persecute 
the godly for godliness' sake, the righteous for 
righteousness' sake, as will appear in these fol- 
lowing instances. Imo. If a minister, never so 
godly and able, yea, though ordained, preach 
Tvithout a license I'roiri the bishop, the church- 
■wardeu is bound to present him, and bring him 
into trouble: if he preach in a cloke, aTid not in 
a garment canonical, he is bound to do the like. 
2do. If any person go to hear a sermon from his 
own parish church though there be no preaching 
minister there, nor no sermon at all, and though 
he be bound by his vow in baptism to hear ser- 
mons, this man isto be presented! Stio. Ifapoor 
man, that hath not bread for his family, but 
what he earneth by his daily labour ; if he work 
upon a holy day, appointed by Romish institu- 
tion, he is to be presented. 4to. If any person, 
coming to church to their service, do not stand 
up at the creed, do not bow at the name of Jesus, 
do not keep otf his hat all the while, he must be 
presented. Now there are in all, threescore 
and fourteen thousand church-wardens and 
sidesmen in England every year, and what a 
dreadful thing is it to have all these yearly, 
either perjured, persecutors or persecuted? 
Thiidly. We have gotten most of the sober 
trading part of the nation discouraged by cita- 
tions, excommunications, writs to take them 
excommunicated, imprisonments upon ecclesias- 
tical accounts: by this means, thousands of 
families are already ruined, and many hundreds 
are ready to leave the land, and remove into 
some other country, where they may have liberty 
of conscience, and freedom from these devour- 
ing harpies. Fourthly. W'e have got instead of 
the gospel in the power and purity of it, a ser- 
vice collected out of the Romish books, the mass, 
breviary, &c. which service of ours king James 
called an ill-sung mass. We have got surplices, 
caps, tippets, cringings, &c. out of the Romish 
rituals, insomuch that the papists themselves 
chU it, an apish imitation of the mass. Fifthly. 
We have gotten a swarm of ecclesiastical officers, 
which the scriptures never knew, nor reformed 



a diligent inquiry, Avhere, and by whom, 
the copies are written out, and dispersed at 
Edinburgh; the accounts at London bear- 
ing, that they are written at the chamber 



churches ever owned. Sixthly. W^e have got a 
sort of proud prelates, of mean extract, not of 
the highest rank for godliness, learning and la- 
bour in the word, nor the greatest champions 
for the protestant religion ; witness their silence 
at such a time, when popery hath so travailed 
to bring forth so many popish books printed and 
published in England,- in aft'ront and contempt 
of the reformed religion, yet few of our bishops 
have stood up in opposition to their design, nor 
printed any caution against popery, or answer 
to the popish pernicious pamphlets. However 
very elate they are, affronting our nobility, 
trampling upon our gentry, grinding to powder 
all that put not into their mouths, or oft'er not 
at their shrine : insomuch, that a gentleman of 
quality, a person of i:,"3000 jier annum, speak- 
ing to one of the said prelates (lately dead) bold- 
ly, but with due respect ; the ])relate, in a fume, 
answered, " What, sir, do you think that it is tit 
for every jack-gentleman to sjteak thus to a bish- 
op ?" deriding the gentry of our land, as not 
worthy to speak to a peevish prelate. Surely a 
gentleman of ioOO per annum would have 
fallen under censure for presuming to speak to 
his postilion. 

We have gotten all manner of misery to soul 
and body, plague, fire, sword, universal beggary, 
and, without seasonable mercy, the total ruin of 
the whole kingdom : but 1 know you will ques- 
tion, whether our miseries do arise from the 
cause assigned ? To this i answer. The mani- 
fold provoking sins of the land, as adultery, 
blaspheiny, swearing, idolatry, perjury, and 
contempt of God and godliness, do pull hard 
with heaven to bring down desolating judg- 
ments. Rut that the nearest cause of our im- 
poverishments ariseth from the particulars fore- 
mentioned, will appear, if you weigh the pre- 
misses before inserted, and give them leave to 
spealf theii'ovvn conclusion. If perjury causeth 
a land to mourn ; if oppression and rigid perse- 
cution upon the trading part of a land begets 
discontent and deserting of trade; if rigorous 
exacting, and sordid hoardinir up the money 
that should run current in trade, and t'latLy 
such who contribute nothing to the puolic weal, 
be the bane of trafiic, and the famishment of 
the poor handicraftsman, then we may lay all 
our calamities at the bishops' doors. 

I shall call in some credible witnesses, divines 
and martyi's, to confirm this truth, and so leave 
it with you. Bishop Jewel on Hag 1. records 
out of Johannes Farisiensis, and others, " that 
when Constautine the great advaticed bishops, 
and endowed the church with lands and tem- 
poral possessions, there was a voice of angels 
heard in the air, saying, Iwdie venenum hifundi- 
tiiin ill ecdfisiam, this day poison is poured into 
the church." Bernard writes, " Since prelates 
increased in worldly pomp, choosing the first 
places in the church, they have been the chiefest 
in persecuting Jesus Christ, and have ever 
showed themselves not teachers but deceivers, 
not pastors hut impostors, not prelates but 
Pilates, succeeding, not Feter in teaching, but 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



167 



of James Hay, ^^'riter, who married a niece 
of Sir Archibald Primrose." The council 
appoint a committee to examine into this ; 
and atterwards, July 19th, they send up the 
examinations relative thereunto. Mean- 
while, July nth, they write a letter to the 



Romulus in murdering." Lord Cobham, that 
faithful martyr, saitli to the bishops, " No 
gi'duiiil have ye in all the scriptures, so lordly to 
take it upon you, hut in Annas and Caiaphas, 
who sat in judgment upon Christ and his 
apostles ; ol' them only have you taken 't to 
judge Christ's members as ye do." Mr Tindal, 
that godly and leanu'd martyr, wi'iteth, " Wo 
to the reahn where prelates are of the council ! 
As profitable is the prelacy to the realm with 
their council, as wolves to the sheep, or foxes to 
the geese ; for there is no mischief or disorder, 
whether it be in the temporal regimen, or 
spiritual, wheieof they are not the cliief causes, 
and even the very fountain and spring ; so that 
it is impossible to j)reach against any mischief, 
except thou begin at them, or to set up any re- 
formation in the world, except they are first re- 
formed. They are as obdurate as Pharaoh, and 
therefore persecute they God's word, and the 
preachers thereof. They stir up mischief in 
the world, setting princes to war. They get 
into the consciences of kings, and persuade them 
what they list, neither can any king have rest 
for them. They pretend they are for God and 
the church, but their secret intent is to bring all 
under their power, and when they once are set 
high, then are they tyrants above all tyrants. " 
Mr John Frith, that worthy martyr, in his an- 
swer to jNJr IMoor's preface. " Since Sylvester 
received such possessions, hath the canker so 
crept into the church, that it hath almost left 
never a sound member. Then, instead of God's 
word, they preached their own commandments, 
and made laws to have all under them ; and 
even, as in the rooms of Moses, Aaron, Joshua, 
Caleb, and other such faithful leaders, came 
Herod, Annas, Caiaphas, Pilate, and Judas, 
which put Christ to death ; so now^ instead of 
Christ, Peter, Paul, James, John, and the 
faithful fdllowei's of Christ, we have popes, cai- 
dinals, archbishops, and proud prelates, with 
their procters, and malicious ministers of their 
master the devil, whose end shall be accrording 
to their works." Dr Barnes, in his supplica- 
tion tc Plenry VIII. " Now it is so far come, 
that vvhos(ever he be, high or low, rich or poor, 
wise or toolish, that speaketh against the pre- 
lates, and their vicious living, he is either made 
a traitor to your grace, or an heretic, enemy, or 
schismatic against holy church ; as though the 
prelates were kings or gods. And if any man, 
out of God's law and right conscience, speak 
against their damnable tyranny, little will they 
stick to make him an heretic; and if that will 
not help to colour and maintain their oppres- 
sion, then add they treason, sedition, rebellion, 
and contempt of your grace, though he be ne- 
ver so true a subject." I shall conclude with a 
passage of learned Mr Timial, in his Obedience 
to a Christian Magistrate, p. 114, 128, 146, 
" As thou canst heal no disease except thou be- 
gin at the root, even so canst thou preach 
against no mischief, except thou begin at the 



1G79. 



king-, thanking- him for his con- 
cern in them, and desiring justice 
against such attempts. The curious reader 
will desire to see it; wherefore I have 
added it below.* 

Before any answ'er could come from the 



bishops. Whether Judas was a priest or no, I 
care not ; but of this 1 am sure, that he now is 
not only priest, but also a hishoi>, cardinal, and 
pope. Bishops that preach not, or that preach 
ought save God's word, are none of Christ's, 
nor of his anointing, but servants of the beast 
whose mark they bear, whose word they preach, 
whose law they maintain, clean against God's 
law. Bishops they are that can only minister 
the temporal sword, their office, the preaching 
of God's woid, laid aside ; which they will 
neither do themselves, nor suffer any man else, 
to do, but slay ^vith the temporal svvoid (which 
they have gotten out of the hands of all princes) 
them that would. The preaching of God's 
word is hateful to them. Why? for it is im- 
possible to preach Christ, except thou preach 
against antichrist, that is to say, them who, 
with their false doctrine, and violence of sword, 
enforce to quench the true doctrine of Christ. 
Our prelates ought to be our servants, as the 
apostles were, to teach us Christ's doctrine, and. 
not lords over us, to oppress us with their own 
doctrines and inventions." 



* Letter, Council to the King, July 11///, 1679. 

May it please your sacred majesty. 
As our zeai and faithfulness in your majesty's 
service shall ever be valued by us, as our great- 
est honour, as well as most bounden duty, so we 
most humbly acknowledge your majesty's gra- 
cious owning of us, and of our services, to be 
our greatest comfort and encouragement to per- 
severe therein, against all manner of difficulties 
and opposition. A fresh and signal instance of 
your royal justice, wisdom, and goodness in 
owning your majesty's authority and judica- 
tures, we have this day received by a letter from ' 
the duke of Lauderdale, wherein your majesty 
is graciously pleased to order us to inquire 
after the authors, contrivers, writers, spreaders, 
and other accessories to a late infamous libel, 
whereby the proceedings, both of the privy 
council and of the session, are grossly misrepre- 
sented, defamed, and slandered, and to proceed 
against them according to law and justice; 
whereunto (as to all other your royal com- 
mands) we shall be careful to pay diligent and 
exact obedience, and to return your majesty a 
clear account thereof. Upon this occasion we 
must crave leave to flee to your majesty's jus- 
tice, that you would not suffer our integrity and 
zeal in your service to be, with impunity to the 
defamers, represented to the world as our great- 
est crimes, nor allow private subjects to assume 
to themselves the boldness of arraigning your 
own prerogative, and of judging the actings and 
proceedings of your eminent judicatures, as cri- 
minal, without receiving punishment due to 
such heinous offences. Your majesty's royal 
ancestors have piously and prudently provided 
against all such scandalous and dangerous at- 
tempts upon the monarchy and government by 



168 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



council, the king, after many delays, 
at length was brought to allow a con- 
ference in his own presence upon these mat- 
ters of complaint. I have upon the former 
years taken notice of what passed in his ma- 
jesty's presence upon this subject, and I 
have not much to add ; only a letter writ, 
as it is plain, by one of Lauderdale's party 
at this time, is before me ; and though the 
account be only as to the one side, yet none 
other being come to my hand, I shall here 
insert it, as containing what passed. 

Windsor Castle, July 13th. 
" Sir, — Upon Tuesday last, the 8th in- 
stant, the party lords, with their two advo- 
cates. Sir George Lockhart, and Sir John 
Cunningham, which the king did not send 
for, but had allowed them to come to plead 
appeared. On the king's side was only the 
lord advocate, who undertook the debate 
against them all. The subject matter of 
the debate run upon what was contained 
in the libel printed by the party lords, 
which consists of the following heads : — 
I. The caiTying in of the forces and High- 
landers the last year into the west. 2. 
The taking of free quarter. 3. Tlie incapa- 
citating persons from office within burglis. 
4. The bond for masters to be answerable 



making good and wholesome laws against all 
calumniation and slanderers (by word or writ) 
of the king's person or government, or of his 
privy council, or their proceedings, and against 
all such as endeavour (by word or writ) to mis- 
construe or misrepresent public administrations, 
as thereby stirring up the subjects to misliking, 
sedition, and unquietness. And therefore a 
scandalous and calumnious libel, under the title 
of " Some particular matters of fact, relating to 
the administration of affairs in Scotland under 
the duke of Lauderdale, &c." having been some 
weeks ago dispersed here in writing, many co- 
pies whereof are now sent hither, published and 
printed, from London ; which, though it would 
seem, by its title, to be levelled against the duke 
of Lauderdale, (of whose great usefulness, in- 
tegrity, and faithlulness, for the interest of this 
kingdom, and your majesty's service in it, you 
have had so long proof and experience) yet, in 
its whole strain, we humbly conceive, it tends 
to the defamation of your majesty's government 
in this your ancient kingdom, and doth highly 
reflect on your majesty's own royal wisdom 
and actings, as well as on these proceedings of 
your council here, which your majesty hath 
graciously owned and authorized, which therein 
are represented as illegal and aibitrary ; and 
that in another kingdom, the subjects v\ hereof 
may be as easily abused and deluded by such 



for their families, servants, and tenants. 
5. The lawborrows. 6. The king's power 
in imprisoning indicia causa. 

" The lord advocate began to debate 
thus, lie desired to know what part of 
that paper they insisted upon, or what 
else. The paper itself, he said, consisted of 
three heads. 1. The several parts of the 
king's prerogative therein mentioned, and 
whether the king or his council doing these 
things, was allowed by the law of the king- 
dom, and whether the king had power to 
do so or not. The second was, if the king's 
power by law was right applied in the par- 
ticulars mentioned by the printed paper. 
The third was, accusations against private 
persons, such as the duke of Lauderdale 
and his brother. As to the first, there was 
a long debate, Avherein sometimes the law- 
yers spoke, many times the duke of Ham- 
ilton, sometimes the marquis of Athol, and 
oft-times Sir John Cochran, and at last the 
laird of Macnaughtan, to whom the king 
was pleased to say. You are indeed a great 
lawyer, and a Highland man. The king's 
advocate proved the king's prerogative 
controverted, by the municipal law of the 
kingdom, by printed statutes, and constant 
practiques; and at last the two iawyers 
acknowledged, that by law, the king might 



misrepresentations, as they are utterly unac- 
quainted with the laws and customs by which 
we are governed. We therefore, unless we 
would tamely betray your majesty's authority, 
and expose your eminent judicatures to con- 
tfmpt, and so render both useless for serving the 
ends of government, cannot but with great 
grief complain to your majesty of this high in- 
jury and affront done to your ju'ivj' council, and 
most humbly supplicate and beseech your ma- 
jesty's justice against the authors, contrivers, 
framers, writers, spreaders, printers, and all 
othei's who shall be found accessory to this ca- 
lumnious and injurious libel. We shall not 
doubt but your majesty will be graciously 
pleased to command this justice to be done to 
your faithful sei'vants and judicatures, so inso- 
iently invaded, when it is so humbly prayed by 
us, who shall never fail to observe the prescript 
of the laws in all our actings and proceedings 
towards your subjects, as to maintain your ma- 
jesty's just authority, aiid royal prerogative in- 
vi(dabl'e, against all the adversaries thereof. 
Thus, praying for your majesty's long, peaceable, 
and prosperous reign over us, we beg leave, in 
all humility, to subscribe ourselves 

Your majesty's most humble, most faithful, 

and most loyal subjects and servants, 

Subscribed by the sedeiunt, except the bishop 

of Ldinbur"h. 



CHAP. III. 



01<' THE CHUUCH OV SCOTLAND. 



109 



do what was done, but did much ques- 
tion the council's prudence in the par- 
ticular application mentioned in the printed 
paper. To this the advocate answered, 
that to question application, was to ques- 
tion the king, and his council who acted by 
his commission ; that no judicatory was to 
give an account of the application of law, 
because the members were sworn to act 
according' to their conscience ; that they 
had done so ; and to question this, were to 
overturn the fundamentals of all govern- 
ment; for then all sentences of a judica- 
tory would be misregarded by the subjects, 
and consequently no delinquents punished ; 
and by this means the subject would lose 
liberty and property. This answer brought 
all the matters of fact contained in the 
paper, to be debated one by one, which 
took up several hours, all which time the 
king heard patiently. As to the third, ^iz. 
accusations against pailicular persons, it 
was urged, that no accusation could be 
brought here without the kingdom against 
any particular man; for by act of par- 
liament in king James IPs time, all accusa- 
tions and pursuits must be made fii'st before 
the ordinary judge; and the king himself 
declared he would hear none such here at 
the first instance. 

" The debate lasted eight hours that day, 
from ten to one forenoon, and from four 
to nine in the evening. Upon Friday the 
1 1th, the king declared his pleasure, as is 
contained in his gracious letter to the coun- 
cil, sent b}'^ this flying packet. 

" In the end of the debate, the duke of 
Hamilton offered a long paper, which was 
an accusation of the general of the mint ; 
and Alexander Monro presented his petition, 
complaining that he had been turned out of 
the clerkship of the session, and this pro- 
cured by the duke of Lauderdale and his 
brother. Brimhall presented a paper for 
the twelve persons in the council of Edin- 
burgh, who had been incapacitate, and 
craved they might be restored. As to 
the accusation of the general of the mint, 
the king declared, that all contained in the 
paper were, things already tried, examined, 
and determined by him and his council, and 
therefore rejected it, and said the general 
was not concerned therein. As to Monro 

ui. 



his petition, he was informed that icq 
he had received seven thousand 
merks of composition, and thereupon had 
demitted his post. As to the last, of the 
twelve incapacitate persons, his majesty 
declared he is resolved to inquire into the 
former practique by the registers, and 
consider Avhat his predecessors have done 
in the like cases ; and, as he finds, he will 
determine ; and, if he find cause, they shall 
have a legal trial. 

" Upon Friday evening the party made an 
application to the king for a further hearing, 
being informed what his majesty had resolved 
upon the first hearing, alleging they had 
many material things yet to say, but would 
not tell particulars. To this his majesty 
yielded, and appointed this day, being July 
13th, at foiu- of the clock afternoon for the 
last hearing, declaring, after that, he would 
neither heai* them by word nor writ. Yes- 
terday Sir George Lockhart went to London; 
some of the party went after him, but he 
refused to return to debate, saying, he would 
debate no more against persons, that, for any 
thing he could see, would thereafter be his 
judges. Sir John Cunningham, and the 
rest of the party staid here ; and when their 
hour came, they sent the earl of Kincardine 
to tell the king they would insist no more. 
Whereupon the king hath been pleased to 
determine graciously as in this letter to 
the council. God save the king. I am, &c." 

It is not improbable, but the king's reso- 
lutions, contained in the letters just now 
to be insert, which came to be known on 
Friday 11th, to the lords who complained, 
discouraged them from insisting, and made 
Sir George Lockhart leave them. Mon- 
mouth came out to Windsor on the 1 0th, 
and, it may be, the second conference on 
the 13th took its rise from him. Duke 
Hamilton's party signify in some of their 
letters, that by reasoning the king was very 
much convinced of great mismanagements 
in Scotland, and seem to be much pleased, 
that they had got the liberty to lay these 
things before him. They allege, that his 
majesty being so long and much embarked 
with Lauderdale, he could not presently 
break with him, but hope Halton will be 
laid aside. And I find one letter, ^vrit at 
this time, says, that upon Saturday duke 



170 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK 111. 



ir-o Hamilton got notice, that as soon 
' as the king's affairs could allow it, 
the earl of Middleton and lord Tarbet 
M'ere to be made joint secretaries in the 
duke's room; upon which he declined 
insisting- any further. Whatever be in 
these, the king's revealed will came down 
by express to council, July 17th, in tliree 
letters, one to the council, another to the 
lords of the session, and a third to the jus- 
ticiary. The first, in a particular manner, 
was most acceptable to the managers, and 
looks like a full victory by Lauderdale. I 
here insert it. 

"Charles R.— Right trusty, &c. We 
well remember, that in the year 1674, we 
redressed the grievances even of those who 
would not in civility answer our letter to 
our parliament, at a time when we were 
so much concerned to have a testimony of 
the kindness of that our ancient kingdom ; 
and that our commissioner offered to 
redress in our name what further would be 
required, if the complainers would first 
acquaint him therewith, which, though 
refused, yet did not hinder us from satis- 
fying every thing that we could hear to be 
murmured against. Notwithstanding of all 
which, some of our nobility and gentry 
have continued in a constant course of 
misrepresenting our judicatories, and there- 
by lessening and weakening our authority, 
by taking upon them to be intercessors for 
our people, (an usurpation very factious, 
and dangerous to our government, and 
which we will never endure for the future) 
but yet to let all our subjects know our 
inclinations to justice, we did condescend 
for once to hear advocates upon the com- 
plaints given unto us, and to allow them a 
full security in debating even points of the 
greatest concern to our royal government, 
which, after we pressed upon the com- 
plainers, they often declined, upon pretext 
they had not their lawyers present : where- 
upon we having allowed them lawyers to 
come up, all was brought to a full and 
impartial debate. Upon which debates, we 
do now find, that it is acknowledged, even 
by their own advocates, that there was 
a law for doing such things as were con- 
troverted in some cases, excepting only 



whether we can lay aside incapacitate per- 
sons for magistracy, without a process ; as 
to which we are to be further cleared by 
the instances whereby that practick was 
maintained. And as to the matters of fact 
differed upon, we have now and formerly 
cleared our judgment upon them so fuUy 
that we cannot now in justice but declare, 
that we think our judicatories and servants, 
and especially the duke of Lauderdale, of 
whose fidelity and services we have had so 
long experience, most unjustly used by the 
givers in of those complaints, there being 
no council against which those accusations 
may not be gleaned up. Therefore we do not 
only acquit our judicatories, and every per- 
son among them from all the matter given in 
in a paper to us, and most injuriously and 
unwarrantably printed ; but we discharge 
for ever any person from giving in any of 
these complaints in any process, or manner 
whatsomever, and that under all highest 
pains. And as to the accusations against 
particular persons, we declare we will not 
hear such cases before ourself in the first 
instance, we being fully resolved never to 
injure so far that our ancient kingdom, as 
to draw hither processes whereby our sub- 
jects and counsellors would be infinitely 
prejudged. Having thus, and by our late 
proclamation, taken all possible pains to 
quiet all bypast distempers, we do, for the 
future satisfaction and security of our 
people, require, that all causes be tried 
before our respective judicatories, our 
coimcil being proper judges as to what 
relates to matters of state and the public 
peace, and the session in civil, and our 
justice court in criminal cases. And we 
recommend unto you, if any differences 
arise among you in point of law, that you 
take the opinion of our judges therein 
before you determine. We look upon the 
injuries done to the duke of Lauderdale in 
that part of the paper (which makes him 
author of all that can be charged upon our 
council) as an high contempt of that our 
judicatory, tending to deface your persons 
and administration, and his integrity, he 
being one of your luimber, and living fre- 
quently at a great distance from you. And 
so we bid you heartily farewell. Given at 



CHAP. III. 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



171 



our court at Windsor castle the 13th day of i the complaint given in by the lords at 

July, 1679. And of our reig-n the 31st 

year. 

" By his majesty's command, 

" Lauderdale." 



1679. 



Many observes might be made upon this 
letter, but it is not worth while to lose time 
upon them. The letter is signed by Lau- 
derdale, and penned by him, no doubt ; and 
when a man hath his own cause in his 
own hand, he is a fool if he make not the 
best of it may be. 

With this letter to the council, another 
came to the lords of the session, which, 
being but short, is likewise insert here. 

" Charles R.— Right trusty, &c. All the 
complaints raised against you have no other 
effect upon us, than the clearifig- of our 
judgment and your innocence, and do con- 
vince us, the authors' only view in those, is 
to draw into their hand that authority, 
which upon that account only they can be 
angry to see in yours. Wherefore, under 
proofs of their malice and folly, we, to 
show our kindness and esteem for you, 
could not forbear at this time to take notice, 
that in a paper, most undutifully divulged 
by some of our subjects in Scotland, and 
printed, there is one article which charges 
you in general only, because the authors 
know no particular with which to asperse 
you, it being undeniable that your bench is 
filled with as much learning and integrity 
at least, as in any age, and much more than 
your accusers could supply it with; and 
therefore we will own you with that con- 
cern and steadfastness your merit deserves, 
and will be unkind to aU your enemies, by 
the same measure as they are injurious to 
you, whom we consider as our great coun- 
cil in matters of law, and upon whose 
fidelity we rely, as much as we have just 
reason to suspect theirs who injure you. 
So we bid you heartily farewell. 

"Lauderdale." 

" Windsor, July 13th, 1679." 

It concerned Lauderdale very much to 
have the lords of session for him, and there- 
fore the compliment of this letter is given 
them. And for the same reason, and that 
the criminal court had been attacked in 



London, another letter is directed 
to the justiciary, which is likewise added 
here, as it stands recorded in their registers. 
" Charles R. — Right trusty, &c. The pun- 
ishment of crimes being of so great import 
to our service, and tending so much to 
secure our peaceable subjects, and you 
being, in the execution of that employment, 
at so much pains, and your bench being, by 
its late constitution, filled by persons of 
extraordinary abilities and breeding, we 
have thought fit at this time to assure you 
of our fii-m resolution to own you, and 
that our court, in the administration of 
justice to our people; and that we will 
punish such as, by injiu-ing you, asperse 
our authority, and poison our people. And 
particularly, we thank you for your pro- 
ceedings against Mr James Mitchel, that 
enemy of human society ; these who lessen 
that crime, or insinuate any reproach 
against those interested in that process, as 
judges or witnesses, being justly chargeable 
with the blood M'hich they encourage to 
spill upon such occasions. And so we bid 
you heartily farewell. 

" Lauderdale." 
" Windsor castle, July 13th, 1679."' 

Returns were made to all these letters 
from the king. That from the council is 
before me, dated July 18th. They own 
this the greatest expression of his kindness 
and concern in his ancient kingdom and 
them, they are capable of, and go on in the 
highest strain of acknowledgment, and pro- 
fession of returns. I find these upon Lau- 
derdale's side took their leave of his majes- 
ty July 27th, and by them he sends the 
signification of his pleasure about the 
indemnity, and other important matters of 
which we have heard. Thus Ave see the 
issue of the complaints at London, and that 
all concerned are vindicated as far as Lau- 
derdale and letters can do it. Wlien 
this business is over, duke Hamilton, and 
those Avho joined him, left the coiu-t, and 
was but little in favour until the revolu- 
tion, and we shall hear little more about 
him. 

Though Lauderdale stood his ground, 
Monmouth was yet in court; and as this 



17^i 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



, „^„ brought some favours to some of oiu* 
oppressed g-entlemen, so those raised 
no small stir among- our managers. By a 
letter from the king-, dated July 17th, Sir 
Patrick Hume of Pohvarth is liberate. 
The letter bears, " that he had been impri- 
soned for reasons known to his majesty, 
and tending to secure the public peace; 
and now, the occasions of suspicion and 
public jealousy being over, he is ordered to 
be liberate." By a letter of that same date, 
Mr Stuart is restored to his liberty. And 
the king's letter, February 1673, "ordering 
him to be seized and imprisoned, is recall- 
ed, upon information of his peaceable 
behavioiu* since. He is indemnified from 
all that can be laid to his charge, reponed 
to the king's protection ; and this letter is 
to be recorded, and extracts allowed him." 
We heard before, that Mr William Veitch 
was likewise liberate by a letter of this 
same date. And, July 22d the council are 
allowed to set my lord Cardross at liberty, 
he paying his fine. I shall give his case 
more fully next year all together. These 
favours were granted to soften the clamour 
that was made upon the duke of Lauder- 
dale's conduct, and in part to gratify the 
other side ; and it is probable, had not the 
duke of York come over, as we heard, 
more of this nature had been done. How- 
ever, they alarmed the managers at Edin- 
burgh, and, upon the 25th of July, the earl 
of Linlithgow and Claverhouse, by the 
council's permission, go to London, and 
the chancellor followed in a few days. 
The talk continued as if there would be 
changes in the council, army, and the 
church. As to the church, they began to 
say, that Mr Leighton, the bishop, I sup- 
pose, was coming to Edinburgh to reside, 
clothed with a commission to superintend 
the clergy, and to have two hundred pounds 
sterling a year : so I find some private let- 
ters at this time bear. It was talked, that 
the bishop of Edinburgh was to be made 
archbishop of Glasgow, and the bishop of 
Aberdeen to be translated to Edinburgh ; 
that an addition was to be made to the 
council, Southesk, Kincardine, Hadding- 
ton, Drummond, and Sir Archibald Prim- 
rose ; and that the duke of Monmouth was 
to be made captain general of all the king's 



forces, with large powers. A copy of his 
commission for this, July 29th, I have 
seen, and insert below.* But I leave these 
thino-s to civil historians. 



* Commission in favours of James du/ce of 

Bvccleugli, Juhj 29l/i, 1679. 
Charles R. 

Our sovereign lord ordains a commission to be 
passed and expede, under his majesty's great 
seal of his ancient kingdom of Scotland, where- 
by, for the great trust that he reposes in his 
entirely beloved cousin and counsellor, James 
duke of Buccleugh and Monmouth, he therefore 
nominates, constitutes, and appoints him cap- 
tain general of all his majesty's forces already 
raised, or hereafter to be raised, as ivell standing 
as militia, vrithin his majesty's said kingdom, 
giving and granting to the said James duke of 
Buccleugh, the full and ahsolute power for 
bringing together and exercising the said forces 
(the said militia forces being always to be first 
raised, by his majesty's express order, and not 
otherwise) and of dividing into parties, squa- 
drons or brigades, and with them, or any of 
them, to resist all invasions, either foreign or 
intestine, and to suppress all rebellions and 
insurrections^ and to kill, take, and apprehend 
all such as do rise, or make opposition : as also, 
with full yiower and authority to the said James 
duke of Buccleugh, to issue out proclamations, 
for receiving into his majesty's mercy and par- 
don, all such enemies and rebels as will submit 
themselves, and lay hold on the said offer; 
councils of war to hold by himself, or other 
officers under his command, and therein to 
punish, according to the articles of war, already 
passed, or to be passed by his majesty for that 
effect; with power likewise to him, as general, 
to call for such arms and ammunition, out of 
his majesty's stores, as he shall find necessary 
for his 7najesty's service ; and generally, with all 
the powers, dignities, and pre-eminences that are 
any ways known to have belonged at any time 
to the said office of captain general : and more 
especially, with all the powers and pre-emi- 
nences contained in the commissions formerly 
granted, by his majesty, to the earl of Rothes 
and Middleton, which are all holden as here ex- 
pressed ; willing and commanding all officers and 
persons whalsomever, any ways concerned, to 
be obedient and assisting to him in all things 
touching the due execution of this present com- 
mission, as they will be answerable to his ma- 
jesty upon their highest peril. Which commis- 
sion is to continue in force, during his majesty's 
pleasure allenarly. And his majesty ordains 
this commission to be extended in the best form, 
with all clauses necessary, and to pass the great 
seal per saltuiii, without passing any other seal nr 
register. For doing whereof, this shall be to 
the lord chancellor, and director of the chancel- 
lary, a sufficient warrant. 

Given at the court at Windsor, the twenty- 
ninth of July 1679, and of his majesty's reign 
the thirty-first year. 

May it please your majesty. 

These contain your majesty's warrant for a 

commission to be jiassed under the great seal of 

your ancient kingdom of Scotland, per .sn/ium, 

nominating, consdluting, and appointing James 



CHAP. Ill.l 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



173 



I shall now conclude this section with a 
few other incidental matters, which I had 
not room for upon the former sections, and 
the procedure of the council towards the 
end of this year. July l-2th, the earl of 
Queensberry is admitted a privy counsellor : 
the reason given is his zeal in promoting 
his majesty's service, and suppressing the 
rebels. This is his first advancement ; we 
shall afterwards frequently meet with him 
in this history. August 13th, at the fre- 
quent meeting of the council, we heard of, 
called this day, the king's indemnity is 
ordered to be published by the magistrates 
of Edinburgh in their formalities, and that 
bells be rung, the castle fire, and bonfires 
be put on. A committee is appointed to 
consider what is further to be done with 
the murderers of the archbishop, the case 
of the prisoners, and the state of the High- 
lands. This committee bring in the pro- 
posal about circuit courts, of which section 
IV. and move that the prisoners continue 
as they are, till the king's pleasure be had ; 
that the sheriff of Fife apprehend the rob- 
bers of Mr Robert Sharp minister at Muck- 
hart, and endeavour to recover his goods, 
and that he may be recommended to the 
treasury ; that James Hamilton, a prentice 
boy in Glasgow, prisoner in the Grayfriars, 
be liberate ; that the advocate raise a pro- 
cess of forfeiture against the landed persons 
mm-derers of the archbishop, and against 
the lord Macdonald and other Highland 



duke of Buccleugh and Monmouth, captain- 
general of all your majesty's forces, already 
raised, or hereafter to be raised, as well standing 
forces as militia, within your majesty's king- 
dom (the said militia forces being always to be 
first raised by your majesty's express order, and 
no other ways;) with full power to him to issue 
proclamations for receiving into your majesty's 
mercy and pardon, all such enemies or rebels, as 
will submit themselves, and lay hold on the said 
offer, and to call for such arms and ammunition 
out of your majesty's stores, as he shall find ne- 
cessary for your majesty's service ; and generally, 
vcith all the powers, dignities, and pre-eminences 
that are any ways known to have belonged, at 
any time, to the said office of captain-general ; 
and more especially, with all the powers and 
pre-eminences contained in the commissions for- 
merly granted by your majesty to the earl of 
Rothes and Middlcton, which are held as here 
expressed. And your majesty oi'dains this com- 
mission to continue during your majesty's plea- 
sure allenarly, and ordains these presents to be 
extended, &c. 

Lavdeudai.k. 



fugitives. September 18th, Sir Wil- 
liam Palerson is admitted clerk to the ' ' 
council. September 19th, the earl of Linlith- 
gow's commission, as major-general, declared 
void, not from any dissatisfaction with him, 
but because the forces are few, and a general 
already appointed; and, September 20th, 
the bond of Mr James Rymer, late professor 
of philosophy in St Andrews, to stay at 
Edinburgh, under pain of 10,000 merks, 
and ansvier for harbouring the miu'derers 
of the archbishop, is ordered to be given 
up, the council finding he is not guilty ; 
and yet he is ordered to give another, imder 
the same pains, to appear before the justi- 
ciary when called. And Mr William Er- 
skine, prisoner in Stirling more than three 
years (some papers before me say, he was 
in prison, with a very little intermission, 
full ten years) is ordered to be liberate. 
That same day a new proclamation is emit- 
ted against the murderers of the archbishop 
of St Andrews, and their names insert. And 
at the close of it, all the magistrates of royal 
burghs, are ordered to take the declaration 
against Michaelmas next. I make no re- 
flections upon it, but add it with the rest 
of the public papers.* 



• Proclamation against the murderers of the arch- 
bishop, September 20th, 1679. 
Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the 
faith : to our lovits heralds, macers, 

pursuivants, or messengers at arms, our sheriffs 
in that part, conjunctly and severally, specially 
constitute, greeting. We taking to our consider- 
ation, how much the protestant religion, and 
the honour of this our ancient kingdom are 
stained by that barbarous and horrid assassina- 
tion and murder of the late archbishop of St 
Andrews, w^hereof we have, by several procla- 
mations, expressed our abhorrency, and prohi- 
bited the reset of these murderers, whom we 
have excepted from our late gracious pardon and 
indemnity : and albeit it was the duty (not only 
of those in authority under us,) but of all our 
subjects, to use their endeavours for discovering 
and bringing to justice these execrable persons, 
enemies to all humane society; yet we under- 
stand, that these murderers, and likewise divers 
heritors and ministers, who were engaged in the 
late rebellion, and are excepted from our indem- 
nity, have been harbouied and reset in some 
places of this kingdom, to the great reproach of 
the nation, and contempt of our authority and 
laws. Therefore, we, with advice of our privy 
council, do command and charge all sheriffs, 
Stewarts, bailies of regalities and bailiaries, and 
their deputes, magistrates of burghs, and others 
in authority under us, to search for, seek, take, 
and ajiprehend the persons afternamed, viz. John 



174 



THE HISTOIIY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



1679. 



When the accounts came, that the 
duke of York was comino- for Scot- 
land, October 16th, the council send letters to 
the absent members to repair to Edinburgh 
with all speed, the council desioning- to meet 
his highness at tlie border, and that noblemen 
and gentlemen near by be desired to wait 
on them on this occasion. Letters are Mrit 
to the sheriffs of Edinburg-h, Haddington, 
LinlithgoH, Berwick, and others, to at- 
tend. Mr Maitland of Dudhop is sent to 
attend his royal highness in England, and 
to know M-hen he Avill be waited on. He 
came to Berwick upon Friday, November 
21st, to Lethington upon Saturday, and to 
the Abbey, Monday, November 24th. TIic 
council went out and met him, and he was 
received into town witli the greatest so- 
lemnity, and sumptuously entertained by the 
town of Edinburg-h and the nobility. The 
duke retired from the storm that he found 
gathering against him from the new parlia- 
ment in England; and when that was 
over, by the prorogation, the king called 
up his brother in Febi-uary, as ^YC may 
hear, and he vent up to manage all at 
court. Several of our Scots nobility Avent 
Avith him by sea, and some of them ^Yere 
lost in their passage homeward. The 



Balfour of Kinloch, David Hackston of Rathil- 
let, George Balfour in Gilston, James Russel in 
Kettle, Robert Ditigwal a tenant's son in Cad- 
dam, Andrew Guillan webster in Balmerinoch, 
Alexander and Andrew Hendersons, sons to 
John Henderson in Kilbrachmont, and Geoi'ge 
Fleming son to George Fleming in Balbuthy, 
who did perpetrate and commit the said horrid 
murder; and also, any heritors and ministers 
who were in the late rebellion, and any persons 
who have reset and harboured these murderers 
and rebels, wherever they can be found within 
the bounds of their respective jurisdictions, and 
put them in sure ward and lirmance, until they 
be brought to justice; and in case these persons 
liee out of the shire, that they give notice there- 
of to the sheriff, or other magistrate of the next 
shire or jurisdiction, that they may, iu like man- 
ner, search for, apprehend, and secure them, 
until they be brought to justice. With power 
to the sheriffs, and other magistrates aforesaid, 
if they shall find cause, to call to their assistance 
our subjects within their jurisdiction, or such 
a number of them as they shall think lit, who 
are hereby re(|uired to concur with, and assist 
them, under aU highest pain and charge. And 
we expect, that the sheriffs and other magistrates 
aforesaid, will use exact diligence in the pre- 
misses, as they will be answerable on their high- 
est peril. And seeing, by the fifth act of the 
second session, and the second act of the third 



duke's presence very much strengthened 
the violent party in the council, and the 
bishops, in their severe measures against 
presbyterians. And, to be sure, that party 
need expect no mercy from popery and 
papists, and M'hatever is done under pre- 
text of favour to them by that gang, is still 
a snare ; and from the duke's coming, and 
his being here afterwards, we may in part 
draw the growing nature of presbyterians' 
sufferings, during the following years. 

Meanwhile new orders are given to the 
army, and general Dalziel is ^varranted to 
order the officei-s and soldiers of the stand- 
ing forces to search for, and seize such as 
are declared fugitives and rebels by the 
justiciary for the late rebellion, and that 
conform to a roll given him under the 
justice-general's hand, of which mc shall 
hear more afterwards. Yea, by a letter 
from the king, dated November 1st, gen- 
eral Dalziel is declared commander-in- 
chief of his majesty's forces, with this ad- 
dition, " And that he may be enabled to 
act w ith the greater freedom from time to 
time, in the discharge of his duty to us in 
that important post, he may go on, with- 
out losing of time in staying for orders 
from any other person in our absence: 



session of our first parliament, the magistrates 
and councils of burghs are ordained, at and be- 
fore their admissions to the exercise of their of- 
fices, to sign the declaration appointed to be 
signed by all persons in public trust, under the 
certifications therein expressed ; therefore we, 
with advice foresaid, do command and i-equire 
the magistrates and councils of the respective 
burghs of this kingdom, Avho shall be chosen at 
the next ensuing elections, to sign the foresaid 
declaration, as is prescribed in the said acts, and 
to return the declarations, so signed by them, to 
the clerks of our privy council, betwixt and the 
third Thursday of November next; certifying 
such as shall not give obedience that they shall 
be proceeded against, and censured conform to 
the said acts of parliament. Our will is here- 
fore, and we charge you strictly, and command, 
that incontinent, these our letters seen, ye pass 
to the market-cross of Edinburgh, and reman- 
ent market-crosses of the head burghs of the 
several shires of this kingdom, and other places 
needful, and there, by oj>en proclamation, make 
publication of the premisses, that none may pre- 
tend ignorance of the same. And we ordain 
these presents to be printed. 

Given under our signet at Edinburgh, the 
twentieth day of September, 1679, and of our 
reign the thirty-first year. 

Will. Baterson, CI. Seer. Concilii. 
God save the King. 



CHAP. III.] 



OF THE CHURCH Ol" SCOTLAND. 



175 



nevertheless, in emergencies of state, the 
council are allowed to give him directions." 
This is a large power indeed. At the same 
time the council go on against conventicles, 
and ordain the magistrates of Linlithgow 
to suppress a meeting-house they are in- 
formed is setting up there. And Novem- 
ber 13th, orders are sent to the magistrates 
of Linlithgow, Innerkeithing, and Kirk- 
aldy, to suppress the meeting-houses set 
up there. 

When the duke of York came down, he 
acted as a counsellor, without taking the 
oaths, by virtue of a letter from his ma- 
jesty, dated November 30th, which runs, 
" Kight trusty, &c. We have thought fit 
to acquaint you, that our only brother the 
duke of Albany and York, being resolved, 
with our allowance, for some time to re- 
side in Scotland, it is our pleasure that he 
continue to act as a privy counsellor, in that 
our ancient kingdom, Avithout any oath, 
being named in our last commission 167G, 
(as he did by oiu- former commissions) it 
being the privilege of the lawful sons and 
brothers of the king, not to be compre- 
hended under any such general words as 
these of the 11th act of our first parlia- 
ment, though that act doth comprehend all 
others except them alone. For whicli this 
shall be your warrant. 

" Lauderdale." 

Upon a letter from the king, that the 
militia be regulated, the council, December 
18th, approve of the report of their com- 
mittee. This report, because much of the 
harassing of the country was from the 
officers, and parties of the militia, and the 
subsidy for supporting them was very 
heavy, I have inserted below.* That same 

' lieport about the model of the militia, December 
I8th, 1679. 
The report underwritten, anent the new 
model of the militia, being read, was approven, 
and it was recommended to the committee ap- 
pointed to consider that affair, to meet and see 
what is further to be done thereanent, in pur- 
suance of his majesty's commands, signified hy 
his letters to the council, of which leiiort the 
tenor follows. The committee finds, that, by 
two several acts of parliament, there is offer 
made to his majesty, of 20,000 foot, and 2,000 
horse ; that the privy council did enact several 
things, by way of instructions, concerning this 



day, a report is approven about the 
prisoners, " That Alexander and 
James Balfours, and James Ness, in prison 
for presumed accession to the archbishop's 



militia, in the year 1668, and especially, that 
they should rendezvous for exercise, livedaysilk 
year : the committee considered, that no less 
than ten days was possibly necessary for five 
days' exercise, in respect of coming and going, 
and that eighteen shillings Scots is appointed for 
ilk horseman, and six shillings Scots for ilk foot- 
man of the said days. They find these instruc- 
tions approven and ratified in parliament, in the 
year 1669, and, by the same act, further power 
is granted to the council, to appoint rendezvouses 
as they should find expedient ; yet they do not 
find, that the council has hitherto added any 
more days than formerly. They likewise find, 
that his majesty, by his gracious letter the 26th 
of October 1678, looking on the 22,000 men, as 
too great a number to be frequently withdrawn 
from their employments, did, for the ease of the 
subjects, propose that only 5,000 foot, and 500 
horse, should rendezvous for exercise ; and, to 
the end those might be effectual, and fitted for 
the king and country's service, proposed, that 
they should exercise four days each month : but, 
in his royal wisdom and goodness, taking care 
that the subjects should not be put to more ex- 
pense, than by their own consent in parliament 
they had already consented to, hath not proposed 
that the council should add any more expenses 
upon the account of rendezvouses, but tliat the 
days already appointed tor the 22,000 may be 
converted to maintain 6,500 for an equivalent 
number of days ; and if more days be requisite 
for exercise, that his majesty is to pay therefore. 
As also, that, out of his majesty's treasury, he 
will order yearly salaries for such officers as 
shall be necessary for exercising these regiments 
and troops in military discipline, for the common 
safety of king and country. To the which ])ro- 
posal the committee find, that the privy council, 
on the 14th day of November 1678, did give their 
unanimous approbation, and dutifully returned 
the same with a just cast of the said 5,600 men 
on the several sliires of the kingdom, in tlie pro- 
portion of the militia, a<^cording to the act of 
parliament; and likewise his majesty, by his 
letter of the 10th of December instant, hath re- 
commended the said proposition to the privy 
council, with his royal pleasure, desiring the 
same to be made speedily effectual; which being 
committed, it is the humble opinion of the com- 
mittee, that the proportions already casten on 
each shire are just and equal; and as to the ex- 
penses to be paid by the country, in respect that 
his majesty proposes that the whole should ren- 
dezvous two days each year, so that there re- 
mains only eight days of the number hitherto 
appointed, and that his majesty has signified his 
royal will, not to burden the subjects with any 
addition to what is already appointed. It is 
their opinion, that, in place of the eight days for 
22,000 men, the country should pay thirty-two 
days to .5,500 men, according to the rates allowed 
in the act of parliament ; and if his majesty ap- 
point any more days, that they be paid by his 
majesty ; and that his majesty would commis- 
sionate such officers as he thinks fit, and that so 
soon as his mnjesty pleases ; that after they are 



rHE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



.„__ murder, be further tried. That 
Robert Garnock smith in Stirling-, 
is most obstinate and malicious, and will 
neither enact himself not to take up arms, 
nor say the archbishop's murder was mur- 
der, but excommunicated such of his neigh- 
bours as did so; and therefore he lie in 
prison tUl further trial." We have seen 
the ground of this ill-worded report about 
this person above. "That John Hender- 
son, an old man, in prison for harbour of 
his sons, after they had been at the mur- 
der, which he denies, and Henry Schaw in 
Fife, taken when Inchdarny was killed, be 
liberate on bond of a thousand merks, to 
compear when called. That Robert Blaw, 
now three years in prison for conventicles, 
be liberate on bond of two thousand merks. 
That George Fleming, and Stirk, in 

prison for suspected accession to the mur- 
der, be continued." 

December 23d the chancellor writes the 
following letter to general Dalziel. " Sir, 
besides the heritors given up in the Por- 
teous roll, it is informed, that there are 
several other heritors who were in the 
rebellion not given up; and whereas in 
several places of the country that defect 
may be supplied, the council recommends 
Tinto you to appoint your officers to inform 
themselves of such heritors, and the par- 
ishes where they dwell or dwelt, and of the 
witnesses against them ; and as soon as 
possible send up accounts to the advocate, 
that he may the better be able to insist 
against them, before the justices. 1 am, 
&c. Rothes." We see the pains they are 
at to discover heritors, and what repeated 
endeavours are used this way ; and in the 
following years we shall find the managers 
got their lands and estates. 

Towards the end of this year, I find sev- 
eral presbyterian ministers in the west met 
at Paisley ; and considering the great haz- 
ard of religion, and the terrible advances 



appointed for their several charges, they may 
receive instructions from the council to the com- 
missioners of the militia in the several shires, to 
make the said model effectual, as is proposed ; 
and if his majesty pleases to dispense with the 
two days of the general rendezvous of the whole, 
in that case that the country should pay forty 
days to the model, at the foresaid rates, which 
is, with all humility, left to his royal pleasure. 



popery was making, they drew u}) a ^varu- 
ing against popery, and a short vindication 
of presbyterian principles, which they 
resolved to have published, but would not 
let it come to the open view, until the rest 
of their brethren in other places should see 
and approve it. There had been a general 
meeting of ministers appointed at Edin- 
burgh, upon the day of February 
next, and the warning was sent in thither 
with one of their number: but the times 
growing worse, and some noise being made 
by the managers about that meeting, it was 
found convenient to drop the meeting. 
This paper I have not seen, but I hear it 
was pointedly drawn. After this till the 
revolution, presbyterian ministers had few 
or no meetings; and I shall have little 
more to say of them, but that they remained 
in retirement, few venturing to preach in 
the fields, and some now and then in houses. 
And through the following years I shall 
have little more to narrate, but a continued 
scene of persecution of ministers and people, 
and heavy oppression of the whole country. 
Thus I have given as full an account of this 
remarkable year 1679, as my materials 
atfbrded me. 

CHAP. IV. 

OF THE STATE AND SUFFERINGS OF PRESBY- 
TERIANS, DURING THE YEAR 1680. 



1680. 



This year does not afford so much 
matter as the last, with respect to 
public commotions and stirs, but as much, 
if not more, with relation to what is pro- 
perly the design of this Mork. The west 
and south of Scotland continue to be 
harassed with the cruel soldiers; and in 
the entry of the year the justiciary fall to 
work effectually to prosecute multitudes 
criminally for the rising at Bothwell; and 
not a few were involved in the prosecution, 
who were not concerned in the rising. 
The months of June and July opened a 
new scene of suffering: the taking of a 
rude and unfinished paper at Queensferry, 
and the first declaration made by a few who 
distinguished themselves, by their peculiar 
sentiments, from the rest of the suffering 
presbyterians, produced a severe proclama- 



CHAP. IV.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



177 



tioD ; and the sending of soldiers westward, 
to prosecute this, issued in the scuffle at 
Ayrs-nioss. Such who ran to the lieights 
in the declaration just now spoken of, shall 
now, and after this, he accounted for hy 
themselves, as having separated from the 
rest who owned presbytcrian principles : 
and I shall essay to give matter of fact with 
relation to them, and the sufferings they 
underwent. Several of them suffered unto 
blood this year. After Ayrs-moss, and the 
executions which followed upon it, Mr 
Cargill's singular and unprecedented ex- 
communication will fall in, and some more 
public deaths for hearing him preach and 
owning these papers he was concerned in. 
Those subjects will afford matter for several 
sections. The forfeitures and criminal trials 
I am able to give in their proper places 
from the justiciary books : but several ac- 
counts of courts held up and down the 
country, and the hardships of particular 
persons, I have without dates, the papers 
containing only the year in general ; and 
sometimes I must gather it from the cir- 
cumstances which were in this year. The 
matters of fact are certain, and any mistakes 
as to the date, will be excused. 



Of the persecutions relative to Bothivell ris- 
ing, for non-attendance on the kimfs host, 
and the forfeitures this year, 1 680. 

After the large account of the rising last 
year, it will be proper to begin the history 
of this with the procedure of the managers 
against such as were alleged to be concerned 
with it. These were of two sorts, the heri- 
tors and gentlemen, who did not come to 
the host, and actively concur M'ith the 
king's army, and the heritors and others 
who were said to be in the west country 
army. I shall give some account of the 
rigorous procedure against both, from the 
records. 

To begin with those who were prose- 
cuted for non-attendance on the king's 
army, it may be observed, that we have 
several old la^vs in Scotland made in the 
time of our feuds, and almost continual 
differences among families and clans, and 

111. 



when our kings lived in this kingdom, ,^j^~ 
which do make the not coming out 
when called to the king's host, a great crime, 
and ad terrorem severe punishments are by 
these laws knit to it ; but I question, if for 
these hundred, or hundred and fifty years, 
they were put in execution, till now they 
are advanced as a handle against a great 
many persons, who from different reasons 
came not out against the west country 
army. Matters Avere laid last year for this 
prosecution ; and, of design, I left them to 
this place, and so Ave must look back a 
little. After the rising at Pentland, little 
or no stir was made about heritors' non- 
attendance upon the army; but now our 
managers resolve upon severer courses ; 
and when they find that what was to arise 
from the estates of such as had been per- 
sonally concerned in the rising, would not 
answer their expectations, a more general 
oppression of gentlemen and heritors is re- 
solved upon. It was presumed, that such 
who did not heartily join the army, were 
well affected to presbyterians, and no op- 
portunity of bringing such to trouble was 
lost, especially when it was like to bring in 
large sums of money. Thus I find by the 
council registers, November 6th, ' That, at 
the desire of the lords of justiciary, a com- 
mittee is named to meet with them, the 
chancellor, earls of Argyle, Murray, Glen- 
cairn, the president, treasurer-depute, regis- 
trar, and advocate, and consider what shall 
be the punishment of absents from the 
king's host. November 8th, their opinion 
is reported, that the heritors and freehold- 
ers guilty, should be fined ; the most guilty 
not above two years' valued rent, and the 
least in a fourth part of their rent : that 
those who are fined in the least degree, be 
appointed to take the oath of allegiance 
and declaration, and, if they refuse, that 
they be fined in the highest rank.' The 
council approve this report. Thus no small 
persecution for conscience sake, is mixed 
with this civil kind of crime. Those pro- 
posals are transmitted in a letter to Lau. 
derdale, dated, 

" Edinburgh, November 11th, 1679. 
" May it please your grace, 
" The just abhorrence we have of the 
last rebellion, and the too just fears that the 



178 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



same }>rinciples may occasion the same 
■ distempers, do oblio^e us to inform his 
majesty by your grace, that if those %vho went 
not to assist his majesty ag'ainst these rebels, 
or deserted the king^'s host, be not punished, 
we cannot .>romise his majesty will have 
any proportional force against any future 
insurrections, since we find, by our great 
experience, that those who were at daily 
expense and hazard in that expedition, are 
much discouraged, when they see others 
who stayed at home, or deserted, suffer no- 
thing; and that such as stayed at home, 
from a principle of unkindness to his ma- 
jesty's government, do treat the dutifuluess 
of such as went there, as an officious and 
unregarded forwardness : withal, your grace 
may inform his majesty, that we are resolved 
to pursue so moderately these offenders, as 
may show that this punishment should be 
rather a Avaniing ; those most guilty being 
not to be fined above two years valued 
rent, whilst others, who are less guilty, are 
to be fined at least in a fourth part of a 
year's valued rent, and which is little more 
than what they behoved to have spent in 
the expedition: whereas, the statutes 
against the crimes, having left the punish- 
ment to be proportioned according to the 
several circumstances that should occui*, 
such offenders have been punished by for- 
feitures, confiscations, and banishment. 
These our resolutions, though taken and 
formed after much serious debate, are sub- 
jected with all dutiful respect to his majes- 
ty's royal consideration, by 

" Your grace's most humble servant, 
" Rothes Cancel. I. P. D." 

The motions for this heavy oppression of 
multitudes, we see, came from Edinburgh, 
and were fallen in with at London. Ac- 
cordingly, I find a letter from the king up- 
on this subject, recorded in the justiciary- 
registers, of the date, 

" Whitehall, November 18th, 1G79. 

" Charles R. Whereas, albeit by express 
law, the deserters from our host be punish- 
able by death, yet we are graciously pleased 
hereby to allow you to proceed against 
them in the same way, and to the same 
pains and punishments as you are resolved 
to proceed against the guiltiest of such as 



did not come to our host. For doing 
whereof this shall be your warrant. 

" Lauderdale." 

By the proclamations issued out during 
the rising, the absents from the host were 
to be punished as deserters of it ; but that 
being death by some antiquated laws, and it 
not being blood but money, a good many 
about Edinburgh were at this time want- 
ing, this letter A\'as procured with relation 
to deserters, who, I suppose, were not 
many, in the ordinary sense of the word ; 
and this was a preface to what followed as 
to the absents. That same day, a letter is 
writ to the council, approving the pro- 
posal in all points, nhich they make in 
theirs of the 11th, and so it needs not be 
insert here. When they are thus war- 
ranted to begin their finings upon this 
head, they go roundly to work, and letters 
are writ to the sheriffs in each shire, that 
they send in the books of valuation, or at- 
tested copies of them to Edinburgh ; and 
the officers of the army are appointed to 
send in lists of the heritors in each shire, 
who did not attend the king's host. 

In December and January, citations are 
ordered to be given to some hundreds of 
gentlemen, heritors, and freeholders, by the 
justiciary. It took some time before the 
lists could be made up, and the witnesses 
condescended on, and the managers them- 
selves seem not to be fully agreed, and 
severals were for moderate courses, gentle- 
men's excuses being found many of them 
highly reasonable for not attending musters, 
and coming to the host. But the violent 
party prevailed. Thus, February 23d, a 
great many considerable gentlemen, heri- 
tors, and feuars, are pannelled before the 
justiciary for absence from the host, and 
receive their indictment. Good niunbers 
of the ablest lawyers were employed by the 
gentlemen, and their defences are long, and 
pleadings very large upon the matter in 
general, and the particular circumstances of 
the pannels. The advocate gives large re- 
plies, and enforces his reasonings with the 
weight of the letter from the king to the 
council upon this head, dated November 
ISth, which was noticed just now. This 
argument from a resolution in council. 



CHAP. IV.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



179 



backed with royal approbation, no doubt 
was unanswerable; and so the lords give 
sentence against the gentlemen. I cannot 
insert all Avho Avere lined now and after- 
terwards; only, for a taste at this time, 
James Young of Kirkton is fined in 1870 
pounds Scots, of Pitlochie in 70U 

pounds, Alexander Durham of Largo in 
1830 pounds, David Balcanquel of that Ilk 
in 500 pounds, Alexander Nairn of Samford 
in 294 pounds, George Moncrief of Redle 
in 300 pounds, James Weems in Glencor- 
ston in 1 75 pounds, and multitudes of others. 
At other diets of the justiciary in February, 
I find vast numbers of gentlemen and heri- 
tors in the shires of Lothian, the Merse, 
and other places, pannelled, and more than 
a hundred of them fined in very consider- 
able sums ; and, towards the end of March, 
the lords are taken up in the same work : 
sentences are past against as many as in 
February, if not more, and discharges are 
produced of the pajnnent of former fines, 
some of them several thousand pounds. 
LTpon the 26th of July, this matter of ab- 
sence from the king's host, is taken out of 
the hands of the justiciary, and put in the 
hands of the council. This was a more 
arbitrary coxu't, and gave not themselves 
the trouble of lawyers, and legal defences. 
That day, I find the advocate produced a 
letter from the king, of the date, 

" Windsor, June 1st, 1680. 
*' Charles R. — Right trusty, &c. We are 
sensible of the small effects that have fol- 
lowed by the trial of such who have been 
absent from our host, before tiie justiciary; 
and being informed that summons are issued 
out to cite many others through the shires 
for that crime, it is now our will and 
pleasure, that they be proceeded against, 
not criminally, but by way of fining, ac- 
cording to the degrees of their guilt, not 
admitting frivolous excuses for absence or 
desertion, which we look upon as prepara- 
tives of dangerous consequence to our ser- 
vice. We desire none benorth Tay be 
troubled with trials or citations, these only 
excepted who are known to be notoriously 
disaifected to our government in church 
and state : for though we are at this time 
graciously pleased to excuse them from a 
criminal process, yet we Mill riOt suS'er 



absents and deserters to escape .„„., 
without some punishment by May 
of fining, which we desire you to signify 
to our justice coui't. So we bid you, &c." 

How it came to pass that such a letter as 
this, of the date, June 1st, Mas not inti- 
mated, till July 26th, I shall not inquire ; 
certainly somebody or other found their 
advantage by it. This letter is intimated 
and recorded in the criminal books, and all 
processes in dependence before them are 
deserted, and in their room succeed the 
processes for forfeitiu-e of life after Ayrs- 
moss. 

When this matter comes before the 
council, they go closely to work, and their 
registers for some months are mostly taken 
up with those processes. Many hundreds 
are cited before them, the diets of some are 
continued, others are deserted (not with- 
out compositions and money privately 
given.) Multitudes are fined in absenccj 
and some declared fugitive. To enter upon 
particulars would swell this chapter too 
much. Let me give only a few instances. 
"July 13th, Dundas of Borthwick is fined 
in a year's rent. August 1st, the laird of 
Riddel's excuses for absence not sustained, 
he is fined in two years' rent, Mhich is 
6,000 pounds Scots; George Douglas of 
Bonjedburgh fined in 6,000 pounds Scots; 
Ker of Cherrytrees in 3,000 raerks ; James 
Scot of Thirlstane in 2,776 pounds ; Francis 
Scot of Greenhill in 800 pounds." It is 
noticed, that they all refused the declara- 
tion, probably otherwise they might have 
had their excu£«8S sustained, or been fined 
vastly doAvn of those sums ; and so they are 
properly sufferers for their opinion in point 
of prelacy. August 9th, the folloMing per- 
sons in Berwickshire, ai-e fined for absence 
from the host ; " Patrick Wardlaw, in 4,000 
pounds Scots, Robert Brown of Blackburn 
1,200 pounds, Pringle of GreenknoAV 1,500 
pounds, Alexander Hume in St Bathans 
200 pounds, Samuel Spence 400 pounds, 
Clapperton of Wylie-cleugh 1,000 merks, 
George Hume of Bassendea 1,000 merks." 
They are all ordained to pay in six days. 
But particular instances would be endless- 
November 1 1th, I find the council appoint, 
'' That caption be executed M-ith concur- 
rence of parties of soldiers, for the fines of 



180 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK IV. 



1680. 



tlie absents from the host; that their 



escheats be gifted in name of his ma- 
jesty's cashkeeper; that in time coming, all 
found guilty of absence shall be kept in custo- 
dy till they pay the fine." This obliged many 
not to compear, and then the soldiers exe- 
cute the sentence pronounced in al»sence. 

I come now forward to give an account 
of the forfeitures this year, passed in great 
numbers upon presbyterian gentlemen and 
others, for their alleged being at BothweU. 
All almost I can do is to insert their bare 
names from the justiciary books, wanting 
informations as to the circumstances of 
most of these gentlemen. Only it may 
be noticed in the general, that most of 
these forfeitures were passed in absence, 
and upon very slight and lame pro- 
bation, and multitudes of them in com- 
mon course, as it were like bills of sus- 
pension befoi'e the ordinary; yet the 
time was, when the justice court not long 
ag'o scrupled upon such like proceedings. 
The Galloway gentlemen, who they alleged 
were at Bothwell, were the first sacrifices. 
Thus I find, February 18th, Patrick Mac- 
dowall of Freugh is called, having been 
cited before. His name is in the proclama- 
tion excepting persons out of the indemni- 
ty, as likcAviae, that of most of the rest 
forfeited this month; and the managers 
were well assured they would not compear, 
and their citation was really a jest, after 
they were thus excepted and marked out 
for ruin. In absence they have witnesses 
led against them, generally speaking, sol- 
diers and spies, who had been hii-ed to ti-af- 
fic up and down the country. Some depone 
they saw Freugh at Sanquhar a commander 
of a body of foiu- or five hundred men in 
arms, as they came to Bothwell. Two 
witnesses depone they saw him at Hamil- 
ton Muir among the rebels. The sentence 
runs, that when taken, he shall be executed 
and demeaned as a traitor, and his heritage, 
goods, and gear be forfeited to his majesty's 
use. Upon February 18th, Mr William 
Ferguson of Kaitloch, Alexander Gordons 
elder and younger of Earlston, James Gor- 
don younger of C'raichlaw, William Gordon 
of Culvennan, Patrick Dunbar of Machri- 
moir, and M'Ghie of Larg, are called. 

It hath been remarked before, that Earlston 



elder was killed about the time of the de- 
feat : this good man is prosecuted after his 
death, of which we shall meet with more 
instances. The prepared witnesses depone 
as to their accession to the rebellion, and 
they all are forfeited, as above, in common 
form, except M'Ghie of Larg, who is con- 
tinued until the second Monday of June; 
the reason of this I know not. 

Another process of forfeiture is com- 
msnced in the end of June, and ended July 
6th, against the following persons, John 
Bell of Whiteside, John Gibson of Auchirt- 
chyne, Gibson younger of lugUston, 

Gordon of Dundeugh, Grier of Dal- 

gouer, Smith of Kilroy, M'Clel- 

lan of Barmagechan, Thomas Bogle of Be- 
gles-hole, Baird younger of Dungeon- 

hill, Gordon of Craig, Lemiox of 

Irelandton, Gordon of Bar-harrow, John 
Fullarton of Auchinhare, David M'CuUoch 
son to Ardwel, William Whitehead of Mill- 
house, John Welsh of Cornley, Neilson 
of Corsack, Robert M'Clellan of Barscob, 
Samuel M'Clellan his brother, Fullarton 
of Nether-mill, George M' Artney of Blaiket, 
Gordon of Garrerie, Gordon of 

Knock-gray, Herron of Little-park, 

Gordon of Holm, Gordon of Over- 
bar, John M'Naught of Colquhad, Mur- 
doch, alias Laird Miu-doch, and John Bin- 
ning of Dalvennan. The libel and indict- 
ment against these persons, is in the com- 
mon fonn, miu'deringthe archbishop, though, 
I dare say, none of them knew any thing 
of it, burning the king's laws, accession to 
the rebellion last year, and all of them are 
absent. Thomas Bogle, and Baird of Dun- 
geon-hill are libelled as the rest, and like- 
wise for attacking major Johnston, Avhicli 
they were entirely free of, and no probation 
is adduced. None of the witnesses almost 
depone that they saw them in the rebellion, 
nor in arms at Hamilton Muir, and I know 
well several of them were not in the rebel- 
lion. Their depositions run, that they saw 
them with the rebels at Glasgow, Ayr, 
Wjgton, and other places ; and severals de- 
pone they had no arms. Cannon of Mar- 
di-ogat is witness against most of the Gallo- 
way gentlemen. None of them were pre- 
sent, and, it seems, the judges were not 
very nice as to probation. The assize is 



CHAT. IV.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



181 



not particular in the verdict, but find the 
pannels, in the general, guilty of the crimes 
libelled. And they are all forfeited, as 
above. 

At most of these diets of the justiciary, 
I find vast numbers of others, whom I take 
to be smaller feuars, upon their absence de- 
clared fugitives, and it would be endless to 
set them down; the general fugitive roll 
shall be insert afterwards, when it comes 
by order to be published. The smaller 
heritors, it seems, they had not j'^et leisure 
for ; and they were left to the mercy of 
the sequestrators, donators, and the soldiers 
who were going up and down the countiy. 
It is gentlemen of some better fortunes 
they begin with, and their way was very 
easy, to forfeit in absence. The managers 
had some more trouble how to divide their 
estates, and to whom to make over the 
gifts of their forfeitiu-e, there were so many 
putting in their claims, and pleading merit 
when so much was a dividing. 

July 19th, 1 find another process intended 
against one, who either had suiTendei'ed, 
or had been taken. Alexander Ross, ma- 
jor in the rebel army last year, is indicted 
in common form, for being in the rebellion, 
and at conventicles since. I have no other 
accounts of this person, but what is in the 
registers. The advocate adduces his own 
signed confession, June 10th, bearing that, 
June 1679, he had been in arms with the 
rebels, and that he disamied David Cun- 
ningham, one of the king's guards, and took 
his horse and arras from him at his own 
house in Monkland, and that he was at 
Bothwell. The lords sentence him to be 
hanged at the cross of Edinbui-gli, Septem- 
ber 8th, and forfeit his heritage, goods and 
gear. But it seems he was insured of his 
life ; for I find, August 7th, they reprieve 
him to a long day, upon his casting himself 
upon the king's mercy by a petition, and 
declaring his willingness to take the oaths 
and bond, and intercede for a remission to 
him. 

These are all the forfeitures I have no- 
ticed this year from the registers ; it is 
possible I may have overlooked some. By 
written accounts from Galloway, I find 
that the year after Bothwell, Alexander 
Hunter of Colquhasben, in the paiish of 



Oldluce in Galloway, who had been at 
Bothwell, was forfeited, and his es- ^" "* 
tate was given to the countess of Nithsdale, a 
professed papist, and she and hers possessed 
it till the year 1689. Another heritor near 
by him, Alexander Hay of Ardvvallen, was 
forfeited for being at Bothwell, and his 
lands given to the popish family of Niths- 
dale. And which was yet a greater se- 
verity, Ai'dwallen's mother, a pious old 
gentlewoman of about eighty years of age, 
was imprisoned for mere nonconformity, 
and not keeping the church ; and no other 
crime could be laid to her charge : yea, she 
A^'as for some time kept close prisoner in 
Dumfries tolbooth, to the great danger of 
her life in her extreme old age. She like- 
wise is forfeited, upon the matter, of all she 
had ; for her annuity and liferent out of 
the estate was not reserved, but it was 
wholly given to the family of Nithsdale. I 
find by these same accounts, that a great 
many other forfeited estates of presbyteriau 
gentlemen in that country, were gifted to 
that family. It was indeed low, and Roman 
catholic, and the didie of York and his 
creatures were sure to look after their 
friends. But what a poor pass was the re- 
formation at in Scotland, when religious 
and pious people's estates were violently 
taken from them under colour of law, for 
their refusing to go against their light, and 
the dictates of their conscience agreeable to 
scriptui-e, and given to papists and bigotted 
idolaters ! This was one of the steps among 
others, now very fast taking for the re-in- 
troduction of popery, by the door of this 
slaveiy, and those arbitrary measures the 
subjects were under. 

SECTION II. 

Of the more general procedure of the coun- 
cil relative to preshyterians this year, the 
repeal of the third indulgence, and other 
hardships on them. 

Having gone through the prosecutions be- 
fore the criminal court, 1 come next to 
give a view of what I meet w ith in the 
council registers ; what concerns particulai- 
suflFerers I shall leave to the following sec- 
tion, and confine myself very much here 



182 



THE HlSTOllY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[I500K IV. 



1 ^on to what they did that liad a more 
g'eneral mnuence, and give things 
just in the order they stand in the registers. 
The council, January 6th, "grant full 
power and commission to the earl of Gleu- 
cairn, lord Ross, general Dalziel, or any fit 
persons in the army, or others they shall 
think fit to intrust, for the shires of Ayr, 
Lanark, Renfrew, and Dumbarton, to use 
their best and exact diligence to get exact 
lists of the haill heritors within the said 
bounds, who were in the rebellion, and 
witnesses that can prove the same against 
them, with proofs that they are heritors, 
and to send in lists to the council or advo- 
cate, with power to call before them the 
sheriflfs, Stewarts, bailies of regalities, or 
their deputes, magistrates of burghs, minis- 
ters of parishes, or any persons whatsom- 
ever they shall be informed can make best 
discovery of the said rebels or witnesses, 
with power to examine them upon oath, or 
not, as they see cause ; with power to them, 
if the witnesses delated refuse to compear, 
or compearing to declare, to imprison their 
persons, and put them under caution to 
compear before the council under reason- 
able penalties." And all magistrates, &c. 
are appointed to concur. The like com- 
mission is granted to the earl of Queens- 
berry, Sir Robert Dalziel of Glena, and 
Claverhouse, or any two of them, and such 
as they shall appoint, for the shires of 
Dumfries and Wigton, and the stewartry 
of Kirkcudbright, and Annandale ; and the 
same for the Merse and Teviotdale, to the 
lairds of Hayning, Meldrum, and Henry 
Ker of Graden ; and March 4th, these get 
the shires of Berwick and Roxburgh added. 
January 29th, upon information of several 
field conventicles in the shire of Monteith, 
the council grant full power to the earl of 
Monteith to dissipate them, and apprehend 
and imprison the preachers till they be 
brought to a trial. Except Messrs Cargill 
and Cameron, it was very few presbyterian 
ministers preached in the fields, while the 
third indulgence lasted, and I take it to be 
them wh-o are now in Monteith. March 
6th, the council write a letter to Alexander 
Mackenzie, sheriflf-dcpute of Ross, to sup- 
press conventicles in that shire; the letter 
ib of a singular strain and style, and there- 



fore I give some passages from it. After 
they have taken notice of the king's care 
to suppress conventicles, and the favours he 
has granted to these places infected M'ith 
them, they observe that the shire of Ross is 
looked upon as untainted, and add, " yet some 
bold and presumptuous persons, setting aside 
all fear of God and respect to their sov- 
ereign and his laws, have adventured to 
intrude themselves in a pretended ministry, 
and thereby to debauch weak men and 
silly women, drawing them into those 
rebellious methods, particularly one Mr 
Denoon and Mr Hepburn ; we cannot ex- 
pect but you will use all diligence to appre- 
hend them or others, and dissipate their 
meeting with all severity and diligence." 
So virulent a style may let us in to guess 
how violent their actings at this time were. 
Upon the 1 2th of March, they write another 
letter to the earl of Murray upon the same 
head, and entreat him to use all diligence 
to preserve the northern shires from this 
infection. March 12th the council renew 
their appointment of a committee for pub- 
lic affairs ; there had beeu none since March 
last year, and nominate the archbishop of 
St Andrews, marquis of Athole, earl of 
Murray, bishop of Edinburgh, lord Elphin- 
ston, treasurer-depute, register, viscount of 
Tarbet, Lundin, Mr Maitland, or any three 
of them to meet at such diets as they think 
fit, and take effectual courses for suppress- 
ing field conventicles, and other disorders, 
with all the powers former committees had; 
and that they correspond with the general 
with power to call the council. That same 
day being informed that field conventicles 
abound, especially betwixt the shires of 
Edinburgh, Berwick, and Peebles, they 
desire the general to have a squad of 
guards ready to suppress them. 

These field conventicles they are so 
much alarmed with, as far as I can observe 
from other papers, were very few, and 
almost only by Messrs Cargill and Cameron, 
in remote parts where they were obliged to 
Meander ; yet they draw forth a very severe 
letter from the council to Lauderdale, April 
8th, with a proposal for justiciary commis- 
sions to be granted, even to single persons 
who were to be nominated by themselvesr 
I insert it here from the registers. 



CHAP. IV.] 



OF THE CIIDRCH OF SCOTLAND. 



183 



Edinbttrg/i, April, Qlh, 168;. 

" May it please yoiu- grace, 

" Notwithstauding- of his majesty's in- 
demnities and indulgences granted to the 
fanatics here, they are running out again to 
field conventicles, in several places of the 
kingdom, which his majesty's laws con- 
struct to be rendezvouses of rebellion, and 
which have been found in experience since 
these acts, to be themselves actual rebel- 
lion, those armies which rose in the years 
1666 and 1679, being only running and 
continued field conventicles; as also we 
find that very many of those who were at 
Bothwell bridge, have refused to take the 
bond for living peaceably, notwithstanding 
of his majesty's repeated offers for securing 
their life upon that condition, and that 
those who have taken the bond do actually 
run to field conventicles, and do thereby 
forfeit the act of indemnity, which was 
granted to them upon so easy a condition, 
as the not going to field conventicles ; and 
therefore though we be very far from all 
cruel designs, yet our respect to his ma- 
jesty's laws, our desire to secure the go- 
vernment, and the hopes we justly have, 
that just severity against some of these 
rebels will procure peace to his majesty's 
good subjects, have prevailed with us to 
offer our opinion to his majesty, that com- 
missions of justiciary may be granted for 
punishing of them, since his majesty's jus- 
tice court at Edinburgh sits not in time of 
vacance, and when they sit the next ses- 
sion, they will have no time for such pur- 
suits, because of processes already depend- 
ing before them, against such heritors and 
ministers as were at the rebellion, and such 
as were absent from the host. The vanity 
likewise of bearing a testimony at Edin- 
burgh, and the numbers of these who keep 
them up and assist them in those foolish 
humours there, do make processes and 
punishment less effectual at Edinburgh 
than elsewhere. We have therefore sent 
inclosed the draught of two several com- 
missions, some articles to the general 
drawn forth of the exceptions contained in 
his majesty's act of indemnity, to be con- 
sidered by his majesty; and his majesty's 
I'esolutions shall be humbly acquiesced in. 



and obeyed by your grace's affec- 
tionate friends. ^^^^' 

" Alexander Glasguensis, 
Douglas, 
Murray, 
Linlithgow, 
Elphinston, 
Koss, 

Charles Maitland, 
Thomas Murray, 
George Mackenzie, 
Thomas Wallace, 
James Foulis." 

The copy of the commission of justiciary, 
and commission for trying of field conven- 
ticles and other disorders are inserted be- 
low.* The letter mentions likewise the 



* Tico Commissions, April Sill, 1680. 
Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the 
^ith : To all and sundry our lieges and sub- 
jects whom it efFeirs, greeting. Forasmuch as 
we, by our gracious act of indemnity of the27tli 
of July last, did indemnify, remit, and pardon all 
such as were guilty of field conventicles, all suc!» 
as were in the rebellion in the year 1666, or in 
the late rebellion, in the year 1679. Which in- 
demnity contains divers exceptir)ns; and par- 
ticularly, that these who were in the rebellion 
should, ^vithin the space therein expressed, 
enact themselves never to carry arms against us, 
or our authority; and with express condition, 
that if ever they should be at any field conven- 
ticles, or should do any violence to our orthodox 
clergy, our said indemnity should not be useful 
to such transgressors any manner of way, as in 
the said act, at more length, is contained. And 
whereas we are informed, that, since the grant- 
ing of our said indemnity, divers persons who 
were in the rebellion, and did not enact them- 
selves in manner foresaid, and others who have 
enacted themselves, have, notwithstanding there- 
of been present at field conventicles, whereby 
they have forfeited the benefit of our indemnity, 
and deserve to be exemplai ily punished ; and 
considering, that, by the great throng of affairs 
now in dependence before our justice court at 
Edinburgh, the said persons cannot be so soon 
and readily brought to a trial ; we therefore, 
with advice of our privy council, do hereby 
make and constitute our 

justices in that part, to the effect underwritten, 
with power to them, or any of them, 

to call before them any person or persons appre- 
hended, or that shall be apprehended within 
for being at any field conven- 
ticles, who were in the late rebellion, and did 
not take the bond within the time limited to 
that effect, or, having taken the bond, have for- 
feited our indemnity by being present at any 
field conventicles; as also any person or persons 
who, albeit they were not in the rebellion, are 
taken, or shall be taken, at a field conventicle in 
arms, excepting only such heritors who are to 
be forfeited in the justice court at Edinburgh, 
and to put the said persons to the trial and 
knowledge of an assize, and according as they 



184, 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III, 



1680. 



draught of some articles for the 



g-eneral extracted from the excep- 
tions in the indemnity ; these follow in the 
registers, and deserve a room here. They 
have this remarkahle title. 

Articles anent those persons understood to 
be the king's enemies, mentioned, §c. 

" The persons understood to be the king's 
enemies and to be attacked by the king's 
forces wherever they can be found, and 
imprisoned till they be brought to justice, 
or to be killed in case of resistance of the 
king's forces, are, 1. All such as are for- 
feited by the parliament, or criminal court. 
2. All heritors and ministers, who have 



shall be founa innocpnt or guilty, that they 
cause justice be administrate upon them, con- 
form to the laws of this our realm ; and for that 
effect to fence and hold courts, create sergeants, 
dempsters, and other members of court needful, 
to call assizes and witnesses as oft as need is, 
absents to amerciate, unlaws and amerciaments 
to uplift and enact, and this our commission to 
continue and endure until . It is hereby 

declared, that this our commission shall be good 
and valid to the effect foresaid, notwithstanding 
the persons to be judged are guilty of acts of 
treason and rebellion, and that the same shall 
no ways be prejudicial to any right, power, or 
privilege of jurisdiction competent to our jus- 
tices, sheriffs, Stewarts, and other judges, as 
accords of the law. 

Edinburgh, eodem die ^ anno. 

Tenor of the connnission for proceeding against 
persons giiilli/ of f eld conventicles, and other disor- 
ders mentioned in the said letter. 

Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great 
Britain, France and Ireland, defender of the 
faith : to all and sundry our lieges and subjects 
^vhom it effeirs, greeting. Forasmuch as we, 
by our gracious proclamation of the 29th of June 
last, having signified our desire to reclaim such 
of our subjects as have been misled by ignorance 
or blind zeal, did, conform to the power reserved 
to us by the first act of the second session of our 
second parliament, suspend the execution of all 
laws against such as frequent house conventicles 
within the bounds and upon the limitations 
therein expressed, and ordained, that all such 
as should be suffered to preach, by our indul- 
gence, to have their names given in, and surety 
found to our council for their peaceable beha- 
viour ; and, by another proclamation of the 13th 
of November last, as we declared that we would 
have all the acts of our grace and mercy made 
effectual in the most favourable sense to all for 
whom the same was intended, so we would not 
permit any to preach by virtue of the indulgence 
or connivance contained in our said proclama- 
tion, unless their names were given in, and 
caution found, as aforesaid, but would look upon 
and esteem them, and sudh as should resort to 
theu" irregular meetings, as persons disaffected 



been in the late rebellion. 3. All heritors 
who have contributed by levying of men or 
money to the late rebellion. 4. All others 
who were in the rebellion, who have not 
accepted of the benefit of the king's in- 
demnity, by taking the bond. 5. All such 
as have been in the rebellion, and have 
taken the bond, and yet have been at field 
conventicles since the twenty-seventh of 
July last. 6. All such as have been in the 
rebellion, and have taken the bond, and yet 
have done violence to the orthodox clergy. 
7. All such as are guilty of assassinations, 
especially of the murder of the late arch- 
bishop of St Andrews. 8. All such as 
shall be found at field conventicles in arms. 



to our authority, and contemners of our grace 
and clemency, and proceed against them in the 
utmost severity of law. And whereas we are 
informed that, in divers' places of the kingdom, 
several outed ministers take upon them to preach 
without having their names given in to our 
council, or caution found for their peaceable 
behaviour ; and some of them have proceeded to 
that height, as again to preach in the fields, in 
great contempt of our authority and gracious 
proclamations ; and to the effect these disorderly 
persons, both preachers and heai'ers of them, 
may be brought to justice and suffer condign 
punishment according to our laws, we with 
advice of our privy council, do hereby give and 
grant full power, authority, and commission to 
our justices of peace within the 
shire of or any of them, to 

put in execution the several laws and acts of 
parliament made against field conventicles, and 
disorderly baptisms and marriages, and particu- 
larly the fifth and sixth acts of the second session 
of our second parliament, and, to that effect, to 
call before them the persons, within the said 
shire, guilty of the contravening thereof, since 
our late gracious act of indemnity, or that shall 
happen hereafter to contravene the same, 
at such times and places as they shall think 
expedient, create clerks and other members of 
court needful, to issue forth precepts and cita- 
tions against the persons guilty, probation to 
receive and adduce, decreets and sentences to 
pronounce, and the same to due execution cause 
be put, by precepts and charges thereupon, 
poynding and other diligence, according to law : 
and for their encouragement in the said service, 
to uplift and apply the said fines for defraying 
their own and the charges and expenses of the 
court, and this our commission to continue and 
endure . And it is hereby declared, 

that this commission, power, and jurisdiction 
therein granted, is cumulative, and not priva- 
tive of the sheriff of the shire, or other judges 
within the same, their power and jurisdiction, 
but that they may proceed, and try, and judge 
in the cases foresaid, if they shall prevene the 
said commissioners in diligence, by prior cita- 
tions and sentences. 



CHAP. IV.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



185 



9. All such as are denounced rebels for 
being; at the rebellion before the circuit 
court, since the act of indemnity. 10. All 
resetters of rebels, or persons declared 
fugitives for rebellion, and such as have 
reset the murderers of the archbishop of 
St Andrews. 1 1. These who being found at 
field conventicles, and refusing to be taken 
by the king's forces, and make resistance." 
These proposals and severe orders need 
no commentary ; they were cheerfully gone 
into at London, as we shall hear, if once I 
had taken notice of another oppressive pro- 
posal made by the council, in a letter to 
the king, May 6th, about garrisons. The 
letter itself follows. 

" Edinburgh, May Cth. 
" May it please your sacred majesty, — 
Your majesty's forces being for the secu- 
rity of your government to march through 
such places of the kingdom as shall be 
thought fit, it has been proposed to us, that 
in order to the defence of the western 
shires, during the absence of your forces, 
some places be garrisoned to prevent the 
surprising of such as are to be left behind, 
and to the end that the motions of such as 
are to be employed for your service in those 
shires on particular occasions, may not be 
known or divulged, as they ordinarily are 
vv hen any of your forces are to march out 
of towns or open quarters, the places fit for 
such garrisons being Greenlaw, and Bal- 
gregan in Galloway, Newton near Ayr, 
Balquhan in ("arrick, the house of Dean 
near Kilmarnock, these three being in the 
shire of Ayr, and the castle of Strathaven 
or Evandale in Lanarkshire: we thought 
it therefore our duty to remit the ex- 
pedient to your royal majesty's consider- 
ation, that your pleasure may be known, 
and your authority interposed, to which 
we shall give ready obedience; and since 
several lands have fallen in your majesty's 
hands, by the forfeiture of those who have 
been in the late rebellion, we humbly 
move that yoiu- majesty may give order, 
that no gifts of any of these forfeitures 
pass in your exchequer, and that none 
of your seals be appended to any such 
gifts, but with express reservation to 
your majesty of the raanion-houses, cas- 



tles, towers, or fortalices standing 
upon the said lands, to which the ^^^^' 
donators shall be only heritable keepers, 
and upon express condition that it shall 
be lawful to your majesty to make forts or 
citadels upon any of the said lands, accord- 
ing as you and your royal successors shall 
think fit, at any time hereafter. We are 
your majesty's most humble, most faith- 
ful, and most obedient subjects and ser- 
vants," &c. 

June 3d, the council receive the king's 
answer as to both those letters, dated May 
20th, which I need not insert, since it is just 
an approbation of every thing proposed in 
the very terms of their letters. He thanks 
them for their care, orders them to fill up 
the blanks in the commissions with fit per- 
sons, and appoints them to give timeous 
warning to the owners of the houses, where 
the garrisons are to be. 

The next remarkable thing that offers, is 
the overturning the short-lived third indul- 
gence; and when the managers are going 
on so severely against presbyterians, wb 
can expect nothing less. These favours 
^vere still very displeasing to the prelates, 
and I doubt not but earnest application 
was made to the court to be rid of this. 
Accordingly, June 10th, the council receive 
the following letter from the king, 

Windsor-castle, May 14th. 
" Charles R.— Right trusty, &c. We 
greet you well. Forasmuch as by our pro- 
clamation of the 29th of June last past, we 
did, from our tender desire to reclaim such 
of our subjects, as have been misled by 
ignorance or blind zeal, suspend the execu- 
tion of all laws against all such as frequent 
house-conventicles within the bounds, and 
upon the limitations therein expressed, 
ordaining all such as should be licensed to 
preach by our indulgence, to find surety to 
you for their peaceable behaviour; by 
which unparalleled clemency and tender- 
ness (after a total suppression of the late 
rebellion) we might reasonably have ex- 
pected that their minds being eased, they 
should have been brought to a meek and 
quiet submission to our government, and 
humble obedience to our laws: yet not- 
withstanding of all their insolencies, mur- 
2 a 



186 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFEIMNGS 



[BOOK III. 



, ders and treasons, and our gracious 

■ indemnities and indulgencies, such 
is tlie perverseness of that schismatical and 
rebellious generation, that they in contempt 
of our greatest condescensions and favours, 
continue to run out to field-conventicles in 
several parts of tliat our kingdom, «'hich, 
as our laws have declared, so in experience 
have they been found to be the rendez- 
vouses of rebellion; their insurrections 
against us and our authority, in the years 
16G6 and 1679, have been nothing else, 
save so many running and continued field- 
conventicles, and, by force and violence, to 
oppose the legal settlement of regular 
ministers, beating, stoning, and wound- 
ing tliem in a most savage and barbarous 
manner, and to invade the pulpits of ortho- 
dox ministers, preaching and baptizing 
in avowed conventicles, in our capital 
city of Edinburgh. By all -tthich in- 
supportable and unnecessary provocations, 
they having notoriously forfeited our favour 
and indulgence, none could judge it severi- 
ty, to maintain our authority and laws by 
such effectual coiu\ses, as should ruin that 
unsatisfiable and ungovernable tribe and 
faction : yet, being willing to evidence unto 
all the world, our earnest desire to reduce 
them to quiet and obedience, by mild and 
gentle methods, or to render them utterly 
inexcusable, we do resolve for some time 
to continue that our indulgence unto them, 
during our royal pleasiu-e, if peradventure 
we may yet find any good effects produced 
thereby upon them ; only, for your better 
dispensing and regulating thereof (lest the 
gangrene spread too far J we have thought 
fit to send you the inclosed instructions (of 
the date of these presents) to which we 
expect your ready and exact compliance. 
And, as we cannot but approve your ap- 
pointing of such non-conform ministers, as 
shaU be licensed by you, to appear at your 
bar to receive their warrants, so ^ve are 
very well pleased with your late procedure 
against Gilbert Rule (a non-conformist 
minister) whom you have sent a prisoner 
to the Bass, for his insolent usurping a 
pulpit in our city of Edinburgh. And at 
this time, as upon all occasions, we cannot 
but express our firm resolution to maintain 
and inviolably preserve the sacred order of 



episcopacy, to the subversion whereof no 
thing tends more, than the contempt too 
frequently and injuriously thrown upon 
our bishops : therefore, we do heartily re- 
commend unto you, as your best service 
unto us, your countenancing, and encourag- 
ing, and supporting of them, in their per- 
sons, credit, and authority, the lessening 
whereof we do justly esteem a weakening 
of our government. We must also recom- 
mend our orderly and orthodox presbj'ters, 
to your care and protection, and that you 
particularly require and command all ma- 
gistrates, in their several jurisdictions, to 
own and assist them in the exercise of dis- 
cipline, against scandalous offenders, and in 
all the other parts of their function, which 
we will take as very acceptable service 
done unto us. And so we bid you heartily 
farewell. Given at our court at Windsor 
castle, the 14th day of May 1680, and of 
our reign the 32A year. 

" By his majesty's command, 

" Lauderdale." 

The instructions mentioned in this letter 
likewise follow from the registers. 

" Charles R. 
'^Instructions to our privy council of our an- 
cient kingdom of Scotland, for regulating 
the indulgence. 

" 1st. You are not to suffer any non- 
conformist to preach, ^A■ho is banished out 
of any parish or corporation in England, 
nor any who, since the last indemnity, hath 
preached at such meetings, as in construc- 
tion of law are field conventicles, or who, 
since that time, have preached in places or 
cities which are excepted in our proclama- 
tion of the 29th June last past. You are 
not to license any to preach, who cannot 
verify his ordination to be antecedent to 
the said 29th June last past. As you are 
to suffer none to preach at house meetings 
who are not licensed by you, or do not 
appear at your bar to receive your license, 
so you must license none to preach in any 
of the shires on the north side of the i-iver 
Tay, but are strictly to put our la^vs in 
execution against all such delinquents. And 
further, you are carefully to cause all such 



CHAP. IV.] 



OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 



187 



meeting--liouses as are or have been erected 
^v■itho^lt your warrant, for preachers unli- 
censed by you to serve therein, to be pulled 
down. 

" 2ndly. You are to allow no house 
conventicles, nor meeting-houses to be set 
up for any nonconform preacher, at any 
nearer distance than of a mile, to any 
parish church where a regular incumbent 
serves ; and if any such be erected ab-eady 
within a lesser distance, as particularly at 
Nevvbottle, you are to cause pull them 
down immediately. 

" 3dly. You are to grant license to none 
of the nrnconform preachers, to be settled 
or exercise any part of the ministry, in 
that parish whereof he was formerly min- 
ister, lest, upon the pretence of an indis- 
soluble relation of that people to their old 
minister, they totally abandon their ortho- 
dox and orderly pastor, settled by law 
amongst them. 

"4thly. You are to take care to restrain 
such nonconform preachers as you license, 
from preaching in any other parish ; than 
in that to which they are indulged, and 
from baptizing the children of any save those 
of the congregations for which they are 
licensed. And seeing, by our laws, the 
jurisdiction of the church is to be managed 
by our bishops, and those commissionated; 
by them, you are to restrain those noncon- 
foi'mists from exercising of church dis- 
cipline; and for avoiding of confusion in 
the records of marriages, Ave do require you 
to inhibit and restrain them from marrying 
any persons, we being resolved to leave the 
discipline and marryings of people, entirely 
to the respective regular ministers, to 
whose parishes the persons concerned do 
belong ; and you are to esteem the breach 
of any part of this fourth article, an un- 
peaceable behaviour, by which their sureties 
are to forfeit their bonds, if they continue 
after intimation. 

" 5thl3^ You are to take special care not 
to license any nonconform preacher in any 
parish, where the generality, the chief and 
intelligent persons, are regular and orderly, 
since we do not intend to break or di- 
vide orderly parishes, to gratify a few 
inconsiderable, ignorant, and factious peo- 
ple. 



"Cthly. You are most exemplai-ily 
to punish such indulged or noncon- 
form preachers, as shall be found to keep 
classical meetings in pretended presbyteries 
or s}'nods, these being the grand nurseries of 
schism and sedition, wherein usually they 
usurp the power of discipline, and privately 
try, license, and ordain schismatical preach- 
ers, and keep up ill correspondences, to the 
endangering of our government. 

"7thly. You are carefully to put in exe- 
cution your acts for removing the families 
of irregular outed ministers, out of the 
cities of Edinburgh, St Andrews, and Glas- 
gow, these being usually the resorts of dis- 
afl'ected persons, and the secret nurseries of 
schism and trouble. 

" Stilly, And in regard, by our procla- 
mation of the 29th day of June last past, 
we have declared our firm resolution, not 
to sutFer the chief seat of our government, 
to be pestered with irregularities, and 
therefore would not allow any nonconform 
preacher to be licensed to preach in oui' 
city of Edinbm'gh, nor A\'ithin two miles 
round about it : and now having found by 
experience, that this distance is not suffi- 
cient to jjreserve that our city from the 
danger of infection, by reason that the 
citizens and others Hock out in multitudes 
to those irregular meetings, when they are 
kept at nearer distances, whereby the city 
is still in hazard to be corrupted in its 
religion and loyalty: we do therefore re- 
quire you to license none of these noncon- 
form preachers, to preach in our said city, 
nor within t« elve miles distance therefrom, 
and if any such be already licensed by you 
in any parish nearer than twelve miles to 
Edinburgh, you are immediately to with- 
draw your license, and to cause shut up 
the meeting house, and to order the preach- 
er so licensed to preach no more within 
the distance aforesaid. 

" Othly. And seeing we are informed, 
that the regular ministers in Galloway, and 
some other western places, are exposed to 
great danger, from the fury of some blind 
zealots among whom they serve, and that 
even the necessaries of life, and the help of 
servants and mechanics are denied unto 
them for their money, you are, in a most 
particular manner to consider their present 



188 



THE HISTORY OF THE SUFFERINGS 



[BOOK III. 



case, and to consult their protection, 
and the security of their persons in 
the best manner, and to see that the sheriffs, 
justices, and other magistrates be careful to 
have them defended and secured in their 
persons and g-oods, and the necessaries for 
living- furnished and supplied unto them at 
the usual and ordinary rates of the country, 
to the end they may be effectually relieved, 
and that our ancient kingdom may be vin- 
dicated from any just imputation of so great 
and barbarous inhumanity. Given at our 
court at Windsor castle, the 14th day of 
May IGSO, and of our reign the 32d year. 
" By his majesty's command, 

" Lai'derdale." 

The reader will easily perceive that these 
instructions are a material repeal of the in- 
dulgence. Many of them are flat contra- 
dictions to the king's letter, July 11th, 
1679, and all of them are contrived to clog 
presbyterian ministers and people ; and the 
council very soon begin to bear hard upon 
them. That very same day, they recall 
INIr George Johnston's license at Newbottle, 
and order one of the macers to intimate so 
much to him, and order the sheriff of Ed- 
inburgh to demolisli the meeting house, 
and see that no meeting be kept there next 
Lord's day. June 15th, the lord Halton 
reports it was done, and the timber and 
seats were sold at ten pounds sterling, a 
hinidred pounds Scots of which he gave to 
the poor of the parish, and the rest to the 
persons employed in executing the orders. 
June 17th, the council return an account 
of their diligence, in a letter to the king, 
which follows. 

" Edinburgh, June 17th, 16S0. 
" May it please your sacred majesty, 

" The grief arising from the dissolute 
looseness of such as abstract themselves 
from public ordinances,